Antonio Barberini was an Italian Catholic cardinal, Archbishop of Reims, military leader, patron of the arts and a prominent member of the House of Barberini. As one of the cardinal-nephews of Pope Urban VIII and a supporter of France, he played a significant role at a number of the papal conclaves of the 17th century. With his brothers Cardinal Francesco Barberini and Taddeo Barberini he helped to shape politics, religion and music of 17th century Italy, he is sometimes referred to as Antonio the Younger or Antonio Barberini iuniore to distinguish him from his uncle Antonio Marcello Barberini. Barberini was born on 5 August 1607 in Rome, the youngest of 6 children to Carlo Barberini and Costanza Magalotti. Like his brothers, Antonio was educated at the Collegio Romano. Barberini's uncle, Maffeo Barberini was elected as pope on 6 August 1623 and took the papal throne as Pope Urban VIII, he elevated his brother, Antonio's other uncle, Antonio Marcello Barberini to the position of cardinal. In the tradition of cardinal nephews, Urban elevated Antonio's older brother Francesco Barberini to the rank of cardinal.
Urban's famous nepotism wasn't sufficiently quelled by the appointment of one cardinal-nephew. Less than a month after his 20th birthday and without having established an ecclesiastic career of his own, Antonio Barberini was appointed as a cardinal on 30 August 1627, his elevation was made in pectore and was published on 7 February 1628. Urban purchased the comune of the town of Palestrina outside Rome, Antonio's other brother, Taddeo Barberini, became the Prince of Palestrina. In 1628, Antonio was appointed Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura, in 1630 he was made the papal legate in Urbino and in 1633 he became legate in Avignon where he developed close contacts with various French church power brokers. During his time in France he employed Joseph Barsalou as his private physician, he returned to Rome and assumed the post of Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church in 1638. In 1636, against the wish of his uncle the Pope, he accepted the post of Crown-Cardinal-Protector of the Kingdom of France, it has been estimated that during Urban's 21-year pontificate, Barberini amassed more than 63 million scudi in personal wealth.
In 1639 Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, came to Rome. During his visit he insulted Antonio and his brother Francesco by suggesting to the Pope that the brothers were too young to manage the Pope's affairs. Pope Urban responded by banning grain shipments from Farnese controlled areas; when the Farnese were unable to pay their debts the Pope sent debt collectors. The Pope send troops to occupy Castro; the Pope's forces were led by Antonio, his brother Taddeo and mercenary field commander Luigi Mattei. Castro fell to Urban's forces without significant resistance and the victory was celebrated in song by Barberini family composer, Marco Marazzoli, but the victory was short lived and thereafter Antonio and his troops suffered a series of decisive losses and Antonio himself was captured. Pope Urban was forced to accept defeat and signed a peace treaty with the Farnese Dukes in an attempt to prevent them from marching on Rome itself; when Urban died, the Church was facing financial struggle, the cardinals were divided between France and Spain and the Farnese were moving toward Rome with a mercenary army in tow.
Antonio had developed a strong relationship with Cardinal Jules Mazarin and was given responsibility for the French contingent within the College of Cardinals and for the nomination of Giulio Cesare Sacchetti at the papal conclave of 1644, to pick his uncle's successor. But his efforts were in vain and the Spanish nominee, Giovanni Battista Pamphili, was elected as Pope Innocent X. Antonio's brother Francesco had sided with the Spanish and split the conclave and it was his negotiations that resulted in Pamphili's election; the final deal in Pamphili's favour included an agreement, designed by the brothers for their own benefit, that the new Pope would allow the Barberini to keep the titles and fortunes they had amassed under Pope Urban VIII's reign. Mazarin became so angry because of Antonio's attitude that he deprived him of the protectorate of the Kingdom of France. However, the conflict was of short duration and both cardinals reconciled with each other. For reasons unknown, Pope Innocent X reneged on the deal and Antonio and his brother Taddeo were accused of financial abuses during the War of Castro.
The two went into exile in 1645 in Paris under the protection of Cardinal Mazarin, were joined a year by Francesco. Before leaving Rome, Antonio had the crest of the King of France affixed above his door as a warning to his political rivals that he was now protected by the French Kingdom. Taddeo Barberini's wife, Anna Colonna made a passionate plea, in person, to the Pope and the Barberini were granted permission to keep their property but the family remained in exile until 1647; the family was reconciled with Pope in 1653 when Antonio's nephew Maffeo Barberini married the Pope's grand-niece Olimpia Giustiniani. The reconciliation was, in part, engineered by Cardinal Mazarin and Antonio showed his appreciation by holding celebratory services at the San Luigi dei Francesi; when Innocent X died in 1655, Antonio Barberini again played a leading role in the College of Cardinals and the conclave. Again and the French nominated Giulio Cesare Sacchetti but he was vetoed by the Spanish; the fractured college came together to support Fabio Chigi, elected and took office as Pope Ale
Sacrifice of Isaac (Caravaggio)
The Sacrifice of Isaac is the title of two paintings from c. 1598 - 1603 depicting the sacrifice of Isaac. The paintings could be painted by the Italian master Caravaggio but there is strong evidence that they may have been the work of Bartolomeo Cavarozzi, a talented early member of the Caravaggio following, known to have been in Spain about 1617-1619; the Sacrifice of Isaac in the Piasecka-Johnson Collection in Princeton, New Jersey, is a disputed work, painted circa 1603. According to Giulio Mancini, a contemporary of Caravaggio and an early biographer, the artist, while convalescing in the Hospital of the Consolazione, did a number of paintings for the prior who took them home with him to Seville; this would date the work to the mid-1590s, but it seems far more sophisticated than anything else known from that period of Caravaggio's career, Peter Robb, in his 1998 biography of Caravaggio, dates it to about 1598. The model for Isaac bears a close resemblance to the model used for the John the Baptist now in the museum of Toledo cathedral, which suggests that the two should be considered together.
The presence of paintings by Caravaggio in Spain at an early date is important for the influence they may have had on the young Velázquez, but there is strong evidence that they may have been the work of Bartolomeo Cavarozzi, a talented early member of the Caravaggio following, known to have been in Spain about 1617-1619. The painting shows the moment when Abraham, about to sacrifice his son Isaac in obedience to God's command, he is saved by an angel who offers him a ram in Isaac's place; the scene is lit with the enhanced chiaroscuro with which Caravaggio was to revolutionize Western art, falling like a stage spotlight on the face of the youthful angel. The three figures and the ram are shown without background or context, with nothing to distract from the powerful psychological drama as God's promise is delivered; the second Sacrifice of Isaac is housed in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. According to the early biographer Giovanni Bellori, Caravaggio painted a version of this subject for Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, the future Pope Urban VIII, a series of payments totalling one hundred scudi were made to the artist by Barberini between May 1603 and January 1604.
Caravaggio had painted a Portrait of Maffeo Barberini, which pleased the cardinal enough for him to commission this second painting. Isaac has been identified as Cecco Boneri, who appeared as Caravaggio's model in several other pictures. Recent X-ray analysis showed that Caravaggio used Cecco for the angel, modified the profile and the hair to hide the resemblance; the symbol of the ram has many facets of meaning. In the Biblical era, the ram's horn was a symbol of power. Referred to as a shofar, the rams horn was used in battle to alert warriors; the ram itself represents Jesus Christ or Yeshua as the lamb of God, or sometimes referred to as "the ultimate sacrifice", foreshadowing Jesus' crucifixion. It is debated that the word "el", the Hebrew word for God, derived from the Hebrew word for ram, "ayil". Gash, John. Caravaggio. ISBN 1-904449-22-0. Prose, Francine. Caravaggio: Painter of Miracles. ISBN 0-06-057560-3. Robb, Peter. M. ISBN 0-312-27474-2. Spike, John T.. Caravaggio. ISBN 0-7892-0639-0. Dreyfus, Gustav.
Abraham, the man and the symbol: a Jungian interpretation of the biblical story. Wilmette, Ill.: Chiron Publications. P. 31. ISBN 0933029942. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
Top-left lighting is an artistic convention in which illustrations are produced so that the light appears to come from the top left of the picture. Most people prefer lighting from the left when resolving a convex-concave ambiguity, this preference may be stronger for right-handed people; this is reflected in Roman mosaics and in Renaissance and impressionist art. In cartography, the predominant custom of placing the shadow on the right-hand side of hill profiles was established during the 15th century. Computer interfaces tend to use top left lighting as well, although this trend has shifted more towards light coming straight from the top. There are notable exceptions to this convention, such as Sandro Botticelli's The Birth of Venus due to the point of view which may represent geographical perspective and location
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
Boy Bitten by a Lizard
Boy Bitten by a Lizard is a painting by the Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio. It exists in two versions, both believed to be authentic works of Caravaggio, one in the Fondazione Roberto Longhi in Florence, the other in the National Gallery, London. Both versions are thought to date from the period 1594–1596. According to art historian Roberto Longhi, the latter end of this period seems more given that the paintings have all the signs of the early works painted in the household of Caravaggio's sophisticated patron Cardinal Francesco Del Monte, that Caravaggio didn't enter the Cardinal's Palazzo Madama until some time in 1595; as with all of Caravaggio's early output, much remains conjectural, the identity of the model has been debated. One theory is that the model was Mario Minniti, Caravaggio's companion and the model for several other paintings from the period. Michael Fried has proposed instead. Fried argues that the subject's hands – one stretched out, the other raised up – are in a similar position to those of a painter holding a palette while painting.
According to Leonard J. Slatkes, the painting's symbolism derives from the Apollo Sauroktonos theme in which a poisonous salamander triumphs over the god, while the arrangement of various fruits suggests The Four Temperaments, with the salamander being the symbol of fire in Caravaggio's time; the salamander had phallic connotations, the painting might have been inspired by a Martial epigram: "Ad te reptani, puer insidiose, lacertae Parce: cupit digitis illa perire tuis. The affected pose may have been the inevitable result of the experiment Caravaggio appears to have been undertaking here: observing and recording acute emotions – surprise and fear – in a situation where real surprise was impossible and where the pose had to be held for a considerable period. Critics of Caravaggio's insistence on painting only from life would point out this limitation of his method: it lent itself to marvelously realistic static compositions, but not to scenes involving movement and violence, it would only be in his late period, when he seems to have worked more from imagination, that Caravaggio would be able to overcome this problem.
Boy Bitten by a Lizard is an important work in the artist's early oeuvre because it shows a way out from the airless stillness of early works such as Boy Peeling a Fruit and Sick Bacchus, the implied violence but actual stasis of pieces such as Cardsharps. As was first suggested by Roberto Longhi, Caravaggio has borrowed the motif of biting a finger from a Boy Bitten by a Crab, a drawing by a prominent Renaissance artist Sofonisba Anguissola
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610. His paintings combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, which had a formative influence on Baroque painting. Caravaggio employed close physical observation with a dramatic use of chiaroscuro that came to be known as tenebrism, he made the technique a dominant stylistic element, darkening shadows and transfixing subjects in bright shafts of light. Caravaggio vividly expressed crucial moments and scenes featuring violent struggles and death, he worked with live models, preferring to forgo drawings and work directly onto the canvas. His influence on the new Baroque style that emerged from Mannerism was profound, it can be seen directly or indirectly in the work of Peter Paul Rubens, Jusepe de Ribera, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Rembrandt, artists in the following generation under his influence were called the "Caravaggisti" or "Caravagesques", as well as tenebrists or tenebrosi.
Caravaggio trained as a painter in Milan before moving in his twenties to Rome. He developed a considerable name as an artist, as a violent and provocative man. A brawl forced him to flee to Naples. There he again established himself as one of the most prominent Italian painters of his generation, he traveled in 1607 to Malta and on to Sicily, pursued a papal pardon for his sentence. In 1609 he returned to Naples. Questions about his mental state arose from his bizarre behavior, he died in 1610 under uncertain circumstances while on his way from Naples to Rome. Reports stated that he died of a fever, but suggestions have been made that he was murdered or that he died of lead poisoning. Caravaggio's innovations inspired Baroque painting, but the Baroque incorporated the drama of his chiaroscuro without the psychological realism; the style evolved and fashions changed, Caravaggio fell out of favor. In the 20th century interest in his work revived, his importance to the development of Western art was reevaluated.
The 20th-century art historian André Berne-Joffroy stated, "What begins in the work of Caravaggio is, quite modern painting." Caravaggio was born in Milan, where his father, was a household administrator and architect-decorator to the Marchese of Caravaggio, a town not far from the city of Bergamo. In 1576 the family moved to Caravaggio to escape a plague that ravaged Milan, Caravaggio's father and grandfather both died there on the same day in 1577, it is assumed that the artist grew up in Caravaggio, but his family kept up connections with the Sforzas and with the powerful Colonna family, who were allied by marriage with the Sforzas and destined to play a major role in Caravaggio's life. Caravaggio's mother died in 1584, the same year he began his four-year apprenticeship to the Milanese painter Simone Peterzano, described in the contract of apprenticeship as a pupil of Titian. Caravaggio appears to have stayed in the Milan-Caravaggio area after his apprenticeship ended, but it is possible that he visited Venice and saw the works of Giorgione, whom Federico Zuccari accused him of imitating, Titian.
He would have become familiar with the art treasures of Milan, including Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, with the regional Lombard art, a style that valued simplicity and attention to naturalistic detail and was closer to the naturalism of Germany than to the stylised formality and grandeur of Roman Mannerism. Following his initial training under Simone Peterzano, in 1592 Caravaggio left Milan for Rome, in flight after "certain quarrels" and the wounding of a police officer; the young artist arrived in Rome "naked and needy... without fixed address and without provision... short of money." During this period he stayed with the miserly Pandolfo Pucci, known as "monnsignor Insalata". A few months he was performing hack-work for the successful Giuseppe Cesari, Pope Clement VIII's favourite artist, "painting flowers and fruit" in his factory-like workshop. In Rome there was demand for paintings to fill the many huge new churches and palazzos being built at the time, it was a period when the Church was searching for a stylistic alternative to Mannerism in religious art, tasked to counter the threat of Protestantism.
Caravaggio's innovation was a radical naturalism that combined close physical observation with a dramatic theatrical, use of chiaroscuro that came to be known as tenebrism. Known works from this period include a small Boy Peeling a Fruit, a Boy with a Basket of Fruit, the Young Sick Bacchus a self-portrait done during convalescence from a serious illness that ended his employment with Cesari. All three demonstrate the physical particularity for which Caravaggio was to become renowned: the fruit-basket-boy's produce has been analysed by a professor of horticulture, able to identify individual cultivars right down to "... a large fig leaf with a prominent fungal scorch lesion resembling anthracnose."Caravaggio left Cesari, determined to make his own way after a heated argument. At this point he forged some important friendships, with the painter Prospero Orsi, the architect Onorio Longhi, the sixteen-year-old Sicilian artist Mario Minniti. Orsi