Baroness Karen Christenze von Blixen-Finecke was a Danish author who wrote works in Danish and English. She is best known under her pen names Isak Dinesen, used in English-speaking countries, Tania Blixen, used in German-speaking countries, she published works using the aliases Osceola and Pierre Andrézel. Blixen is best known for Out of Africa, an account of her life while living in Kenya, for one of her stories, Babette's Feast, both of which have been adapted into Academy Award-winning motion pictures, she is noted in Denmark, for her Seven Gothic Tales. Blixen was considered several times for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Karen Dinesen was born in the manor house of Rungstedlund, north of Copenhagen, her father, Wilhelm Dinesen, was a writer and army officer from a family of Jutland landowners connected to the monarchy, the established church and conservative politics. Her mother, Ingeborg Westenholz, came from a wealthy Unitarian bourgeois merchant family. Karen Dinesen was the second oldest in a family of two brothers.
Her younger brother, Thomas Dinesen, grew up to earn the Victoria Cross in the First World War. Dinesen was known to her friends as "Tanne". Dinesen's early years were influenced by her father's relaxed manner and his love of the outdoor life, he wrote throughout his life and his memoir, Boganis Jagtbreve became a minor classic in Danish literature. From August 1872 to December 1873, Wilhelm had lived among the Chippewa Indians in Wisconsin, where he fathered a daughter. On returning to Denmark, he suffered from syphilis. After conceiving a child out of wedlock with his maid Anna Rasmussen, he was devastated by breaking his promise to his mother-in-law to remain faithful to his wife, he hanged himself on 28 March 1895 when Karen was ten. Karen Dinesen's life at Rungstedlund changed after her father's death. From on her life was dominated by her Westenholz family. Unlike her brothers, who attended school, she was educated at home by her maternal grandmother and by her aunt, Mary B. Westenholz, who brought her up in the staunch Unitarian tradition.
Aunt Bess, as Westenholz was known to Dinesen, had a significant impact on her niece. They engaged in lively discussions and correspondence on women's rights and relationships between men and women. During her early years, Dinesen spent part of her time at her mother's family home, the Mattrup seat farm near Horsens, while in years there were visits to Folehavegård, an estate near Hørsholm that had belonged to her father's family. Longing for the freedom she had enjoyed when her father was alive, she was able to find some satisfaction in telling her younger sister Ellen hair-raising good-night stories inspired by Danish folk tales and Icelandic sagas. In 1905, these led to her Grjotgard Ålvesøn og Aud. Around this time, she published fiction in Danish periodicals under the pseudonym Osceola, the name of her father's dog, which she had walked in her father's company. In 1898, Dinesen and her two sisters spent a year in Switzerland. In 1902, she attended Charlotte Sode's art school in Copenhagen before continuing her studies at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts under Viggo Johansen from 1903 to 1906.
In her mid-twenties, she visited Paris and Rome on study trips. While still young, Dinesen spent many of her holidays with her paternal cousin's family, the Blixen-Fineckes, in Skåne in the south of Sweden, she first fell in love with the dashing equestrian Hans. She therefore decided to accept the favours of his twin brother, Baron Bror Blixen-Finecke, they announced their engagement on 23 December 1912, to the family's surprise. Given the difficulties both were experiencing in settling in Denmark, the family suggested they should move abroad, their common uncle, Aage Westenholz who had made a fortune in Siam, suggested they should go to Kenya to start a coffee farm. He and his sister Ingeborg Dinesen invested 150,000 Danish crowns in the venture. Early in 1913, Bror Blixen-Finecke left for Kenya, he was followed by his fiancée in December. Soon after Dinesen arrived in Kenya, which at the time was part of British East Africa and Blixen were married in Mombasa on 14 January 1914. After her marriage, she became known as Baroness Blixen, she used the title until her ex-husband remarried in 1929.
Karen and Bror Blixen planned to raise cattle on their farm, but they became convinced that coffee would be more profitable. The Karen Coffee Company was established by Aage Westerholz, who chose the name after his daughter Karen, Blixen's cousin, rather than to create an association with Karen Blixen; the couple soon established M'Bagathi, in the Great Lakes area. They ran into difficulties caused by the outbreak of the First World War. Fighting between the Germans and the British in East Africa led to a shortage of workers and supplies. In 1916, the Karen Coffee Company purchased a larger farm, M'Bogani, near the Ngong Hills to the south–west of Nairobi; the property covered 6,000 acres of land: 600 acres were used for a coffee plantation, 3,400 acres were used by the natives for grazing, 2,000 acres of virgin forest were left untouched. The land was not well-suited for coffee cultivation, given its high elevation; the couple hired local workers: most were Kikuyu who lived on the farmlands at the time of the couple's arrival, but there were Wakamba, Kavirondo and Masai.
Bror Blixen-Finecke worked the farm, but it soon became evident that he had l
The Kattegat is a 30,000 km2 sea area bounded by the Jutlandic peninsula in the west, the Danish Straits islands of Denmark to the south and the provinces of Västergötland, Scania and Bohuslän in Sweden in the east. The Baltic Sea drains into the Kattegat through the Danish Straits; the sea area is a continuation of the Skagerrak and may be seen as a bay of the Baltic Sea or the North Sea or, as in traditional Scandinavian usage, neither of these. The Kattegat is a rather shallow sea and can be difficult and dangerous to navigate, due to the many sandy and stony reefs and tricky currents that shift. In modern times, artificial seabed channels have been dug, many reefs have been dredged by either sand pumping or stone fishing, a well-developed light signaling network has been installed, to safeguard the heavy international traffic of this small sea. There are several large cities and major ports in the Kattegat, including Gothenburg, Aalborg and Frederikshavn, mentioned by descending size. According to the definition established in a 1932 convention signed by Denmark and Sweden, the northern boundary between the Kattegat and Skagerrak is found at the northernmost point of Skagen on Jutland, while the southern boundary towards Øresund is found at the tip of Kullen Peninsula in Scania.
Major waterways that drain into the Kattegat are the rivers of Göta älv at Gothenburg, together with the Lagan, Nissan, Ätran and Viskan in the province of Halland on the Swedish side, the river of Gudenå in Jutland, in Denmark. The main islands of the Kattegat are Læsø and Anholt. A number of noteworthy coastal areas abut the Kattegat, including the Kullaberg Nature Reserve in Scania, which contains a number of rare species and a scenic rocky shore, the town of Mölle, which has a picturesque harbour and views into the Kullaberg, Skagen at the northern tip of Denmark. Since the 1950s, a bridge project referred to as Kattegatbroen connecting Jutland and Zealand across the Kattegat has been considered. Since the late 2000s, the project has seen a renewed interest from several influential politicians in Denmark; the bridge is envisioned as connecting Hov with Samsø and Kalundborg. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the "Kattegat and Belts" as follows: On the North: A line joining Skagen and Paternoster Skær and thence northeastward through the shoals to Tjörn Island.
On the South: The limits of the Baltic Sea in the Belts and Sound: In the Little Belt: A line joining Falshöft and Vejsnæs Nakke. In the Great Belt: A line joining Gulstav and Kappel Kirke on the island of Laaland. In the Sound: A line joining Stevns Lighthouse and Falsterbo Point. According to Den Store Danske Encyklopædi and Nudansk Ordbog, the name derives from the Dutch words kat and gat, it derives from late medieval navigation jargon, in which captains of the Hanseatic trading fleets would compare the Danish Straits to a hole so narrow that a cat would have difficulty squeezing its way through, on account of the many reefs and shallow waters. At one point, the passable waters were a mere 3.84 km wide. The name of the Copenhagen street Kattesundet has a comparable etymological meaning, namely "narrow passage". An archaic name for both the Skagerrak and Kattegat was Jutland Sea, its ancient Latin name was Sinus Codanus. Control of the Kattegat, access to it, have been important throughout the history of international seafaring.
Until the completion of the Eider Canal in 1784, the Kattegat was the only sea route into and out of the Baltic region. Beginning in 1429 in the Middle Ages, the Danish royal family – and the state of Denmark – prospered from the Sound dues, a toll charged for passage through the Øresund, while Copenhagen provided shelter and repair opportunities and protection from piracy; the dues were lifted in 1857. In the Kattegat, the salinity has a pronounced two-layer structure; the upper layer has a salinity between 18‰ and 26‰ and the lower layer – separated by a strong halocline at around 15 m – has a salinity between 32‰ and 34‰. The lower layer consists of inflowing seawater from the Skagerrak, with a salinity on level with most other coastal seawaters, while the upper layer consists of inflowing seawater from the Baltic Sea and has a much lower salinity, comparable to brackish water, but still a great deal higher than the rest of the Baltic sea; these two opposing flows transport a net surplus of 475 km3 seawater from the Baltic to the Skagerrak every year.
During stronger winds, the layers in the Kattegat are mixed in some places, such as the Great Belt, so the overall salinity is variable in this small sea. This sets some unique conditions for the sealife here. Cold seeps, locally known as bubbling reefs, are found in the northern Kattegat. Unlike cold seeps in most other places, the Kattegat bubbling reefs are at shallow depths between 0 and 30 m below the surface; the seeps rely on methane deposited during the Eemian period and during calm weather the bubbles
In philosophy, Idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically, Idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing. In contrast to Materialism, Idealism asserts the primacy of consciousness as the origin and prerequisite of material phenomena. According to this view, consciousness is the pre-condition of material existence. Consciousness determines the material and not vice versa. Idealism believes consciousness and mind to be the origin of the material world and aims to explain the existing world according to these principles. Idealism theories are divided into two groups. Subjective idealism takes as its starting point the given fact of human consciousness seeing the existing world as a combination of sensation. Objective idealism posits the existence of an objective consciousness which exists before and, in some sense, independently of human ones.
In a sociological sense, idealism emphasizes how human ideas—especially beliefs and values—shape society. As an ontological doctrine, idealism goes further, asserting that all entities are composed of mind or spirit. Idealism thus rejects dualist theories that fail to ascribe priority to the mind; the earliest extant arguments that the world of experience is grounded in the mental derive from India and Greece. The Hindu idealists in India and the Greek Neoplatonists gave panentheistic arguments for an all-pervading consciousness as the ground or true nature of reality. In contrast, the Yogācāra school, which arose within Mahayana Buddhism in India in the 4th century CE, based its "mind-only" idealism to a greater extent on phenomenological analyses of personal experience; this turn toward the subjective anticipated empiricists such as George Berkeley, who revived idealism in 18th-century Europe by employing skeptical arguments against materialism. Beginning with Immanuel Kant, German idealists such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Arthur Schopenhauer dominated 19th-century philosophy.
This tradition, which emphasized the mental or "ideal" character of all phenomena, gave birth to idealistic and subjectivist schools ranging from British idealism to phenomenalism to existentialism. Idealism as a philosophy came under heavy attack in the West at the turn of the 20th century; the most influential critics of both epistemological and ontological idealism were G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell, but its critics included the New Realists. According to Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, the attacks by Moore and Russell were so influential that more than 100 years "any acknowledgment of idealistic tendencies is viewed in the English-speaking world with reservation". However, many aspects and paradigms of idealism did still have a large influence on subsequent philosophy. Idealism is a term with several related meanings, it comes via idea from the Greek idein, meaning "to see". The term entered the English language by 1743. In ordinary use, as when speaking of Woodrow Wilson's political idealism, it suggests the priority of ideals, principles and goals over concrete realities.
Idealists are understood to represent the world as it might or should be, unlike pragmatists, who focus on the world as it presently is. In the arts idealism affirms imagination and attempts to realize a mental conception of beauty, a standard of perfection, juxtaposed to aesthetic naturalism and realism. Any philosophy that assigns crucial importance to the ideal or spiritual realm in its account of human existence may be termed "idealist". Metaphysical idealism is an ontological doctrine that holds that reality itself is incorporeal or experiential at its core. Beyond this, idealists disagree. Platonic idealism affirms that abstractions are more basic to reality than the things we perceive, while subjective idealists and phenomenalists tend to privilege sensory experience over abstract reasoning. Epistemological idealism is the view that reality can only be known through ideas, that only psychological experience can be apprehended by the mind. Subjective idealists like George Berkeley are anti-realists in terms of a mind-independent world, whereas transcendental idealists like Immanuel Kant are strong skeptics of such a world, affirming epistemological and not metaphysical idealism.
Thus Kant defines idealism as "the assertion that we can never be certain whether all of our putative outer experience is not mere imagining". He claimed that, according to idealism, "the reality of external objects does not admit of strict proof. On the contrary, the reality of the object of our internal sense is clear through consciousness". However, not all idealists restrict the real or the knowable to our immediate subjective experience. Objective idealists make claims about a transempirical world, but deny that this world is divorced from or ontologically prior to the mental, thus and Gottfried Leibniz affirm an objective and knowable reality transcending our subjective awareness—a rejection of epistemological idealism—but propose that this reality is grounded in ideal entities, a form of metaphysical idealism. Nor do all metaphysical idealists agree on the nature of the ideal; as a rule, transcendental idealists like Kant affirm idealism's epistemic side without committing themselves to whether reality is mental.
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
National Museum of Denmark
The National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen is Denmark’s largest museum of cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures, alike. The museum's main building is located a short distance from Strøget at the center of Copenhagen, it contains exhibits from Greenland to South America. Additionally, the museum sponsors SILA - The Greenland Research Center at the National Museum of Denmark to further archaeological and anthropological research in Greenland; the museum has a number of national commitments within the following key areas: archaeology, numismatics, natural science, communication, building antiquarian activities in connection with the churches of Denmark, as well as the handling of the Danefæ. The museum covers 14,000 years of Danish history, from the reindeer-hunters of the Ice Age and works of religious art from the Middle Ages, when the church was significant in Danish life. Danish coins from Viking times to the present and coins from ancient Rome and Greece, as well as examples of the coinage and currencies of other cultures, are exhibited also.
The National Museum keeps Denmark’s largest and most varied collection of objects from the ancient cultures of Greece and Italy, the Near East and Egypt. For example, it holds a collection of objects that were retrieved during the Danish excavation of Tell Shemshara in Iraq in 1957. Exhibits are shown on who the Danish people are and were, stories of everyday life and special occasions, stories of the Danish state and nation, but most of all stories of different people’s lives in Denmark from 1560 to 2000; the Danish pre-history section was re-opened in May 2008 after years of renovating. In 2013, a major exhibition on the Vikings was opened by Queen Margrethe, it has toured including the British Museum in London. Golden horns of Gallehus Gundestrup cauldron Egtved Girl coffin Kingittorsuaq Runestone Snoldelev Stone Trundholm Sun Chariot Seikilos epitaph Nolder weapons Holmegaard bow Tjele helmet fragment Christian Jürgensen Thomsen Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae Sophus Müller Olaf Olsen Steen Hvass Carsten U. Larsen Per Kristian Madsen Rane Willerslev Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark is the title of the museum's yearbook, published since 1928 and contains articles and other contributions.
ISSN 0084-9308 Nationalmuseets Arbejdsmark 1807 - 2007. København: Nationalmuseet, 2007 ISBN 978-87-7602-079-8 Dankirke Danish Museum of the History of Music Frihedsmuseet Frilandsmuseet Frøslev Liselund Manor Lille Mølle, Christianshavn Rømø List of museums in Denmark Official website
Samsø is a Danish island in the Kattegat 15 kilometers off the Jutland Peninsula. Samsø is located in Samsø municipality; the community is 114 km ² in area. Due to its central location, the island was used during the Viking Age as a meeting place; the etymology of the island's name is unknown. In 1997, Samsø won a government competition to become a model renewable energy community. Now 100 % of its electricity biomass; the name Samsø is of unknown origin. The name is known from 1075 as Samse; the word is a simplex and the -ø ending is thus a transformation, indicating that the name Samsø is not related to the Danish word ø'island'. Ballen's beach and village are popular with visitors; the island is served by a bus service which runs around the island, including the two ferry terminals in Sælvig and Ballen. In clear weather, the peninsula of Helgenæs to the north is visible. Geographically, the island divides into three areas: the North Island the Stavns Fjord the South IslandThe North Island is divided from the South Island by the artificial Kanhave canal.
Here a larger part of the countryside is uncultivated and it presents a wavy landscape of meadows and small patches of woodland and heath. Like the rest of Samsø, the coastline is characterized by steep cliffs and stony beaches, with some sandy beaches in between suited for bathing. Issehoved is Samsø's northernmost point and presents what have been described as a miniature of Skagens "Grenen"; the small towns of Nordby, Mårup and Langør is situated on the North Island. Just north of Nordby is the worlds biggest permanent labyrinth named'Labyrinten', founded in the year 2000, it comprise a 60,000-square-metre patch of conifer woodland, grown on a previous christmas tree plantation. Northwest of Nordby, is the hill of Ballebjerg, Samsøs highest point, reaching 64 m. Near the village of Mårup is the harbour of Mårup Havn. In the summer months the old wooden freight-ship M/S Tunø, ferry passengers back and forth from here to the island of Tunø just west of Samsø, two days a week. Other two days of the week, the same boat is offering seal-safaris from Langør at Stavns Fjord.
The shallow lagoon of Stavns Fjord, houses most of the smaller islands of Samsø municipality. The largest of them is Hjortholm and most of the rest are just small islets but have been named individually; the lagoon is separated from the sea of Kattegat by the 7 km long sandbar of Besser Rev. It is possible to walk on the reef all the way to the tip at low tide, except when the birds are breeding here, it is important to be aware of the tides, as there can be strong and dangerous currents at the reefs junction to Samsø during high tide. East of Stavns Fjord, in Kattegat, lies a group of small islands with a couple of sandbars; the entire area is to be protected. The South Island is home to the seat of the mayor and Samsø's largest town Tranebjerg, but there are many other hamlets and villages spread across the countryside; the village of Ballen, lies on the east coast and is home to the Energy Academy. Most of the land on the South Island is cultivated, but there are spots of nature like the forest Brattingsborg Skov and the cliffs and beach meadows on the southcoast.
Just south of the Kanhave canal is Samsø Airport. People have lived and hunted on Samsø from the earliest of times, when the ice receded at the end of the last Ice Age. Samsø first became an island 9,000 years ago and there are several traces like dolmens, burial mounds, passage graves, kitchen middens, etc. from the Stone Age and Bronze Age cultures across the landscape. Excavations at Tønnesminde, for example, show evidence of human habitation from the Stone Age through the Viking Age. On this island, Saxo Grammaticus relates that there was a legendary battle, when the Swedish champion Hjalmar and his friend Orvar-Odd fought against the twelve sons of the Swedish berserker Arngrim; this battle was once famous, since it figures in Faroese ballads, in Orvar-Odd's saga and in Hervarar saga. According to the Hervarar saga and the Waking of Angantyr, the mounds of the slain berserkers were haunted; this did not stop Arngrim's granddaughter Hervor from approaching the mounds and demanding the enchanted sword Tyrfing from her father Angantyr.
"Samsey" is the island upon. At its narrowest place, a canal was dug across the island; the canal was about 500 m long and 11 m wide and could in its time be navigated by vessels with a draught of up to 1 m. It was dug and clad with wooden linings in the years 726-729 AD. Kanhave canal is one of the largest known engineering projects of the Vikings and it is a sign of the centralized power of the time. Kanhave canal is thought of as instrumental to dominating the sea of Kattegat. There are plans to dig out the canal again. All the known sources suggests, that the island was the property of the crown throughout medieval times, but it was an age of conflict and insecurity as a total of five fortresses were built on Samsø in the Middle Ages. None of them are left standing today. Only the castle hills and the archaeological excavations of the foundations remains; the National Museum of Denmark initiated thorough archaeologic
Peter Arnold Heise
Peter Heise was a Danish composer, best known for the opera Drot og Marsk. Heise's parents tried to press him into becoming a lawyer, but he scored in music at school, so he changed direction, he began writing songs at the age of 19. As a young man he collected several hundred folk songs directly from ordinary people, he used these tunes in Bergliot. He studied under Niels Wilhelm Gade, a major influence on his style. From 1857 to 1865 he was a organist at Sorø Academy, he did a setting of Hans Christian Andersen's poem Jylland mellem tvende Have in 1860. The opera Drot og Marsk tells the story of the murder of a medieval king, contains some folk ballads, it shows a Wagnerian influence. His setting of the Shakespeare song When I was and a little tiny boy and Five Erotic songs are in print. Many of his songs for soprano and piano, concern dreams, folk-tales and the Middle Ages. Although his instrumental works are uniformly excellent, because of the tremendous popularity of his songs, they were overlooked.
Among his chamber music works are 6 string quartets, a piano trio, a piano quintet, a number of instrumental sonatas His Piano Quintet in F Major, composed in 1869, was regarded as the best Danish piano quintet. The work remained in manuscript for 140 years. However, in 2009, the world premiere edition of the parts to the Quintet was published by Edition Silvertrust, they have reprinted his Cello Sonata and his Two Fantasy Pieces for Cello and Piano. He married a daughter of the wealthy merchant Alfred Hage; the couple had no children. They moved from Sorø to Copenhagen in 1865, they first lived at Kongens Nytorv 18 and at Kongens Nytorv 6 from 1868 to 1879. They visited Italy in 1861–1862, 1867, 1868–1869 and 1879 and Paris in the spring of 1865. "Heise, Peder". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. Peter Heise Piano Quintet, Cello Sonata and Fantasy Pieces soundbites and discussion of works. Free scores by Peter Arnold Heise at the International Music Score Library Project