Borders Group, Inc. was an international book and music retailer based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. In its final year, the company employed about 19,500 people throughout the U. S. in its Borders and Waldenbooks stores. At the beginning of 2010, the company operated 511 Borders superstores in the US; the company operated 175 stores in the Waldenbooks Specialty Retail segment, including Waldenbooks, Borders Express, Borders airport stores, Borders Outlet stores. In February 2011, Borders applied for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and began liquidating 226 of its stores in the United States. Despite a purchase offer from the private-equity firm Najafi Companies, Borders was not able to find a buyer acceptable to its creditors before its July bidding deadline, so it began liquidating its remaining 399 retail outlets, with the last remaining stores closing their doors in September; the Chapter 11 case was converted to Chapter 7. Rival bookseller Barnes & Noble acquired Borders' trademarks and customer list.
By the end of December 2010, Borders employed an estimated 1,150 across its U. K. stores, which went into bankruptcy administration before the end of 2010. All stores were closed by December 31, 2010. Borders Group formerly operated stores in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore. However, these were sold off to Pacific Equity Partners in 2008 were sold again to REDgroup Retail; the stores continued to operate under the Borders brand as the unaffiliated "Borders Asia Pacific" until RedGroup was placed into voluntary administration in February 2011. The original Borders bookstore was located in Ann Arbor, where it was founded in 1971 by brothers Tom and Louis Borders during their undergraduate and graduate years at the University of Michigan; the first Borders bookshop opened at 209 State Street, Ann Arbor in 1971. Wahr's had been a textbook and school-supplies vendor, but the brothers did not deal in textbooks, they moved the retail bookshop to much larger quarters that had become available across the street at 303 South State, in the former location of the Wagner and Son men's clothing store.
The old shop was renamed Charing Cross Bookshop and Tom Frick was sent over from the new bookshop to help. The downtown Ann Arbor store moved across the street again in 1994 to 612 East Liberty, at the southwest corner of Liberty and State Streets, in the building once occupied by the defunct Jacobson's Department Store. Although not the original location, it was identified as "Borders #1" because it was the flagship store. Former Hickory Farms president Robert F. DiRomualdo was hired in 1989 to expand the company; the Borders brothers' inventory system tailored each store's offerings to its community. A sister company, Book Inventory Systems, was founded to serve as a wholesaler for and provide the brothers' custom inventory system to regional independent bookstores such as John Rollins, Thackeray's, Schuler Books, Joseph-Beth Booksellers. Borders was acquired in 1992 by Kmart, which had acquired mall-based book chain Waldenbooks eight years earlier. Kmart had struggled with the book division, having first tinkered with the assortment and with discounting.
In the Borders acquisition, Kmart merged the two companies in hopes that the experienced Borders senior management could bail out floundering Waldenbooks. Instead, many of the Borders senior management team left the company, leaving behind an larger and more unwieldy division for Kmart executives to handle on the heels of aggressive expansions by rivals Barnes & Noble and Crown Books. Facing its own fiscal problems and intense pressure from stockholders, Kmart spun off Borders in a structured stock-purchase plan; the newly formed company was called Borders-Walden Group and, by the end of the same year, renamed Borders Group. In 1994, Borders operated a mall-based toy store called All Wound Up, which sold toys and novelty items. Most All Wound Up stores were seasonal kiosks in shopping malls. Borders was slated to open stores in Canada, starting with a 50,000-square-foot retail store in Toronto. However, this was rejected for failing to meet Canadian ownership regulations for book retailers. In 1997, the company established its first international store in Singapore, occupying 32,000 square feet in Wheelock Place, Orchard Road, the largest bookstore there.
It subsequently opened another 41 stores in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and bought 35 Books etc. stores throughout Britain from Philip and Richard Joseph. In 1998, Borders Ltd. was established as a Borders Group subsidiary and with its Borders and Books etc. After becoming one of the country's leading booksellers, due to the fierce competition in the UK marketplace, a number of the Books etc. stores closed, Borders Ltd. was sold in 2007 to a private-equity investor. On November 26, 2009, Borders Ltd was placed into administration, the equivalent to Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the US. At that time, the Borders bookshop chain in the UK started a closing down sale in all of its 45 stores. On December 14, Borders UK announced it was going out of business. All UK stores were closed by the end of the year. In the third quarter of 2006, the Singapore store emerged as the best performing among the group's 559 outlets, with the highest revenue generated per square meter. At one point, the highest-grossing location in US territory was a remodeled and expanded store in Puerto Rico, generating
Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days, until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation. The crucifixion of Jesus is a central narrative in Christianity, the cross is the main religious symbol for many Christian churches. Ancient Greek has two verbs for crucify: ana-stauro, from stauros, "stake", apo-tumpanizo "crucify on a plank", together with anaskolopizo. In earlier pre-Roman Greek texts anastauro means "impale". New Testament Greek uses four verbs, three of them based upon stauros translated "cross"; the most common term is stauroo, "to crucify". Prospegnumi, "to fix or fasten to, crucify" occurs only once at the Acts of the Apostles 2:23; the English term cross derives from the Latin word crux. The Latin term crux classically referred to a tree or any construction of wood used to hang criminals as a form of execution; the term came to refer to a cross. The English term crucifix derives from the Latin crucifixus or cruci fixus, past participle passive of crucifigere or cruci figere, meaning "to crucify" or "to fasten to a cross".
Crucifixion was most performed to dissuade its witnesses from perpetrating similar crimes. Victims were sometimes left on display after death as a warning to any other potential criminals. Crucifixion was intended to provide a death, slow, gruesome and public, using whatever means were most expedient for that goal. Crucifixion methods varied with location and time period; the Greek and Latin words corresponding to "crucifixion" applied to many different forms of painful execution, including being impaled on a stake, or affixed to a tree, upright pole, or to a combination of an upright and a crossbeam. Seneca the Younger wrote: "I see crosses there, not just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their victims with head down to the ground. In some cases, the condemned was forced to carry the crossbeam to the place of execution. A whole cross would weigh well over 135 kg, but the crossbeam would not be as burdensome, weighing around 45 kg; the Roman historian Tacitus records that the city of Rome had a specific place for carrying out executions, situated outside the Esquiline Gate, had a specific area reserved for the execution of slaves by crucifixion.
Upright posts would be fixed permanently in that place, the crossbeam, with the condemned person already nailed to it, would be attached to the post. The person executed may have been attached to the cross by rope, though nails and other sharp materials are mentioned in a passage by the Judean historian Josephus, where he states that at the Siege of Jerusalem, "the soldiers out of rage and hatred, nailed those they caught, one after one way, another after another, to the crosses, by way of jest". Objects used in the crucifixion of criminals, such as nails, were sought as amulets with perceived medicinal qualities. While a crucifixion was an execution, it was a humiliation, by making the condemned as vulnerable as possible. Although artists have traditionally depicted the figure on a cross with a loin cloth or a covering of the genitals, the person being crucified was stripped naked. Writings by Seneca the Younger state some victims suffered a stick forced upwards through their groin. Despite its frequent use by the Romans, the horrors of crucifixion did not escape criticism by some eminent Roman orators.
Cicero, for example, described crucifixion as "a most cruel and disgusting punishment", suggested that "the mention of the cross should be far removed not only from a Roman citizen's body, but from his mind, his eyes, his ears". Elsewhere he says, "It is a crime to bind a Roman citizen. What shall I say of crucifying him? So guilty an action cannot by any possibility be adequately expressed by any name bad enough for it."Frequently, the legs of the person executed were broken or shattered with an iron club, an act called crurifragium, frequently applied without crucifixion to slaves. This act hastened the death of the person but was meant to deter those who observed the crucifixion from committing offenses; the gibbet on which crucifixion was carried out could be of many shapes. Josephus says that the Roman soldiers who crucified the many prisoners taken during the Siege of Jerusalem under Titus, diverted themselves by nailing them to the crosses in different ways; this was the simplest available construction for killing the condemned.
However, there was a cross-piece attached either at the top to give the shape of a T or just below the top, as in the form most familiar in Christian symbolism. The most ancient image of a Roman crucifixion depicts an individual on
Washington State University
Washington State University is a public research university in Pullman, Washington. Founded in 1890, WSU is a land-grant university with programs in a broad range of academic disciplines. With an undergraduate enrollment of 24,470 and a total enrollment of 29,686, it is the second largest institution of higher education in Washington state behind the University of Washington; the university operates campuses across Washington known as WSU Spokane, WSU Tri-Cities, WSU Vancouver, all founded in 1989. In 2012, WSU launched an Internet-based Global Campus, which includes its online degree program, WSU Online. In 2015, WSU expanded to a sixth campus, known as WSU Everett; these campuses award bachelor's and master's degrees. Freshmen and sophomores were first admitted to the Vancouver campus in 2006 and to the Tri-Cities campus in 2007. Enrollment for the four campuses and WSU Online exceeds 29,686 students; this includes 1,751 international students. WSU's athletic teams are called the Cougars and the school colors are crimson and gray.
Six men's and nine women's varsity teams compete in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference. Both men's and women's indoor track teams compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. Washington State College was established by the Washington Legislature on March 28, 1890, less than five months after statehood; the institution was one of the land-grant colleges created under the 1862 federal Morrill Act signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln. The federal land grants for the new institution included 90,000 acres of federal land for an agricultural college and 100,000 acres for a school of science. After an extended search for a location, the state's new land-grant college opened in Pullman on January 13, 1892; the year 1897 saw the first graduating class of women. The school changed its name from Washington Agricultural College and School of Science to State College of Washington in 1905, but was called Washington State College; the state legislature changed the name to Washington State University in 1959.
Enoch Albert Bryan, appointed July 22, 1893, was the first influential president of WSU. Bryan held graduate degrees from Harvard and Columbia and served as the president of Vincennes University in Indiana. Before Bryan's arrival, the fledgling university suffered through significant organizational instability. Bryan guided WSU toward respectability and is arguably the most influential figure in the university's history; the landmark clock tower in the center of campus is his namesake. WSU's role as a statewide institution became clear in 1894 with the launch of its first agricultural experiment station west of the Cascade Mountains near Puyallup. WSU has subsequently established extension offices and research centers in all regions of the state, with major research facilities in Prosser, Mount Vernon, Wenatchee. In 1989, WSU gained branch campuses in Spokane, the Tri-Cities, Vancouver. Overall, the federal government and the State of Washington have entrusted 190,000 acres of land to WSU for agricultural and scientific research throughout the Pacific Northwest.
Professional education began with the establishment of the School of Veterinary Science in 1899. The veterinary school was elevated to college status in 1916 and became the College of Veterinary Medicine in 1925. Graduate education began in the early years and, in 1902, the first master's degree was conferred, an M. S. in Botany. In 1917, the institution was organized into five colleges and four schools, with deans as administrative heads. In 1922 a graduate school was created. In 1929, the first Ph. D. degree was conferred, in bacteriology. The university offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees in 200 fields of study through 65 departments and programs; these departments and programs are organized into 10 academic colleges as follows: College of Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences College of Arts and Sciences Carson College of Business Edward R. Murrow College of Communication College of Education Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine College of Nursing College of Pharmacy College of Veterinary MedicineIn addition, WSU has an all-university honors college, a graduate school, an online global campus, an accredited intensive English program for non-native speakers.
Washington State University is chartered by the State of Washington. A board of regents provides direction to the president. There are ten regents appointed by the governor; the tenth is a student regent appointed on an annual basis. A bill adding an eleventh regent, who would be a full-time or emeritus faculty member, stalled in the Washington legislature in 2018; the regents are Theodor P. Baseler, Brett Blankenship, Scott E. Carson, Marty Dickinson, Ron Sims, Jordan Frost, Lura J. Powell, Heather Redman, Lisa K. Schauer, Michael C. Worthy. Kirk Schulz serves as WSU's president and chief executive officer. Daniel Bernardo serves as provost and handles academics and faculty matters for WSU statewide; the former president, Elson Floyd the former president of University of Missouri System, succeeded V. Lane Rawlins on May 21, 2007, served until his death on June 20, 2015. Bernardo was dean of the WSU College of Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences. WSU has had 11 presidents in its 125-year history: George W. Lilley, John W. Heston, Enoch A. Bryan, Ernest O. Holland, Wil
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
Elle is a worldwide lifestyle magazine of French origin that focuses on fashion, beauty and entertainment. It was founded in 1945 by the writer Pierre Lazareff; the title "her," in French. Elle was founded in Paris the immediate aftermath of World War II and first sold as a supplement to France-Soir, edited at the time by Pierre Lazareff. Hélène Gordon-Lazareff, Elle's pioneering founder, returned to Paris from New York City to create a unique publication that grappled with the many forces shaping the lives of women in France in 1945. Women won the right to vote in 1944, Elle dived into long-form "newspaper-like" features on women's role in national politics and the growing feminist movement, its 100th issue, published on 14 October 1947, featured the work of Christian Dior just eight months after his debut show. Bridget Bardot graced her first Elle cover at age 17, on 7 January 1952, months before her screen debut in Manina, the Girl In the Bikini. By the 1960s, Elle had a readership of 800,000 across France and was said to "not so much reflect fashion as decree it."
This dominance was reflected in the famous slogan: "Si elle lit, elle lit Elle". Hachette began launching its Japanese publication. In 1985, Elle launched in the United States; the Chinese version of the magazine was first published in 1988. It was the first four-color fashion magazine offered in China; the magazine was used as an informational and educational tool for opening of the Chinese textile market. By 1991, the magazine's sales were in decline in the U. S. Elle.com was launched in 2007. In 2011, The Hearst Corporation reached a €651M deal with Lagardére to purchase the rights to publish Elle Magazine in fifteen countries including the United Kingdom, Spain and Ukraine. Lagardére, which struggled in the international market in the 2000s, retained the rights to the French edition and would collect royalties from the international editions. Elle printed special collectors’ covers for their September 2016 issue, one of them featured Hari Nef, the first time an transgender woman had been on the cover of a major commercial British magazine.
Elle editors have included Jean-Dominique Bauby, who became known for writing a book after suffering total paralysis and Robbie Myers. In September 2017, it was announced that Roberta Myers was stepping down from the role of editor-in-chief, position she held since 2000, stating through a memo to the staff that "I want to spend the next seasons as available to my children as I can be, so I take my leave of Elle now". A day of the announcement, it was reported that Nina Garcia, creative director of Marie Claire was appointed as the new editor-in-chief effective 18 September. Patricia Wang was the first editor of Elle China. Elle is the world's largest fashion magazine, with 43 international editions in over 60 countries; this includes region-specific editions such as Elle Hong Kong and Elle Quebec which are published in addition to Elle China and Elle Canada respectively. In Belgium, Elle is published as two magazines for the Flanders and Wallonia regions, while Elle Middle East is targeted at several countries in the region.
Technologically speaking, the Elle brand is a global network encompassing over 33 websites. Subscriptions account for 73 percent of readers. There are 33 Elle websites globally, which collectively attract over 25 million unique visitors and 370 million page views per month; the magazine reaches over 69 million readers. The vast majority of Elle's audience are women between the ages of 18 and 49, its readers have a median age of 34.7 years. Forty percent of the readers are single, the median household income is $69,973. "Our readers are young enough to think about life as an adventure and old enough to have the means to live it", said Roberta Myers, editor in chief. The first international edition of Elle was launched in Japan in 1969, its U. S. and UK editions were launched in 1985. Spain followed in 1986, with Italy and Hong Kong editions launching in 1987. In 1988, the magazine was launched in Germany, China, Sweden and Portugal; the next year, the Quebec joined the international Elle community. Australia and Taiwan versions were launched in 1990, Argentina in 1994, a Russian edition, published monthly, launched in 1996.
Elle is owned by the Lagardère Group of France. It is published in the U. S. and the UK by Hearst Magazines, in Canada by TVA Group, in Brazil by Grupo Editora Abril, in Mexico by Grupo Expansión, in Argentina by Grupo Clarín, in Singapore by Mediacorp, in Serbia/Croatia by Adria Media, in Turkey by Doğan Burda Magazine, in Germany by Hubert Burda Media, in Romania by Ringier. In China, the publisher is Shanghai Translation Publishing House. In India it is published by Ogaan Publications Pvt. Ltd; as an international magazine, Elle has its headquarters in Paris as well as licensed publishers in New York City, Toronto, Mexico City, South Africa, Istanbul, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, Belgrade, Helsinki, Athens, Madrid, Munich, Kiev, Kuala Lumpur, other cities. In December 2013, Elle hired Randy Minor as design director. In November 2016, ELLE Canada promoted Vanessa Craft to Editor in Chief, making her the first black woman at the helm of an ELLE magazine globally. Elle Girl Elle Elle Decor List of fashion magazines List of women's magazines European Union Didier Guérin, executive in charge of new releases Official website French Elle – magazine profile at Fashion Model Directory