Jerry Lee Rice Sr is a retired American football wide receiver who played in the NFL with the San Francisco 49ers. Due to his numerous records and accolades, he is regarded as the greatest wide receiver in NFL history. Rice is the career leader in most major statistical categories for wide receivers, including receptions, touchdown receptions, receiving yards, once being the leader for total yards and touchdowns in a season, he has scored more points than any other non-kicker in NFL history with 1,256. Rice was named All-Pro 12 times in his 20 NFL seasons, he won an AFC Championship with the Oakland Raiders. As of 2017, Rice holds over the most of any player by a wide margin. In 1999, The Sporting News listed Rice second behind Jim Brown on its list of "Football's 100 Greatest Players". In 2010, he was chosen by NFL Network's NFL Films production The Top 100: NFL's Greatest Players as the greatest player in NFL history. Rice was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 2010 and the College Football Hall of Fame in 2006.
In January 2015, Rice admitted to using Stickum on his gloves saying "I know this might be a little illegal, but you put a little spray, a little Stickum on them, to make sure that texture is a little sticky". Stickum was banned in the NFL in 1981. Jerry Lee Rice was born in Starkville and grew up in the small town of Crawford, Mississippi, as the son of a brick mason, he attended B. L. Moor High School in Mississippi. According to his autobiography Rice, his mother did not allow him to join the school's football team in his freshman year; when Rice was a sophomore, the school's principal caught Rice being truant. After Rice sprinted away, the principal told the school's football coach about Rice's speed and he was offered a place on the team. While at B. L. Moor, Rice played basketball and was on the track and field team. Rice attended Mississippi Valley State University from 1981 to 1984, he became a standout receiver and acquired the nickname "World" due to "his ability to catch anything near him."
In 1982, Rice played his first season with redshirt freshman quarterback Willie Totten. Rice caught 66 passes for seven touchdowns as a sophomore that year. Together and Rice became known as "The Satellite Express" and set numerous NCAA records in the spread offense of coach Archie Cooley, nicknamed "The Gunslinger". Rice had a record-setting 1983 campaign, including NCAA marks for receptions and receiving yards, was named a first-team Division I-AA All-American, he set a single-game NCAA record by catching 24 passes against Louisiana's Southern University. As a senior in 1984, he broke his own Division I-AA records for receptions and receiving yards, his 27 touchdown receptions in that 1984 season set the NCAA record for all divisions. The 1984 Delta Devils scored 628 points in an average of more than 57 per game. Subsequent to an August practice experiment, Cooley had Totten call all the plays at the line of scrimmage without a huddle; the result was more staggering offensive numbers. Rice caught 17 passes for 199 yards against Southern, 17 for 294 against Kentucky State, 15 for 285 against Jackson State.
He scored five touchdowns in a single game twice that year. Rice was named to every Division I-AA All-America team and finished ninth in Heisman Trophy balloting in 1984. In the Blue–Gray Classic all-star game played on Christmas Day, he earned MVP honors, he finished his career with 301 catches for 50 touchdowns. Rice became a member of Phi Beta Sigma fraternity at the Delta Phi chapter while at Valley. In the spring of 1999, the school renamed its football stadium from Magnolia Stadium to Rice–Totten Stadium in honor of Rice and Totten. Rice was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame on August 12, 2006. Rice's record-breaking season at Mississippi Valley State caught the attention of many NFL scouts, but his below-average speed kept most teams wary. Sources vary on his 40-yard dash time, as slow as 4.71 seconds. The Dallas Cowboys and San Francisco 49ers showed interest in him. In the first round of the 1985 NFL Draft, Dallas had the 17th selection and San Francisco, as Super Bowl champion from the previous season, had the last.
49ers coach Bill Walsh sought Rice after watching highlights of Rice the Saturday night before San Francisco was to play the Houston Oilers on October 21, 1984. On draft day, the 49ers traded its first two picks for the New England Patriots' first-round choice, the 16th selection overall, selected Rice before, as some report, the Cowboys were intending to pick him. Rice was prized more by the USFL, as he was the number-one pick overall in that league's 1985 draft, selected by the Birmingham Stallions, but the USFL would fold after the 1986 season. Although he struggled at times, Rice impressed the NFL in his rookie season for the 49ers in 1985 after a 10-catch, 241-yard game against the Los Angeles Rams in December. For that rookie season, he recorded 49 catches for 927 yards, averaging 18.9 yards per catch and was named the NFC Offensive Rookie of the Year by United Press International. The following season, he caught 86 passes for 15 touchdowns, it was the first of six seasons in which Rice led the NFL in receiving yar
The Oakland Raiders are a professional American football franchise based in Oakland, California. The Raiders compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference West division. Founded on January 30, 1960, they played their first regular season game on September 11, 1960, as a charter member of the American Football League which merged with the NFL in 1970; the Raiders' off-field fortunes have varied over the years. The team's first three years of operation were marred by poor on-field performance, financial difficulties, spotty attendance. In 1963, the Raiders' fortunes improved with the introduction of head coach Al Davis. In 1967, after several years of improvement, the Raiders reached the postseason for the first time; the team would go on to win its first AFL Championship that year. Since 1963, the team has won 15 division titles, four AFC Championships, one AFL Championship, three Super Bowl Championships. At the end of the NFL's 2018 season, the Raiders boasted a lifetime regular season record of 466 wins, 423 losses, 11 ties.
The team departed Oakland to play in Los Angeles from the 1982 season until the 1994 season before returning to Oakland at the start of the 1995 season. Al Davis owned the team from 1972 until his death in 2011. Control of the franchise was given to Al's son Mark Davis. On March 27, 2017, NFL team owners voted nearly unanimously to approve the Raiders' application to relocate from Oakland to Las Vegas, Nevada, in a 31–1 vote at the annual league meetings in Phoenix, Arizona; the Raiders plan to remain in the Bay Area through 2019, relocate to Las Vegas in 2020, pending the completion of the team's planned new stadium. The Raiders are known for distinctive team culture; the Raiders have 14 former members. They have played at Kezar Stadium in San Francisco, Candlestick Park in San Francisco, Frank Youell Field in Oakland, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum in Oakland; the Oakland Raiders were going to be called the "Oakland Señors" after a name-the-team contest had that name finish first, but after being the target of local jokes, the name was changed to the Raiders before the 1960 season began.
Having enjoyed a successful collegiate coaching career at Navy during the 1950s, San Francisco native Eddie Erdelatz was hired as the Raiders' first head coach. On February 9, 1960, after rejecting offers from the NFL's Washington Redskins and the AFL's Los Angeles Chargers, Erdelatz accepted the Raiders' head coaching position. In January 1960, the Raiders were established in Oakland, because of NFL interference with the original eighth franchise owner, were the last team of eight in the new American Football League to select players, thus relegated to the remaining talent available; the 1960 Raiders 42-man roster included 28 rookies and only 14 veterans. Among the Raiders rookies were future Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee center Jim Otto, a future Raiders head coach, quarterback Tom Flores. In their debut year under Erdelatz the Raiders finished with a 6–8 record. Ownership conflicts prevented the team from signing. On September 18, 1961, Erdelatz was dismissed after the Raiders were outscored 77–46 in the first two games of the season.
On September 24, 1961, after the dismissal of Erdelatz, management named Los Angeles native and offensive line coach Marty Feldman as the Raiders head coach. The team finished the 1961 season with a 2–12 record. Feldman began the 1962 season as Raiders head coach but was fired on October 16, 1962 after an 0–5 start. From October 16 through December, the Raiders were coached by Oklahoma native and former assistant coach Red Conkright. Under Conkright, the Raiders went 1–8, finishing the season with 1–13 record. Following the 1962 season the Raiders appointed Conkright to an interim mentor position as they looked for a new head coach. After the 1962 season, Raiders managing general partner F. Wayne Valley hired Al Davis as Raiders head coach and general manager. At 33, he was the youngest person in professional football history to hold the positions. Davis began to implement what he termed the "vertical game", an aggressive offensive strategy inspired by the offense developed by Chargers head coach Sid Gillman.
Under Davis the Raiders improved to 10–4 and he was named the AFL's Coach of the Year in 1963. Though the team slipped to 5–7–2 in 1964, they rebounded to an 8–5–1 record in 1965; the famous silver and black Raider uniform debuted at the regular season opening game on September 8, 1963. Prior to this, the team wore a combination of black and white with gold trim on the pants and oversized numerals. In April 1966, Davis left the Raiders after being named AFL Commissioner, promoting assistant coach John Rauch to head coach. Two months the league announced its merger with the NFL; the leagues would retain separate regular seasons until 1970. With the merger, the position of commissioner was no longer needed, Davis entered into discussions with Valley about returning to the Raiders. On July 25, 1966, Davis returned as part-owner of the team, he purchased a 10% interest in the team for $18,000, became the team's third general partner — the partner in charge of football operations. Under Rauch, the Raiders matched their 1965 season's 8–5–1 record in 1966 but missed the pl
A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e. without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be chemical compounds, or alloys. Chemical elements may not be included in the definition, depending on expert viewpoint. Chemical substances are called'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water. Other chemical substances encountered in pure form are diamond, table salt and refined sugar. However, in practice, no substance is pure, chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical. Chemical substances exist as solids, gases, or plasma, may change between these phases of matter with changes in temperature or pressure. Chemical substances may be converted to others by means of chemical reactions. Forms of energy, such as light and heat, are not matter, are thus not "substances" in this regard.
A chemical substance may well be defined as "any material with a definite chemical composition" in an introductory general chemistry textbook. According to this definition a chemical substance can either be a pure chemical element or a pure chemical compound. But, there are exceptions to this definition; the chemical substance index published by CAS includes several alloys of uncertain composition. Non-stoichiometric compounds are a special case that violates the law of constant composition, for them, it is sometimes difficult to draw the line between a mixture and a compound, as in the case of palladium hydride. Broader definitions of chemicals or chemical substances can be found, for example: "the term'chemical substance' means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including – any combination of such substances occurring in whole or in part as a result of a chemical reaction or occurring in nature". In geology, substances of uniform composition are called minerals, while physical mixtures of several minerals are defined as rocks.
Many minerals, mutually dissolve into solid solutions, such that a single rock is a uniform substance despite being a mixture in stoichiometric terms. Feldspars are a common example: anorthoclase is an alkali aluminum silicate, where the alkali metal is interchangeably either sodium or potassium. In law, "chemical substances" may include both pure substances and mixtures with a defined composition or manufacturing process. For example, the EU regulation REACH defines "monoconstituent substances", "multiconstituent substances" and "substances of unknown or variable composition"; the latter two consist of multiple chemical substances. For example, charcoal is an complex polymeric mixture that can be defined by its manufacturing process. Therefore, although the exact chemical identity is unknown, identification can be made to a sufficient accuracy; the CAS index includes mixtures. Polymers always appear as mixtures of molecules of multiple molar masses, each of which could be considered a separate chemical substance.
However, the polymer may be defined by a known precursor or reaction and the molar mass distribution. For example, polyethylene is a mixture of long chains of -CH2- repeating units, is sold in several molar mass distributions, LDPE, MDPE, HDPE and UHMWPE; the concept of a "chemical substance" became established in the late eighteenth century after work by the chemist Joseph Proust on the composition of some pure chemical compounds such as basic copper carbonate. He deduced; this is now known as the law of constant composition. With the advancement of methods for chemical synthesis in the realm of organic chemistry. However, there are some controversies regarding this definition because the large number of chemical substances reported in chemistry literature need to be indexed. Isomerism caused much consternation to early researchers, since isomers have the same composition, but differ in configuration of the atoms. For example, there was much speculation for the chemical identity of benzene, until the correct structure was described by Friedrich August Kekulé.
The idea of stereoisomerism – that atoms have rigid three-dimensional structure and can thus form isomers that differ only in their three-dimensional arrangement – was another crucial step in understanding the concept of distinct chemical substances. For example, tartaric acid has three distinct isomers, a pair of diastereomers with one diastereomer forming two enantiomers. An element is a chemical substance made up of a particular kind of atom and hence cannot be broken down or transformed by a chemical reaction into a different element, though it can be transmuted into another element through a nuclear reaction; this is so, beca
The Atlanta Hawks are an American professional basketball team based in Atlanta, Georgia. The Hawks compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Southeast Division; the team plays its home games at State Farm Arena. The team's origins can be traced to the establishment of the Buffalo Bisons in 1946 in Buffalo, New York, a member of the National Basketball League owned by Ben Kerner and Leo Ferris. After 38 days in Buffalo, the team moved to Moline, where they were renamed the Tri-Cities Blackhawks. In 1949, they joined the NBA as part of the merger between the NBL and the Basketball Association of America, had Red Auerbach as coach. In 1951, Kerner moved the team to Milwaukee. Kerner and the team moved again in 1955 to St. Louis, where they won their only NBA Championship in 1958 and qualified to play in the NBA Finals in 1957, 1960 and 1961; the Hawks played the Boston Celtics in all four of their trips to the NBA Finals. The St. Louis Hawks moved to Atlanta in 1968, when Kerner sold the franchise to Thomas Cousins and former Georgia Governor Carl Sanders.
The Hawks own the second-longest drought of not winning an NBA championship at 60 seasons. The franchise's lone NBA championship, as well as all four NBA Finals appearances, occurred when the team was based in St. Louis. Meanwhile, they went 48 years without advancing past the second round of the playoffs in any format, until breaking through in 2015. However, the Hawks are one of only four NBA teams that have qualified to play in the NBA playoffs in 10 consecutive seasons in the 21st century, they achieved this feat between 2008 and 2017. The other teams that have made it to at least 10 consecutive playoff appearances in the 21st century are the San Antonio Spurs, Denver Nuggets, Dallas Mavericks; the origins of the Atlanta Hawks can be traced to the Buffalo Bisons franchise, founded in 1946. The Bisons were a member of the National Basketball League, played their games at the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium; the club was coached by Nat Hickey. Their first game – a 50–39 victory over the Syracuse Nationals – was played on November 8, 1946.
On the team was William "Pop" Gates, along with William "Dolly" King, was one of the first two African-American players in the NBL. The team, which needed to draw 3,600 fans per game to break struggled to draw 1,000 fans per game to the Auditorium; the franchise lasted only 38 days in Buffalo when, on December 25, 1946, Leo Ferris, the team's general manager, announced that the team would be moving to Moline, which at that time was part of an area known as the "Tri-Cities": Moline, Rock Island and Davenport, Iowa. Upon relocation to Moline, the team was renamed the Tri-Cities Blackhawks, played their home games at Wharton Field House, a 6,000-seat arena in Moline; the team featured guard/forward and coach Deanglo King, was owned by Leo Ferris and Ben Kerner. Pop Gates remained on the Blackhawks roster, finished second on the team in scoring behind future 1948 NBL MVP Don Otten. A Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame member, Gates helped to integrate the league and become the first African-American coach in a major sports league, coaching Dayton in 1948.
In 1949 the Blackhawks became one of the National Basketball Association's 17 original teams after a merger of the 12-year-old NBL and the three-year-old Basketball Association of America. They reached the playoffs in the NBA's inaugural year under the leadership of coach Red Auerbach; the following season, they drafted three-time All-American Bob Cousy, but they were unable to reach a deal and traded him to the Chicago Stags. The Blackhawks missed the playoffs. By it was obvious that the Tri-Cities area was too small to support an NBA team. After the season, the franchise relocated to Milwaukee and became the Milwaukee Hawks. In 1954, the Hawks drafted Bob Pettit, a future NBA MVP. Despite this, the Hawks were one of the league's worst teams, in 1955 the Hawks moved, this time to St. Louis, Milwaukee's rival in the beer industry, became the St. Louis Hawks. In 1956, the St. Louis Hawks drafted legendary Bill Russell in the first round, they traded Russell to the Boston Celtics for Cliff Hagan and Ed Macauley, both Hall of Fame members.
In 1957, the Hawks finished four games under.500. However, the Western Division was weak that year, they won the division title and a bye to the division finals after defeating the Minneapolis Lakers and Fort Wayne Pistons in one-game tiebreakers. They defeated the Lakers in the division finals to advance to the Finals, losing to the Boston Celtics in a double-overtime thriller in game seven. In 1958, after tallying their first winning record, they again advanced to the Finals, where they avenged their defeat against the Celtics from the previous year, winning the series 4–2 and giving the Hawks their first and only NBA Championship. Bob Pettit scored 50 points in the final game of the series; the Hawks remained one of the NBA's premier teams for the next decade. In 1960, under coach Ed Macauley, the team advanced to the Finals, but lost to the Celtics in another game seven thriller; the following year, with the acquisition of rookie Lenny Wilkens, the Hawks repeated their success, but met the Celtics in the Finals again and lost in five games.
They would remain contenders for most of the 1960s, advancing deep into the playoffs a
Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin
Prairie du Sac is a village in Sauk County, United States. The population was 3,972 at the 2010 census; the village is surrounded by the Town of Prairie du Sac, the Wisconsin River, the village of Sauk City. Prairie du Sac was so named because it was in the large Wisconsin River Valley where the Sauk Indians had a large settlement. Although the name of the village dates from the early days of French fur traders, Prairie du Sac was established as a village by D. B. Crocker in 1840 as a Yankee-English village, in contrast to its neighbor, Sauk City, settled by Germans. Prairie du Sac is located at 43°17′23″N 89°43′42″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.66 square miles, of which, 1.55 square miles of it is land and 0.11 square miles is water. Prairie du Sac is serviced by the Sauk–Prairie Airport; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,972 people, 1,649 households, 1,075 families residing in the village. The population density was 2,562.6 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,733 housing units at an average density of 1,118.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 94.3% White, 0.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 2.7% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.8% of the population. There were 1,649 households of which 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.8% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the village was 36.2 years. 25.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.4% male and 51.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,231 people, 1,290 households, 869 families residing in the village.
The population density was 2,450.9 people per square mile. There were 1,332 housing units at an average density of 1,010.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.14% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.46% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 2.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,290 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families. 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.04. In the village, the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.2 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. The median income for a household in the village was $44,472, the median income for a family was $55,234. Males had a median income of $35,020 versus $28,882 for females; the per capita income for the village was $23,068. About 4.7% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.3% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over. Sauk City is adjacent to Prairie du Sac, directly to the south. Both communities are located on the west bank of the Wisconsin River, they share a municipal boundary, as well as schools, a police department and a hospital, but have separate fire departments and libraries. Efforts have been made to join the two villages into a single entity, Sauk Prairie, but these have failed; the corporate headquarters of Culver's Franchising Systems, Inc. is located in Prairie du Sac. The first Culver's opened in the adjacent city of Sauk City on July 18, 1984; the corporate headquarters of Badgerland Financial and Mueller Sports Medicine are in Prairie du Sac.
Milwaukee Valve has a factory there. Voice of the River Valley magazine, a guide to people and events in the lower Wisconsin and Sugar-Pecatonica River basins Peter A. Hemmy, Wisconsin State Representative George DeGraw Moore, Wisconsin State Senator and New Jersey jurist J. B. Ragatz, Wisconsin State Representative Scott Schutt, former Cincinnati Bengals player Badger Army Ammunition Plant Sauk Prairie High School Village of Prairie du Sac Sauk Prairie Chamber of Commerce Sauk Prairie Area Historical Society Sauk Prairie website Prairie du Sac Library Germans in the Sauk Prairie Area
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro