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Stigma (botany)

The stigma is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. The stigma, together with the style and ovary comprises the pistil, which in turn is part of the gynoecium or female reproductive organ of a plant; the stigma forms the distal portion of the stylodia. The stigma is composed of the cells which are receptive to pollen; these may be restricted to the apex of the style or in wind pollinated species, cover a wide surface. The stigma receives pollen and it is on the stigma that the pollen grain germinates. Sticky, the stigma is adapted in various ways to catch and trap pollen with various hairs, flaps, or sculpturings; the pollen may be captured from the air, from visiting insects or other animals, or in rare cases from surrounding water. Stigma can slender to globe shaped to feathery. Pollen is highly desiccated when it leaves an anther. Stigma have been shown to assist in the rehydration of pollen and in promoting germination of the pollen tube. Stigma ensure proper adhesion of the correct species of pollen.

Stigma can play an active role in pollen discrimination and some self-incompatibility reactions, that reject pollen from the same or genetically similar plants, involve interaction between the stigma and the surface of the pollen grain. The stigma is split into lobes, e.g. trifid, may resemble the head of a pin, or come to a point. The shape of the stigma may vary considerably: The style is a narrow upward extension of the ovary, connecting it to the stigmatic papillae, it may be absent in some plants in the case. Styles are tube-like—either long or short; the style can be open with a central canal. Alternatively the style may be closed. Most syncarpous monocots and some eudicots have open styles, while many syncarpous eudicots and grasses have closed styles containing specialised secretory transmitting tissue, linking the stigma to the centre of the ovary; this forms a nutrient rich tract for pollen tube growth. Where there are more than one carpel to the pistil, each may have a separate style-like stylodium, or share a common style.

In Irises and others in the family Iridaceae, the style divides into three petal-like style branches to the base of the style and is called tribrachiate. These are flaps of tissue, running from the perianth tube above the sepal; the stigma is a edge on the underside of the branch, near the end lobes. Style branches appear on Dietes and most species of Moraea. In Crocuses, there are three divided style branches. Hesperantha has a spreading style branch. Alternatively the style may be lobed rather than branched. Gladiolus has a bi-lobed style branch. Freesia, Romulea and Watsonia have bifuracated and recurved style branches. May be terminal, lateral, gynobasic, or subgynobasic. Terminal style position is the commonest pattern. In the subapical pattern the style arises to the side below the apex. A lateral style is found in Rosaceae; the gynobasic style arises from the base of the ovary, or between the ovary lobes and is characteristic of Boraginaceae. Subgynobasic styles characterise Allium. Pollen tubes grow the length of the style to reach the ovules, in some cases self-incompatibility reactions in the style prevent full growth of the pollen tubes.

In some species, including Gasteria at least, the pollen tube is directed to the micropyle of the ovule by the style. Gynoecium Stigma shape and size - English labels Terminal versus gynobasic style Images Gynobasic Diagram


Lu Wei-luan, better known by her pen name Xiaosi, is a Hong Kong essayist and scholar. She writes under the pseudonyms of Mingchuan and Lufan, her major publications include Talk on the Way《路上談》, Moving in Daylight Shadows《日影行》, Notes from Discipleship 《承教小記》. Lu has been an eminent researcher of Hong Kong literature for decades and holds an honorary position at the Hong Kong Literature Research Centre of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, she was invited to be the columnist of two Hong Kong newspapers, the Sing Tao Daily and the Ming Pao. Lu was born in Hong Kong of Panyu, Guangdong ancestry, she graduated with a degree in Chinese at the New Asia College of The Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1964. She received her Diploma of Education from the Northcote College of Education in 1965 and began her career in education with a teaching position in secondary school, she received an MPhil degree in the University of Hong Kong in 1981. As inspired by her teacher Tang Junyi, Lu went to Japan to further pursue her study on contemporary Chinese Literature and worked as a Research Fellow at the Institute for Research in Humanities of Kyoto University in 1973.

She continued her career in education as a lecturer in the Chinese Department at HKU in 1978 when she returned from Japan. She worked in the Department of Chinese Language and Literature at CUHK in 1979, became a professor in 1992, retired in 2002. After her retirement in 2002, Lu continued contributing to Hong Kong Literature and became the Honorary Director of the Hong Kong Literature Research Centre in CUHK. In 2008, she worked as both the Adjunct Professor at the Centre for East Asian Studies and the Advisor in the Hong Kong Literature Research Centre in the University. To cite her devotion and contribution in education, Lu was awarded with the Vice-Chancellor's Exemplary Teaching Award by CUHK in 2000, the Outstanding Educator Award by the Hong Kong Institute of Education in 2003, the Award for Outstanding Contribution in Arts from the Hong Kong Arts Development Council in 2010. Lu has an elder brother. Under the teaching from her mother, she was in touch with the traditional Chinese culture before her education in formal primary school for years.

Her mother taught and read her various Chinese classics, such as Water Margin and Three Character Classic, everyday. On the other hand, Lu's father focused more on exploring the nature, he always brought her to hiking and encouraged her to observe the lives in nature. However, her parent were both deceased; the short, yet profound teaching from her parent had built up her interest in Chinese literature and influenced her writings. Tang Jun-yi was not only the teacher of Lu in New Asia College, but a mentor in supporting and inspiring her. In Lu's early time, she lost both her brother, she was alone, mentally unstable, isolated herself from others for four years. Mr. Mo Ke-fei, Lu's teacher in secondary school, introduced her to read Tang's The Sequel of Experience of Life《人生之體驗》; this book pulled her out from the depression. She was determined to study in New Asia College, she received education in New Asia College and became Mr. Tang's student. After graduation, she started her teaching career in a secondary school.

In 1971, Lu failed to lead some of her students back from sidetrack. She suffered from depression. Mr. Tang, suggested her to take a break from teaching and evaluation herself, it led to her decision of studying in Japan in 1973. Tang's teaching motto and his New Confucianism have influenced Lu's teaching and writings; as referring to Mr. Tang, teaching a student is similar to "carrying a student to walk near the edge of a cliff". A teacher should be careful when teaching and notice any possible danger; this idea was deep-rooted in Lu's mind and inspired her to devote her life in passes the knowledge and spirit to next generation. It is, at the same time, important for her students to honor the teachers and respects their teaching. On the other hand, the idea of New Confucianism could be found in many of her writings, she reminds people not to blindly follow the traditions. Instead, people should learn to find the balance between conformity to social norms and rebellion against inequality. In 1973, Lu went to Japan to further pursue her study on contemporary Chinese Literature at the Institute for Research in Humanities of Kyoto University.

She admired the Japanese culture, in which the study and development of humanities and literature are respected. During her study in Japan, she was amazed by the teaching methods in Japan, which teaching is not limited only in classroom but through traveling, it was remarkable that most of the published literature and newspapers are preserved in universities’ libraries. This inspired her to found the Hong Kong Literature Research Centre and establish the Hong Kong Literature Collection in CUHK, her study in Japan helped her to review her life in Hong Kong in a different perspective and brought her a strong sense of nostalgia. The students in Japan reminded her of her life as a teacher in Hong Kong, it fostered her to regain her will in teaching and develop a clearer goal and path to preserve and pass the knowledge and spirits in Hong Kong. The inspirations from Mr. Tang have influenced Lu and made her an enthusiastic teacher in passing his spirits. Many of her writings h

Terry Canales

Terry Canales is a Democratic member of the Texas House of Representatives, serving since 2013. Terry Canales is a native of South Texas, he was elected to the House of Representatives in 2012 to represent District 40, which encompasses the heart of Hidalgo County. The cities within District 40 include Edinburg, North Pharr, San Carlos, La Blanca and portions of McAllen and Weslaco. Terry Canales earned his Juris Doctor by the age of 24. Following in the footsteps of his father Terry A. Canales, a former State District Judge, his uncle Arnulfo Gonzalez Jr. Canales attended and completed his law degree at St. Mary's University School of Law. Upon passing the Texas State Bar Exam, Canales opened his own law practice in Texas, he specializes in Oil and Gas litigation, Criminal Defense, Personal Injury, Family Law, Real Estate, Municipal Law. His father, Terry A. Canales, was the first Hispanic state representative to represent Jim Wells County, serving from 1973 to 1977, his sister Gabriella "Gabi" Canales served from 2002 to 2004.

He is the sixth member of his extended family to serve in the Texas House of Representatives. The most recognized of Rep. Canales' family is his great uncle, José Tomás Canales, a Brownsville Democrat who served a total of five terms between 1905 and 1921, he was a founding member of the League of United Latin American Citizens, is most famous for defending the Hispanic community against the injustices perpetrated by the Texas Rangers. Canales is serving as a member of the following committees: Criminal Jurisprudence, Member Energy Resources, Member Water Desalination, Member Profile at Vote Smart Legislative page Official website

Hypolite Worms

Hypolite Worms, or Hippolyte Worms was a French businessman who inherited an interest in Worms et Cie, a major operator in the coal trade and in merchant shipping. He expanded the firm into ship building and merchant banking, founded the Banque Worms; the grandfather of Hypolite Worms called Hypolite Worms, was from a Jewish merchant family from Sarrelouis. He married daughter of a banking family from Lorraine. In 1848 he started to import coal to Rouen and Dieppe from Cardiff and Newcastle, by 1851 he was said to be the largest importer of English coal in France, he bought his first ships in 1855, in the 1860s set up coaling stations at Port Said and Suez that would become an effective monopoly on the supply of coal to ships using the canal. After he died in 1877 Worms et Cie kept its leading position in the coal trade under various members of the Worms and Goudchaux families, ventured into the petroleum trade. Hypolite Worms was born on 26 May 1889 in Paris, his parents were Lucien Worms, son of the first Hypolite Worms, Virginie Houcke.

His mother was Christian, he was baptised. He married an Anglican, their daughter married the son of the English ambassador to Japan. Her son, Nicolas Cleaves-Worms, became managing associate of MM Worms and Co. which remained independent after the Banque Worms was nationalized in 1982. Hypolite Worms joined Worms et Cie in 1910 at the age of 21, he became a managing partner and effective head of the organization on 1 January 1916. Hypolite Worms continued the coal and shipping businesses but moved into building ships and banking. In 1928 Worms & Cie had three branches: coal trading and ship building. Hypolite Worms decided to found a fourth branch for banking, the Services bancaires. Raymond Poincaré had stabilized the franc on 25 June 1928, the banking industry was entering what promised to be a prosperous period. Worms was impressed by English merchant banks, developed the banking arm of his company along the same lines, it used its own capital and reserves rather than taking deposits, at first financed other arms of the Worms business, although it soon moved into financing trade.

Banking Services began to establish privileged relationships with northern Europe. Gabriel Le Roy Ladurie was appointed head of the department in June 1936. By 1939 Banking Services had solid arrangements with banks in New York. After the outbreak of World War II, in November 1939 Hypolite Worms was placed in charge of the French delegation to the Franco-English Maritime Transport Executive in London. After the Fall of France in June 1940 he took responsibility for transferring the French merchant fleet to Britain, on 4 July 1940 signed what was called the "accords Worms", he returned to France via Portugal and Spain, reported to Admiral Darlan in Vichy. The French ordinance of 18 October 1940 placed companies whose leaders were not considered true Arians under state control. Although Michel Goudchaux at once resigned from his position as associate manager, although Hypolite Worms was born of a Christian mother and had been baptized at birth, Worms & Cie was placed under state supervision. Olivier de Sèze of the Bank of France was made provisional administrator and a German banker was appointed to the board.

Hypolite Worms became the target of violent attacks in the pro-German press. After the liberation of France the principals of Worms & Cie were investigated for possible collaboration with the Germans. Hypolite Worms and Le Roy Ladurie were arrested on 8 September 1944, they were released on 21 January 1945, charges dismissed on 25 October 1946. The inquiries found that Worms & Cie Banking Services had only played a small and involuntary role in financing for the Germans. Hypolite Worms died on 28 January 1962 at the age of 72

Charles Quinn

Charles Nicholas Quinn was an American journalist who reported for NBC News from 1962 until 1980. Quinn was born in New York, he received a bachelor's degree from Cornell University in 1951 and his master's degree in journalism from Columbia University in 1954. He served in the U. S. Army as a paratrooper from 1951 to 1953. In 1962, Quinn became a general assignment television reporter for NBC News, he covered mayor political and social stories of the 1960s, including presidential campaigns, the civil rights movement, along with news film editor Donald Swerdlow. as well as protests against the Vietnam War. Quinn was present at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, covering United States Senator Robert F. Kennedy's 1968 presidential campaign, on the night he was assassinated, he was one of the first reporters to arrive at the scene of the shooting, telling television viewers, "He's lying here on the floor. Senator Kennedy has been shot. He's been shot... There’s blood on the floor."Quinn became the Rome bureau chief for NBC News during the early 1970s.

He returned to the U. S. during the 1970s to become NBC's correspondent at the Pentagon. In 1978, he moved to NBC's radio news bureau in Washington, D. C. as a chief correspondent and managing editor. Quinn left NBC News in 1980, he joined the now defunct Independent Network News, where he worked as a correspondent for a short time. Quinn was hired by the American Petroleum Institute for its public relations department, where he remained until his retirement in 1991. Charles Quinn died of congestive heart failure on July 7, 2013, at his home in Cambridge, Maryland, at the age of 82, he had moved to Cambridge from Alexandria, Virginia, in 2003

Venez tous mes amis!

Venez tous mes amis! is an compilation album of 17 songs by French singer of Jewish Algerian origin Enrico Macias in duo collaborations with other artists. It is in celebration of 50 years of a musical career in France and internationally.15 are well-known Enrico Macias hits, two are special new songs for the album "Ces etrangers": a new song written for Enrico Macias' album by Bruno Maman, sang as a duo with Erico Macias "L'Algerie": a song by Serge Lama, that Enrico Macias chose to sing as a duo with the author as a tribute to his native country Algeria. "Adieu mon pays" – with Cali "Le mendiant de l'amour" – with Mikael Miro "Les filles de mon pays" – with Dany Brillant "Les gens du Nord" – with Carla Bruni "Oranges amères" – with Corneille "L'Oriental" – with Khaled "Paris tu m'as pris dans tes bras" – with Sofia Essaidi "Aux talons de ses souliers" – with Riff Cohen "Sans voir le jour" – with Gérard Darmon "Dis-moi ce qui ne va pas" – with Natasha Saint Pier "Il reste aujourd'hui" – with Cabra Casay "Oumparere" – with Dani "Ces etrangers" – with Bruno Maman "Mon histoire c'est ton histoire" – with Toma "L'Algérie" "Mon cœur d'attache" – with Liane Foly "J'ai perdu 25 kilos" – with Valérie Lemercier