Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium; the term is equivalent to the term Midgard of Norse mythology, describing the human-inhabited world, that is, the central continent of the Earth in Tolkien's imagined mythological past. Tolkien's most read works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, take place in Middle-earth, Middle-earth has become a short-hand to refer to the legendarium and Tolkien's fictional take on the world. Within his stories, Tolkien translated the name "Middle-earth" as Endor and Ennor in the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin sometimes referring only to the continent that the stories take place on, with another southern continent called the Dark Land. Middle-earth is the north continent of Earth in an imaginary period of the Earth's past, in the sense of a "secondary or sub-creational reality", its general position is reminiscent of Europe, with the environs of the Shire intended to be reminiscent of England. Tolkien's stories chronicle the struggle to control the world and the continent of Middle-earth: on one side, the angelic Valar, the Elves and their allies among Men.
In ages, after Morgoth's defeat and expulsion from Arda, his place was taken by his lieutenant Sauron. The Valar withdrew from direct involvement in the affairs of Middle-earth after the defeat of Morgoth, but in years they sent the wizards or Istari to help in the struggle against Sauron; the most important wizards were Gandalf the Saruman the White. Gandalf proved crucial in the fight against Sauron. Saruman, became corrupted and sought to establish himself as a rival to Sauron for absolute power in Middle-earth. Other races involved in the struggle against evil were Dwarves and most famously Hobbits; the early stages of the conflict are chronicled in The Silmarillion, while the final stages of the struggle to defeat Sauron are told in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings. Conflict over the possession and control of precious or magical objects is a recurring theme in the stories; the First Age is dominated by the doomed quest of the elf Fëanor and most of his Noldorin clan to recover three precious jewels called the Silmarils that Morgoth stole from them.
The Second and Third Age are dominated by the forging of the Rings of Power, the fate of the One Ring forged by Sauron, which gives its wearer the power to control or influence those wearing the other Rings of Power. In ancient Germanic mythology, the world of Men is known by several names, such as Midgard, Middenheim and Middengeard; the Old English middangeard descends from an earlier Germanic word and so has cognates in languages related to Old English such as the Old Norse word Miðgarðr from Norse mythology, transliterated to modern English as Midgard. The term "Middle-earth", it is found throughout the Modern English period as a development of the Middle English word middel-erde, which developed in turn, through a process of folk etymology, from middanġeard. By the time of the Middle English period, middangeard was being written as middellærd, midden-erde, or middel-erde, indicating that the second element had been reinterpreted, based on its similarity to the word for "earth"; the shift in meaning was not great, however: middangeard properly meant "middle enclosure" instead of "middle-earth".
Tolkien first encountered the term middangeard in an Old English fragment he studied in 1914: Éala éarendel engla beorhtast / ofer middangeard monnum sended. Hail Earendel, brightest of angels / above the middle-earth sent unto men; this quote is from the second of the fragmentary remnants of the Crist poems by Cynewulf. The name Éarendel was the inspiration for Tolkien's mariner Eärendil, who set sail from the lands of Middle-earth to ask for aid from the angelic powers, the Valar. Tolkien's earliest poem about Eärendil, from 1914, the same year he read the Crist poems, refers to "the mid-world's rim"; the concept of middangeard was considered by Tolkien to be the same as a particular usage of the Greek word οἰκουμένη - oikoumenē. In this usage Tolkien says that the oikoumenē is "the abiding place of men". Tolkien wrote: Middle-earth is... not my own invention. It is a modernization or alteration... of an old word for the inhabited world of Men, the oikoumene: middle because thought of vaguely as set amidst the encircling Seas and between ice of the North and the fire of the South.
O. English middan-geard, mediaeval E. midden-erd, middle-erd. Many reviewers seem to assume. However, the term "Middle-earth" is not found in Tolkien's earliest writings about Middle-earth, dating from the early 1920s and published in The Book of Lost Tales. Nor is the term used in The Hobbit. Tolkien began to use the term "Middle-earth" in the late 1930s, in place of the earlier terms "Great Lands", "Outer Lands", "Hither Lands"
In J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy world of Middle-earth, the Misty Mountains are a mountain range, one of the most important features of Middle-earth's geography; the mountain-chain is less well known by its alternative names. One of these is Hithaeglir. Other alternative names are the Towers of Mist; the range stretched continuously for some 900 miles across the continent of Middle-earth. The Misty Mountains first appeared in print in The Hobbit. A vision of the mountains is invoked in the first chapter: "Far over the misty mountains cold...". Further information about the mountains was added in Tolkien's subsequent publications; the Misty Mountains stretched continuously for some 900 miles: from Carn Dûm in the north to Dol Baran in the south, were a formidable barrier between the large Middle-earth regions of Eriador and Wilderland. The northernmost section of the Misty Mountains ran from Carn Dûm to Mount Gundabad, was known as the Mountains of Angmar. Mount Gundabad was where Durin awoke according to legend, though it was an abode of Orcs.
Mount Gram, another Orc nest, was not far away. Mount Gundabad was on the eastern side of the range, where it nearly joined the westernmost extremity of the Grey Mountains; the strategic gap was about 10 miles wide. The greatest Dwarf realm in Middle-earth, Khazad-dûm, was located at the midpoint of the Misty Mountains; the area's three massive peaks - the Mountains of Moria - were Caradhras and Fanuidhol. Under Celebdil was the main part of Khazad-dûm; the southernmost peak of the Misty Mountains was Methedras. Here the southernmost foothills of the Misty Mountains looked across the Gap of Rohan to the northernmost foothills of the White Mountains; the Misty Mountains had few passes. The most important were the Redhorn Pass. A minor pass near the source of the Hoarwell the High Pass, near Rivendell Also called the Pass of Imladris and Cirith Forn en Andrath; the Orc-stronghold of Goblin-town had an outlet onto the High Pass. There were two alternative routes in the High Pass. A minor pass at the source of the Gladden the Redhorn Pass near Moria This pass was open year-round in winter.
Farther south there were no passes. Some of Middle-earth's notable valleys and dales lay in or close to the Misty Mountains: Rivendell was hidden in the foothills near the western end of the High Pass. Further south the eastern end of the Redhorn Pass led into the great Dimrill Dale in the arms of the Mountains of Moria; this dale led down into Lothlórien: the Valley of Singing Gold. At the southern end of the Misty Mountains, Fangorn forest reached right up into the eastern foothills. Nearby lay Nan Curunír, where Isengard was built, it faced the Gap of Rohan. Rivers originating in the Misty Mountains: flowing West: Hoarwell, Sirannon and Isen. Flowing East: Langwell, Gollum's stream, Silverlode, Limlight, Entwash. Deep beneath the Misty Mountains lay a primordial underworld in perpetual darkness, it was inhabited by primitive creatures. These are reported in and near the underground lake below Goblin-town, in the underworld of Moria; the Watcher in the Water was one of the creatures from Moria's underworld.
The Misty Mountains were raised by Melkor in a primeval epoch of the First Age, no than the War of the Powers. He hoped to impede Oromë, a god who rode across Middle-earth hunting; the Mountains had a more dreaded appearance. However Oromë established the High Pass, he did this to assist the Eldar to cross the mountains on their Great Journey to the West. So, the Misty Mountains were still viewed as too formidable by a large number of the Elves; this was a major sundering of the Elves. Dwarves began to use the High Pass in the First Age, they connected their roads with this pass, which reinforced it as the major gateway between Eriador and the regions to the east. The great Dwarf realm of Khazad-dûm had been established beneath the Misty Mountains earlier in the First Age, flourished for thousands of years, until the unearthing of the Balrog in T. A. 1980. The Dwarves deserted Khazad-dûm, which became known as Moria, it came to be occupied by Orcs and other creatures. In the year 3434 of the Second Age, the High Pass was used by the army of Gil-galad and Elendil when they marched east to Mordor in the War of the Last Alliance of Elves and Men.
After this war, Isildur was slain by Orcs watching the way back towards the pass. Halflings had begun to migrate west across the Mountains by the year 1050 of the Third Age. T
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
Bilbo Baggins is the title character and protagonist of J. R. R. Tolkien's 1937 novel The Hobbit, as well as a supporting character in The Lord of the Rings. In Tolkien's narrative conceit, in which all the writings of Middle-earth are translations from the fictitious volume of The Red Book of Westmarch, Bilbo is the author of The Hobbit and translator of various "works from the elvish". In The Hobbit, Bilbo Baggins, a hobbit in comfortable middle age, was hired as a "burglar" –despite his initial objections– by the wizard Gandalf and 13 Dwarves led by their king, Thorin Oakenshield; the Dwarves were on a quest to reclaim its treasures from the dragon Smaug. The adventure took Bilbo and his companions through the wilderness, to the elf haven of Rivendell, across the Misty Mountains, through the black forest of Mirkwood, to Lake-town in the middle of Long Lake, to the Mountain itself. There, after the Mountain was reclaimed, the Battle of Five Armies took place. In that battle, a host of Elves and Dwarves--with the help of Eagles and Beorn the shapeshifter--defeated a host of Goblins and Warg.
At the end of the story, Bilbo returned to his home in the Shire to find that several of his relatives--believing him to be dead--were trying to claim his home and possessions. During his journey, Bilbo encountered other fantastic creatures, including Trolls, giant spiders, Goblins, Warg, a murderous creature named Gollum. Underground, near Gollum's lair under the Misty Mountains, Bilbo accidentally found a magic ring of invisibility that he used to escape from Gollum. By the end of the journey, Bilbo had become wiser and more confident, having saved the day in many precarious situations. Bilbo's journey has been compared to a pilgrimage of grace; the Hobbit can be characterized as a "Christian bildungsroman which equates progress to wisdom gained in the form of a rite of passage". He rescued the Dwarves from giant spiders with the magic ring and a short Elven-sword that he had acquired, he used the magic ring to sneak around in dangerous places, he used his wits to smuggle the 13 Dwarves out of the Wood-elves' prison.
When tensions arose over ownership of the treasures beneath the Lonely Mountain, Bilbo used the Arkenstone, a stolen heirloom jewel, as leverage in an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate a compromise between the Dwarves, the Wood-elves, the Men of Lake-town. In so doing, Bilbo strained his relationship with Thorin. In addition to becoming wealthy from his share of the Dwarves' treasure, Bilbo found that he had traded respectability for experience and wisdom. At the end of the book, Gandalf proclaimed; the Fellowship of the Ring, the first volume of The Lord of the Rings, begins with Bilbo's "eleventy-first" birthday, 60 years after the beginning of The Hobbit. The main character of the novel is Frodo Baggins, Bilbo's cousin, who celebrates his 33rd birthday and comes of age on the same day. In T. A. 2989, Bilbo, a lifelong bachelor, adopted Frodo, the orphaned son of his first cousin Primula Brandybuck and his second cousin Drogo Baggins, made him his heir. Though Frodo was "his first and second cousin once removed either way", the two regarded each other as uncle and nephew.
All this time Bilbo had kept his magic ring, with no idea of its significance, using it to hide from his obnoxious cousins, the Sackville-Bagginses, when they came to visit. Gandalf's investigations revealed it to be the One Ring forged by the Dark Lord Sauron; the Ring had prolonged Bilbo's life beyond the normal hobbit span, at 111 he still looked 50. While the Ring did not corrupt him as it had its previous owners, it was beginning to affect him. On the night of his and Frodo's birthday, Bilbo invited all of the Shire, he signed his home, Bag End, estate over to Frodo. He gave a farewell address to his neighbours, at the end of which he put on the Ring and vanished from sight; as Bilbo prepared to leave the house, he reacted with panic and suspicion when Gandalf tried to persuade him to leave the Ring with Frodo. Bilbo refused to give up the Ring. Gandalf talked some sense into him. Bilbo admitted he would have liked to be rid of the Ring, he left it behind, becoming the first person to do so voluntarily.
He left the Shire that night, was never seen in Hobbiton again. His earlier adventure, his eccentric habits as a hobbit, his sudden disappearance led to the enduring figure of "Mad Baggins" in hobbit folklore, who disappeared with a flash and a bang and returned with gold and jewels. Freed of the Ring's power over his senses, Bilbo travelled first to Rivendell, on to visit the dwarves of the Lonely Mountain. After he returned to Rivendell he spent much of the next 17 years living a pleasant life of retirement: eating, writing poetry, working on his memoirs and Back Again, known as The Hobbit, he became a scholar of Elven lore, leaving behind the Translations from the Elvish, which forms the basis of what is known to us as The Silmarillion. When Frodo and his friends Samwise Gamgee, Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took stopped in Rivendell on their quest to destroy the Ring, Bilbo was still alive but now visibly aged, the years having caught up with him after h
Elijah Jordan Wood is an American actor, film producer, DJ. He is known for portraying Frodo Baggins in the Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Wood made his film debut in 1989 with a small part in Back to the Future Part II, he went on to achieve recognition as a child actor with roles in Avalon, Radio Flyer, Forever Young, The Adventures of Huck Finn and The Good Son. As a teenager, he starred in films such as North, The War, The Ice Storm, Deep Impact and The Faculty. Following the success of Lord of the Rings, Wood has appeared in a wide range of films, including Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Sin City, Green Street, Everything Is Illuminated, Paris, je t'aime, Bobby and Jesse Forever, Grand Piano, The Last Witch Hunter, The Trust, I Don't Feel at Home in This World Anymore. Wood's voice work includes the role of Mumble in Happy Feet and its sequel. In addition, he provided the voice of Beck on Disney XD's Tron: Uprising, Wirt in the Cartoon Network miniseries Over the Garden Wall. From 2011–2014, Wood played the role of Ryan Newman on the FX television series Wilfred, for which he received a Satellite Award nomination for Best Actor.
From 2016–17, he starred as Todd Brotzman on the BBC America series Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency. Wood has his own record label, Simian Records, which he founded in 2005. In 2010, he founded the production company SpectreVision, which specializes in producing horror films. Wood was born on January 28, 1981, in Cedar Rapids, the second of three children, his parents and Warren Wood, operated a delicatessen. He was raised Roman Catholic and has an older brother named Zachariah as well as a younger sister, Hannah. At age seven, Wood began modeling in his hometown and took piano lessons. In elementary school, he appeared in The Sound of Music and played the title character in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, he served as choir boy in a Marion Creative Council production of See How They Run. In 1989, his parents sold their delicatessen and the family–without his father–moved to Los Angeles for Wood to pursue an acting career, his parents divorced when he was 15. Wood modeled and appeared in local commercials.
He got his first break in the music video for Paula Abdul's "Forever Your Girl", directed by David Fincher. This was followed by a pivotal role in the made-for-TV film, Child in the Night, a minor role in Back to the Future Part II. Nine-year-old Wood auditioned for a role in Kindergarten Cop, but was told by director Ivan Reitman that his performance was not believable, which Wood said was "a harsh thing to say to a nine-year-old". Playing Aidan Quinn's son in Avalon garnered professional attention for Wood. A small part in Richard Gere's Internal Affairs was followed by the role of a boy who brings estranged couple Melanie Griffith and Don Johnson back together in Paradise. In 1992, Wood co-starred with Mel Gibson and Jamie Lee Curtis in Forever Young, with Joseph Mazzello in Radio Flyer. In 1993, Wood played the title character in Disney's adaptation of Mark Twain's novel, The Adventures of Huck Finn, co-starred with Macaulay Culkin in the psychological thriller The Good Son; the following year, he starred in The War, alongside Kevin Costner.
Roger Ebert's review of the film praised Wood stating that Wood "has emerged, I believe, as the most talented actor, in his age group, in Hollywood history". Wood's title role–opposite Bruce Willis–in the Robert Reiner film North was followed by a Super Bowl commercial for Lay's "Wavy" potato chips. In 1995, Wood appeared in the music video for The Cranberries' "Ridiculous Thoughts", played the lead role in Flipper, co-starred in Ang Lee's critically acclaimed The Ice Storm. In 1997, Wood played Jack "The Artful Dodger" Dawkins in a made-for-TV adaptation of Oliver Twist, alongside Richard Dreyfuss; the following year, he had a leading role in the sci-fi disaster film Deep Impact, a starring role in The Faculty, directed by Robert Rodriguez. In 1999, Wood played a suburban white teenager who affects hip-hop lingo in James Toback's Black and White, a junior hitman in Chain of Fools. Wood was cast as Frodo Baggins in The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, the first installment of director Peter Jackson's adaptation of J. R. R. Tolkien's multi-volume novel.
This gave Wood top billing as Baggins, alongside a cast that included Ian McKellen, Liv Tyler, Orlando Bloom, Cate Blanchett, Christopher Lee, Sean Bean, Sean Astin, Billy Boyd, Dominic Monaghan, Viggo Mortensen, John Rhys-Davies. The Lord of the Rings trilogy was filmed in New Zealand, in a process taking more than one year for principal photography alone, with pick-up shots occurring annually for the next four years. Before the cast left the country, Jackson gave Wood two gifts: one of the One Ring props used on the set and Sting, Frodo's sword, he was given a pair of prosthetic "hobbit feet" of the type worn during filming. Fellowship was released in 2001 and went on to gross more than $870 million at the worldwide box office. In 2002, Wood lent his voice to the DTV release of The Adventures of Tom Thumb and Thumbelina; that year, the second part of Peter Jackson's trilogy was released, titled The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers. The film grossed $926 million at the worldwide box office.
In 2003, Wood starred in the DTV film All I Want and camoed as'The Guy' in Spy Kids 3-D: Game O
In J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy writings, Orcs are a race of creatures who are used as soldiers and henchmen by both the greater and lesser villains of The Silmarillion, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings—Morgoth and Saruman. Although not dim-witted and crafty, they are portrayed as miserable beings, hating everyone including themselves and their masters, whom they serve out of fear, they make no beautiful things, but rather design cunning devices made to destroy. In some of his unpublished early work, Tolkien appears to distinguish orcs from goblins. By the time of his published work, the terms had become synonymous; the Hobbit uses the term goblin, while The Lord of the Rings prefers orc. The opponents of the dwarves in "Dwarf and Goblin War" of The Hobbit are described as orcs in Appendix A of The Lord of the Rings. No distinction is made by size. Tolkien's The Father Christmas Letters features goblins. Orc is from Old English orcneas, which appears in the epic poem Beowulf, refers to one of the races who are called the offspring of Cain during the initial description of Grendel.
In a letter of 1954 Tolkien gave orc as "demon" and claimed he used the word because of its "phonetic suitability"—its similarity to various equivalent terms in his Middle-earth languages. In an essay on Elven languages, written in 1954, Tolkien gives meaning of'orc' as "evil spirit or bogey" and goes on to state that the origin of the Old English word is the Latin name Orcus—god of the underworld. About the goblins of The Hobbit, Tolkien wrote: They are not based on direct experience of mine. There is no evidence for Tolkien having been influenced by the spelled character Orc in William Blake's mythology. In the High-elven tongue Quenya, the word for "Orc" was urco, plural urqui, meaning "bogey", or "bogeyman", that is, something that provokes fear. In the Grey-elven tongue Sindarin, it was plural yrch. In the Dwarven tongue Khuzdul, it was rukhs, plural rakhâs. In the language of the Drúedain or Wild Men, it was gorgûn. In the Black Speech of Mordor, the equivalent was Uruk, as can be seen in Uruk-hai, "Orc-folk".
Orc itself is from Rohirric and the Hobbit-language, which shared linguistic roots, but the term is related to the older Elvish words. Uruk and Uruk-hai were reserved for the Uruks themselves, breeds of Orc; the Sindar referred to the Orcs as a whole as the Glamhoth, "noisy horde". The word "goblin" is used to represent the original Hobbit Orc. In The History of Middle-earth Tolkien writes about an Orc captain named Boldog but specifies that Boldog may have been either a term or a title for another special kind of Orc instead of a personal name; the earliest appearance of goblins in Tolkien's writings is the 1915 poem Goblin Feet his first published work, which appeared in the annual volume of Oxford Poetry published by Blackwells. It features quaint elvin creatures, some 45 years Tolkien dismissed it as juvenile. In The Book of Lost Tales the names Orcs and goblin are given to creatures who enslave and war with the Elves. Christopher Tolkien notes that while the author differentiates between "goblins and Orcs" in the Tale of Tinúviel, the two terms appear to be synonymous in the Tale of Turambar.
The word Gongs is used on a few occasions. Christopher Tolkien remarks that Gongs are "evil beings obscurely related to Orcs". Both goblins and Orcs are mentioned as being "of Melkor" and acting independently. Orcs and gongs appear in Tolkien's two lexicons of elvish languages; the Qenya Lexicon from 1915 defines Orc as meaning "monster, demon", the Gnomish Lexicon dated 1917 defines Orc as "goblin" and Gong as "one of a tribe of the Orcs, a goblin". Christopher Tolkien notes that in the latter lexicon, the word Gnome is an emendation from Goblin. In The Hobbit the inhabitants of the Misty Mountains who capture the Dwarves of Thorin's Company, who fight the Men and Dwarves at the Battle of the Five Armies, are identified as goblins, consistent with the usage in The Book of Lost Tales; the term Orc does occur twice. In The Lord of the Rings, Orc is used predominantly, goblin appears in the hobbits' speech; the second volume of the story, The Two Towers, "goblin" is applied to large orcs of the Uruk-hai: There were four goblin-soldiers of greater stature, slant-eyed, with thick legs and large hands.
They were armed with short broad-bladed swords, not with the curved scimitars usual with Orcs: and they had bows of yew, in length and shape like the bows of Men. And: Upon a stake in the middle was set a great goblin head; the "white badge" mentioned in the latter passage makes it clear that the beheaded goblin was one of Saruman's Uruk-hai. Tolkien writes. Tolkien wrote the following note, a
Gollum is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, he was introduced in the 1937 fantasy novel The Hobbit, became an important character in its sequel, The Lord of the Rings. Gollum was a Stoor Hobbit of the River-folk. Known as Sméagol, he was corrupted by the One Ring and named Gollum after his habit of making "a horrible swallowing noise in his throat". In Appendix F of The Lord of the Rings, the name Sméagol is said to be a "translation" of the actual Middle-earth name Trahald. Several critics speculate that Beowulf's Grendel could have been an inspiration for Gollum due to the many parallels between them – such as their affinity for water, their isolation from society due to personal choices, their bestial description. Although Tolkien never explicitly stated this, he accredited Beowulf as one of his "most valued sources" when writing The Hobbit; the Ring, which Gollum referred to as "my precious" or "precious", extended his life far beyond natural limits. Centuries of the Ring's influence twisted Gollum's body and mind, and, by the time of the novels, he "loved and hated, just as he loved and hated himself."
Throughout the story, Gollum was torn between his lust for his desire to be free of it. Bilbo Baggins found the Ring and took it for his own, Gollum afterwards pursued it for the rest of his life. Gollum seized the Ring from Frodo Baggins at the Cracks of Doom in Orodruin in Mordor, but he fell into the fires of the volcano, where both he and the Ring were destroyed. Gollum was first introduced in the Hobbit as "a small, slimy creature" who lived on a small island in the centre of an underground lake at the roots of the Misty Mountains, he survived on cave fish, which he caught from his small boat, small goblins who strayed too far from the stronghold of the Great Goblin. Over the years, his eyes adapted to the dark and became "lamp-like", shining with a sickly pale light. Bilbo Baggins stumbled upon Gollum's lair, having found the Ring in the network of goblin tunnels leading down to the lake. At his wits' end in the dark, Bilbo agreed to a riddle game with Gollum on the chance of being shown the way out of the mountains.
In the first edition of The Hobbit, Gollum's size is not stated. Only in the revised version is it specified that he is small and is an unnaturally long-lived Hobbit, he was characterized as being less bound to the Ring than in versions. To fit the concept of the ruling Ring that emerged during the writing of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien revised editions of The Hobbit: The version of the story given in the first edition became the lie that Bilbo made up to justify his possession of the Ring to the Dwarves and Gandalf. In the new version Gollum pretended that he would show Bilbo the way out if he lost the riddle-game, but he planned to use the Ring to kill and eat the hobbit. Discovering the Ring missing, he realized the answer to Bilbo's last riddle – "What have I got in my pocket?" – and flew into a rage. Bilbo inadvertently discovered the Ring's power of invisibility as he fled, allowing him to follow Gollum undetected to a back entrance of the caves. Gollum was convinced that Bilbo knew the way out all along, hoped to intercept him near the entrance, lest the goblins apprehend Bilbo and find the Ring.
Bilbo at first thought to kill Gollum in order to escape, but was overcome with pity, so leaped over him. As Bilbo escaped, Gollum cried out, "Thief, Thief! Baggins! We hates it, we hates it, we hates it forever!" The Fellowship of the Ring, the first volume of The Lord of the Rings, explains that Gollum's real name was Sméagol, he had once been a member of the secluded branch of the early Stoorish Hobbits. He spent the early years of his life with his extended family under his grandmother. On Sméagol's birthday, he and his relative Déagol went fishing in the Gladden Fields north of Lothlórien. There, Déagol found the Ring in the riverbed after being pulled into the water by a fish. Sméagol fell under the Ring's influence and demanded it as a birthday present. Sméagol used the Ring for thieving and antagonizing his friends and relatives, who nicknamed him "Gollum" for the swallowing noise he made in his throat, until his grandmother expelled him from the family, he wandered in the wilderness for a few years until he retreated to a deep cavern in the Misty Mountains.
The Ring's malignant influence twisted his body and mind, prolonged his life well beyond its natural limits. Gollum left his cave in pursuit of Bilbo a few years after losing the Ring, he made his way to the edge of Mordor, where he met the monstrous spider Shelob and became her spy, worshiping her and bringing her food. He was captured by Sauron's forces and tortured, revealing to Sauron the names of "Baggins" and "the Shire", his testimony alerted the Dark Lord of Mordor to the existence and significance of Hobbits in general and the Baggins family in particular. He was freed, but was soon caught by Gandalf and Aragorn, who interrogated him about the Ring and placed him in the care of the Wood Elves of Mirkwood, he descended into Moria. Gollum picked up the trail and began following the Fellowship of the Ring in Moria, only to be spotted or heard by Frodo Baggins and Aragorn on several occasions. Gollum