The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that doesn't allow variation in volume. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had smaller dynamic range.
An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings; the hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air; when the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard; this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano.
The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.
With technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music and rock music; the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dul
The harmonica known as a French harp or mouth organ, is a free reed wind instrument used worldwide in many musical genres, notably in blues, American folk music, classical music, country, rock. There are many types of harmonica, including diatonic, tremolo, octave and bass versions. A harmonica is played by using the mouth to direct air into or out of one or more holes along a mouthpiece. Behind each hole is a chamber containing at least one reed. A harmonica reed is a flat elongated spring made of brass, stainless steel, or bronze, secured at one end over a slot that serves as an airway; when the free end is made to vibrate by the player's air, it alternately blocks and unblocks the airway to produce sound. Reeds are pre-tuned to individual pitches. Tuning may involve changing a reed’s length, the weight near its free end, or the stiffness near its fixed end. Longer and springier reeds produce deeper, lower sounds. If, as on most modern harmonicas, a reed is affixed above or below its slot rather than in the plane of the slot, it responds more to air flowing in the direction that would push it into the slot, i.e. as a closing reed.
This difference in response to air direction makes it possible to include both a blow reed and a draw reed in the same air chamber and to play them separately without relying on flaps of plastic or leather to block the nonplaying reed. An important technique in performance is bending: causing a drop in pitch by making embouchure adjustments, it is possible to bend isolated reeds, as on chromatic and other harmonica models with wind-savers, but to both lower, raise the pitch produced by pairs of reeds in the same chamber, as on a diatonic or other unvalved harmonica. Such two-reed pitch changes involve sound production by the silent reed, the opening reed; the basic parts of the harmonica are reed plates and cover plates. The comb is the main body of the instrument, when assembled with the reedplates, forms air chambers for the reeds; the term comb may originate from the similarity between this part of a hair comb. Harmonica combs were traditionally made from wood but now are made from plastic or metal.
Some modern and experimental comb designs are complex in the way. There is dispute among players about; those saying no argue that, unlike the soundboard of a piano or the top piece of a violin or guitar, a harmonica's comb is neither large enough nor able to vibrate enough to augment or change the sound. Among those saying yes are those who are convinced by their ears. Few dispute, that comb surface smoothness and air-tightness when mated with the reedplates can affect tone and playability; the main advantage of a particular comb material over another one is its durability. In particular, a wooden comb can absorb moisture from the player's breath and contact with the tongue; this can cause the comb to expand making the instrument uncomfortable to play, to contract compromising air tightness. Various types of wood and treatments have been devised to reduce the degree of this problem. An more serious problem with wood combs in chromatic harmonicas, is that, as the combs expand and shrink over time, cracks can form in the combs, because the comb is held immobile by nails, resulting in disabling leakage.
Much effort is devoted by serious players to sealing leaks. Some players used to soak wooden-combed harmonicas in water to cause a slight expansion, which they intended to make the seal between the comb, reed plates and covers more airtight. Modern wooden-combed harmonicas are less prone to swelling and contracting. Players still dip harmonicas in water for the way it affects ease of bending notes; the reed plate is a grouping of several reeds in a single housing. The reeds are made of brass, but steel and plastic are used. Individual reeds are riveted to the reed plate, but they may be welded or screwed in place. Reeds fixed on the inner side of the reed plate respond to blowing, while those fixed on the outer side respond to suction. Most harmonicas are constructed with the reed plates bolted to the comb or each other. A few brands still use the traditional method of nailing the reed plates to the comb; some experimental and rare harmonicas have had the reed plates held in place by tension, such as the WWII era all-American models.
If the plates are bolted to the comb, the reed plates can be replaced individually. This is useful because the reeds go out of tune through normal use, certain notes of the scale can fail more than others. A notable exception to the traditional reed plate design is the all-plastic harmonicas designed by Finn Magnus in the 1950s, in which the reed and reed plate were molded out of a single piece of plastic; the Magnus design had the reeds, reed plates and comb made of plastic and either molded or permanently glued together. Cover plates cover the reed plates and are made of metal, though wood and plastic have been used; the choice of these is personal. There are two types of cover plates: traditional open designs of stamped metal or plastic, which are there to be held
All I Need to Know (album)
All I Need to Know is the second album of country music singer Kenny Chesney, his first for BNA Records. It was released on June 13, 1995 and features the singles "Fall in Love", the title track, "Grandpa Told Me So"; this album's recording of "The Tin Man" was released on Chesney's 1994 album In My Wildest Dreams. "Me and You", co-written by McBride & the Ride guitarist Ray Herndon, was included on Chesney's 1996 album of the same name, from which it was released as a single. "Paris, Tennessee" was recorded by Tracy Lawrence on his 1991 album Sticks and Stones, by Dennis Robbins on his 1992 album Man with a Plan. Eddie Bayers - drums Barry Beckett - keyboards Kenny Chesney - acoustic guitar, lead vocals "Cowboy" Eddie Long - steel guitar Terry McMillan - harmonica, percussion Phil Naish - keyboards Bobby Ogdin - keyboards Don Potter - acoustic guitar Michael Rhodes - bass guitar Brent Rowan - electric guitar Ricky Skaggs - background vocals Joe Spivey - fiddle Harry Stinson - background vocals Dennis Wilson - background vocals Curtis Young - background vocals
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Bob DiPiero is an American country music songwriter. He has written 15 US number one hits and several Top 20 single for Tim McGraw, The Oak Ridge Boys, Reba McEntire, Vince Gill, Faith Hill, Neal McCoy, Highway 101, Restless Heart, John Anderson, Montgomery Gentry, Brooks & Dunn, George Strait, Pam Tillis, Martina McBride, Trace Adkins, Travis Tritt, Bryan White, Billy Currington, Etta James, Delbert McClinton, Van Zant, Tanya Tucker, Patty Loveless, many others. DiPiero was born in the steel-manufacturing center of Ohio, his family moved to the suburban township of Liberty, where DiPiero graduated from Liberty High School in 1969. He went on to graduate from Youngstown State University's Dana School of Music, he participated in hard rock bands in northeastern Ohio throughout the late 1970s. In 1979, DiPiero moved to Nashville, where he worked as a session player and traveling musician but moved into songwriting. DiPiero's first number one hit as a songwriter was 1983's "American Made" by The Oak Ridge Boys, which became a national ad jingle for Miller Beer and Baby Ruth candybar.
Since DiPiero has co-written countless hit singles for other country music artists, with 15 of his songs reaching No. 1 on the country music charts. In 1995 and 1996, he received the Triple Play award from the Country Music Association for having three number one singles chart in each of those years. In addition, he has received 36 awards from BMI for his contributions as a songwriter, he was one third of the country music supergroup Billy Hill, whose members included Dennis Robbins and John Scott Sherrill. He has helped make Nashville a port of call for legendary performers from all genres, writing with Neil Diamond, Carole King, Johnny Van Zant and Delbert McClinton, among many others. At one point, DiPiero was married to country music artist Pam Tillis, the daughter of singer Mel Tillis; the couple divorced. On June 18, 2006, he married Leslie Tomasino. DiPiero launched a music industry-based reality series called "The Hitmen of Music Row," which premiered September 26, 2007, on the Great American Country cable station.
Songwriter participants in the series include Tony Mullins, Jeffrey Steele, Craig Wiseman. 1984: Music City News Top Country Hit of the Year- "American Made-The Oak Ridge Boys" 1990: NSAI Award for Superior Creativity-"The Church On Cumberland Road-Shenandoah" 1993: NSAI Award for Superior Creativity-"Cleopatra, Queen of Denial-Pam Tillis" 1994: The Songwriters Guild Of America In recognition of the success of the hit song "Wink-Neal McCoy" 1994: NSAI Award for Superior Creativity-"Walking Away A Winner-Kathy Mattea" 1995: CMA Triple Play Award "Wink-Neal McCoy," "Take Me As I Am-Faith Hill," Till You Love Me-Reba McEntire" 1995: BMI Robert J. Burton Award Most Performed Country Song Of The Year-"Wink-Neal McCoy" 1996: CMA Triple Play Award "Blue Clear Sky-George Strait," "Daddy's Money-Ricochet," "World's Apart-Vince Gill" 1997: Country Music Radio Awards - Song of the Year 1998: Nashville Music Awards - Songwriter of the Year 2000: Sony / A TV, Nashville - Songwriter of the Year. 2001: BMI 50 Most Performed Songs Of The Year 2004: BMI 50 Most Performed Songs Of The Year-"Cowboy's Like Us-George Strait" "You Can't Take The Honky Tonk Out Of The Girl-Brooks & Dunn" 2005: BMI Most Performed Songs Of The Year-"Gone-Montgomery Gentry," "If You Ever Stop Loving Me-Montgomery Gentry" 2006: BMI 50 Most Performed Songs Of The Year-"She Don't Tell Me To-Montgomery Gentry" 2007: Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame inductee 2007: Nashville Walk of Fame inductee 2010: 17 Million-Air Honors 2017: BMI Icon 1983 "American Made" - The Oak Ridge Boys 1983 "Sentimental Ol' You" - Charly McClain 1984 "That Rock Won't Roll" - Restless Heart 1986 "Little Rock" - Reba McEntire 1988 " Just Say Yes" - Highway 101 1989 "The Church on Cumberland Road" - Shenandoah 1992 "Anywhere but Here" - Sammy Kershaw 1992 "Blue Rose Is" - Pam Tillis 1992 "Mirror, Mirror" - Diamond Rio 1993 "Money in the Bank" - John Anderson 1993 "Cleopatra, Queen of Denial" - Pam Tillis 1994 "Kiss Me, I'm Gone" - Marty Stuart 1994 "Take Me as I Am" - Faith Hill 1994 "Wink" - Neal McCoy 1994 "Till You Love Me" - Reba McEntire 1994 "Walking Away a Winner" - Kathy Mattea 1995 "They're Playin' Our Song" - Neal McCoy 1995 "Should've Asked Her Faster" - Ty England 1996 "Blue Clear Sky" - George Strait 1996 "It's Lonely Out There" - Pam Tillis 1996 "Love You Back" - Rhett Akins 1996 "Daddy's Money" - Ricochet 1996 "See Rock City" - Rick Trevino 1997 "Worlds Apart" - Vince Gill 1998 "Bad Day to Let You Go" - Bryan White 1998 "Poor Me" - Joe Diffie 1998 "The Other Side of This Kiss" - Mindy McCready 1999 "Give My Heart to You" - Billy Ray Cyrus 1999 "Ordinary Love" - Shane Minor 2000 "There You Are" - Martina McBride 2000 "We're So Good Together" - Reba McEntire 2003 "Cowboys Like Us" - George Strait 2003 "I'll Take Love Over Money" - Aaron Tippin 2003 "You Can't Take the Honky Tonk Out of the Girl" - Brooks & Dunn 2003 "Too Much Month" - Marty Stuart and His Fabulous Superlatives 2004 "If You Ever Stop Loving Me" - Montgomery Gentry 2004 "The Girl's Gone Wild" - Travis Tritt 2005 "Gone" - Montgomery Gentry 2005 "Hillbilly Nation" - Cowboy Crush 2005 So Good for So Long" - Beccy Cole 2005 "XXL" - Keith Anderson 2006 "Local Girls" - Ronnie Milsap 2006 "She Don't Tell Me To" - Montgomery Gentry 2006 "Tennessee Girl" - Sammy Kershaw 2009 "Indian Summer" - Brooks & Dunn 2009 "Southern Voice" - Tim McGraw 2010 "From a Table Away" - Sunny Sweeney 2012 "Lovin' You Is Fun" - Easton Corbin 2012 "It's My Life" - Connie
Fiddling refers to the act of playing the fiddle, fiddlers are musicians that play it. A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most a violin, it is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres including classical music. Although violins and fiddles are synonymous, the style of the music played may determine specific construction differences between fiddles and classical violins. For example, fiddles may optionally be set up with a bridge with a flatter arch to reduce the range of bow-arm motion needed for techniques such as the double shuffle, a form of bariolage involving rapid alternation between pairs of adjacent strings. To produce a "brighter" tone, compared to the deeper tones of gut or synthetic core strings, fiddlers use steel strings; the fiddle is part of many traditional styles, which are aural traditions—taught'by ear' rather than via written music. Among musical styles, fiddling tends to produce rhythms that focus on dancing, with associated quick note changes, whereas classical music tends to contain more vibrato and sustained notes.
Fiddling is open to improvisation and embellishment with ornamentation at the player's discretion—in contrast to orchestral performances, which adhere to the composer's notes to reproduce a work faithfully. It is less common for a classically trained violinist to play folk music, but today, many fiddlers have classical training; the medieval fiddle emerged in 10th-century Europe, deriving from the Byzantine lira, a bowed string instrument of the Byzantine Empire and ancestor of most European bowed instruments. The first recorded reference to the bowed lira was in the 9th century by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih. Lira spread westward to Europe. Over the centuries, Europe continued to have two distinct types of fiddles: one square-shaped, held in the arms, became known as the viola da braccio family and evolved into the violin. During the Renaissance the gambas were elegant instruments; the etymology of fiddle is uncertain: the Germanic fiddle may derive from the same early Romance word as does violin, or it may be natively Germanic.
The name appears to be related to Icelandic Fiðla and Old English fiðele. A native Germanic ancestor of fiddle might be the ancestor of the early Romance form of violin. In medieval times, fiddle referred to a predecessor of today's violin. Like the violin, it came in a variety of shapes and sizes. Another family of instruments that contributed to the development of the modern fiddle are the viols, which are held between the legs and played vertically, have fretted fingerboards. In performance, a solo fiddler, or one or two with a group of other instrumentalists, is the norm, though twin fiddling is represented in some North American, Scandinavian and Irish styles. Following the folk revivals of the second half of the 20th century, however, it has become common for less formal situations to find large groups of fiddlers playing together—see for example the Calgary Fiddlers, Swedish Spelmanslag folk-musician clubs, the worldwide phenomenon of Irish sessions. Orchestral violins, on the other hand, are grouped in sections, or "chairs".
These contrasting traditions may be vestiges of historical performance settings: large concert halls where violins were played required more instruments, before electronic amplification, than did more intimate dance halls and houses that fiddlers played in. The difference was compounded by the different sounds expected of violin music and fiddle music; the majority of fiddle music was dance music, while violin music had either grown out of dance music or was something else entirely. Violin music came to value a smoothness that fiddling, with its dance-driven clear beat, did not always follow. In situations that required greater volume, a fiddler could push their instrument harder than could a violinist. Various fiddle traditions have differing values. In the late 20th century, a few artists have attempted a reconstruction of the Scottish tradition of violin and "big fiddle," or cello. Notable recorded examples include Iain Fraser and Christine Hanson, Amelia Kaminski and Christine Hanson's Bonnie Lasses, Alasdair Fraser and Natalie Haas' Fire and Grace. and Tim Macdonald and Jeremy Ward's The Wilds.
Hungarian and Romanian fiddle players are accompanied by a three-stringed variant of the viola—known as the kontra—and by double bass, with cimbalom and clarinet being less standard yet still common additions to a band. In Hungary, a three stringed viola variant with a flat bridge, called the kontra or háromhúros brácsa makes up part of a traditional rhythm section in Hungarian folk music; the flat bridge lets the musician play three-string chords. A three stringed double bass variant is used. To a greater extent than classical violin playing, fiddle playing is characterized by a huge variety of ethnic or folk music traditions, each of which has its own distinctive sound. English folk music fiddling, including The Northumbrian fiddle style, which features "seconding", an improvised harmo
Dobro is an American brand of resonator guitar owned by the Gibson Guitar Corporation. In popular usage, the term is used as a generic trademark for any wood-bodied, single-cone resonator guitar; the Dobro was made by the Dopyera brothers when they formed the Dobro Manufacturing Company. Their design, with a single inverted resonator, was introduced to compete with the patented Tricone and biscuit designs produced by the National String Instrument Corporation; the Dobro name appeared on other instruments, notably electric lap steel guitars and solid body electric guitars and on other resonator instruments such as Safari resonator mandolins. The name originated in 1928 when the Dopyera brothers and Emil, formed the Dobro Manufacturing Company. Dobro is a word meaning ` good' in their native Slovak. An early company motto was "Dobro means good in any language." The Dobro was the third resonator guitar design by John Dopyera, the inventor of the resonator guitar, but the second to enter production.
Unlike his earlier tricone design, the Dobro had a single resonator cone and it was inverted, with its concave surface facing up. The Dobro company described this as a bowl shaped resonator; the Dobro was cheaper to produce. In Dopyera's opinion, the cost of manufacture had priced the resonator guitar beyond the reach of many players, his failure to convince his fellow directors at the National String Instrument Corporation to produce a single-cone version was a motivating factor for leaving. Since National had applied for a patent on the single cone, Dopyera had to develop an alternative design, he did this by inverting the cone so that, rather than having the strings rest on the apex of the cone as the National method did, they rested on a cast aluminum spider that had eight legs sitting on the perimeter of the downward-pointing cone. In the following years both Dobro and National built a wide variety of metal- and wood-bodied single-cone guitars, while National continued with the Tricone for a time.
Both companies sourced many components from National director Adolph Rickenbacher, John Dopyera remained a major shareholder in National. By 1934, the Dopyera brothers had gained control of both National and Dobro, they merged the companies to form the National-Dobro Corporation. From the outset, wooden bodies had been sourced from existing guitar manufacturers the plywood student guitar bodies made by the Regal Musical Instrument Company. Dobro had granted Regal a license to manufacture resonator instruments. By 1937, it was the only manufacturer, the license was made exclusive. Regal continued to manufacture and sell resonator instruments under many names, including Regal, Old Kraftsman, Ward. However, they ceased all resonator guitar production following the United States entry into World War II in 1941. Emil Dopyera manufactured Dobros from 1959 under the brand name Dopera's Original before selling the company and name to Semie Moseley. Moseley merged it with his Mosrite guitar company and manufactured Dobros for a time.
Meanwhile, in 1967, Rudy and Emil Dopyera formed the Original Musical Instrument Company to manufacture resonator guitars, which they at first branded Hound Dog. However, in 1970, they again acquired the Dobro name—Mosrite having gone into temporary liquidation; the Gibson Guitar Corporation acquired OMI in 1993, along with the Dobro name. They moved production to Nashville. Gibson now uses the name Dobro only for models with the inverted-cone design that the original Dobro Manufacturing Company used. Gibson carries biscuit-style single-resonator guitars, but it sells them under names such as "Hound Dog"; the Dobro was first introduced to country music by Roy Acuff. The name Dobro is generically associated with all resonator designs. Gibson, as the owner of the trademark, reserves the use of the name Dobro as a registered trademark for its own product line. Notwithstanding, the name is sometimes used generically for any resonator guitar, as indicated in such songs as The Ballad of Curtis Loew by Lynyrd Skynyrd, Valium Waltz by the Old 97's, When Papa Played the Dobro by Johnny Cash on the Ride This Train album.
Hound Dog Roundneck Hound Dog Squareneck Hound Dog Deluxe Roundneck Hound Dog Deluxe Squareneck Phil Ledbetter Series Gibson Phil Ledbetter Signature Resonator Gibson Phil Ledbetter Mahogany "Limited Edition" As of 2006, many makers, including Gibson, manufacture resonator guitars similar to the original inverted-cone design. Gibson manufactures biscuit-style resonator guitars, but reserves the Dobro name for its inverted-cone models; these "biscuit" guitars are used for blues and are played vertically instead of horizontally like a "spider" bridge. Contemporary manufacturers of the inverted cone design resonator guitar other than Gibson include Tim Scheerhorn and Paul Beard. Virtuoso resonator guitarist Jerry Douglas has used guitars from these builders for nearly three decades. Both Scheerhorn and Beard produce instruments of a radically different structural design to the original Dobro instruments, while retaining the inverted cone and spider bridge. Dobro products on Epiphone website "History of the Pre-War Dobro" by Randy Getz Dobro Valpro at Elderly.com