Foley is the reproduction of everyday sound effects that are added to film and other media in post-production to enhance audio quality. These reproduced sounds can be anything from the swishing of clothing and footsteps to squeaky doors and breaking glass; the best Foley art is so well integrated into a film. It helps to create a sense of reality within a scene. Without these crucial background noises, movies feel unnaturally uncomfortable. Foley artists recreate; the props and sets of a film do not react the same way acoustically as their real life counterparts. Foley sounds are used to enhance the auditory experience of the movie. Foley can be used to cover up unwanted sounds captured on the set of a movie during filming, such as overflying airplanes or passing traffic; the term "Foley" means a place, such as Foley-stage or Foley-studio, where the Foley process takes place. What is now called Foley originated as adding sounds added to live broadcasts of radio drama from radio studios around the world in the early 1920s.
Phonograph recordings of the era were not of sufficient quality or flexibility to faithfully reproduce most sound effects on cue, so a sound effects person had to create all sounds for radio plays live. Jack Donovan Foley started working with Universal Studios in 1914 during the silent movie era; when Warner studios released The Jazz Singer, its first film to include sound, Universal knew it needed to stay competitive and called for any employees who had radio experience to come forward. Foley became part of the sound crew that turned Universal's then-upcoming "silent" musical Show Boat into a musical; because microphones of the time could not pick up more than dialogue, other sounds had to be added in after the film was shot. Foley and his small crew projected the film on a screen while recording a single track of audio that captured their live sound effects, their timing had to be perfect, so that footsteps and closing doors synchronized with the actors' motions in the film. Jack Foley created sounds for films until his death in 1967.
His basic methods are still used today. Modern Foley art has progressed. Today, sounds do not have to be recorded live on a single track of audio, they can be captured separately on individual tracks and synchronized with their visual counterpart. Foley studios employ hundreds of props and digital effects to recreate the ambient sounds of their films. Foley complements or replaces sound recorded on set at the time of the filming, known as field recording; the soundscape of most films uses a combination of both. A Foley artist is the person. Foley artists use creativity to make viewers believe that the sound effects are real; the viewers should not be able to realize that the sound was not part of the filming process itself. Foley sounds are added to the film in post production; the need for replacing or enhancing sounds in a film production arises from the fact that often, the original sounds captured during shooting are obstructed by noise or are not convincing enough to underscore the visual effect or action.
For example, fist-fighting scenes in an action movie are staged by the stunt actors and therefore do not have the actual sounds of blows landing. Crashes and explosions are added or enhanced at the post-production stage; the desired effect is to add back to the original soundtrack the sounds that were excluded during recording. By excluding these sounds during field recording, adding them back into the soundtrack during post-production, the editors have complete control over how each noise sounds, its quality, the relative volume. Foley effects add realism to the audio quality for multimedia sources. Foley artists review the film as it runs to figure out what sounds they need to achieve the desired sound and results. Once they gather the material and prepare for use, they practice the sounds; when they accomplish the desired sound, they watch the film and add in the sound effects at the same time. This is similar to the way actors re-record dialogue, lip-syncing to the film image. Scenes where dialogue is replaced using dubbing feature Foley sounds.
Automatic dialogue replacement is the process. This is done by a machine that runs the voice sounds with the film forward and backward to get the sound to run with the film; the objective of the ADR technique is to add sound effects into the film after filming, so the voice sounds are synchronized. Many sounds are not added at the time of filming, microphones might not capture a sound the way the audience expects to hear it; the need for Foley rose when studios began to distribute films internationally, dubbed in other languages. As dialogue is replaced, all sound effects recorded at the time of the dialogue are lost as well. Foley is created by the sound artist mimicking the actual sound source in a recording studio. There are many little sound effects that happen within any given scene of a movie; the process of recording them all can be time-consuming. Foley art can be broken down into three main categories — feet and specifics; the category entails the sound of footsteps. To make the sound of walking down a staircase, Foley artists stomp their feet on a marble slab while watching the footage.
Foley studios carry many different types of shoes and several different types of floors to create footstep sounds. These floors, known as Foley Pits, vary from marble squares to rock pits. Creating just the right sound of footsteps can enhance
A joke is a display of humour in which words are used within a specific and well-defined narrative structure to make people laugh and is not meant to be taken seriously. It takes the form of a story with dialogue, ends in a punch line, it is in the punch line that the audience becomes aware that the story contains a second, conflicting meaning. This can be done using a pun or other word play such as irony, a logical incompatibility, nonsense, or other means. Linguist Robert Hetzron offers the definition: A joke is a short humorous piece of oral literature in which the funniness culminates in the final sentence, called the punchline… In fact, the main condition is that the tension should reach its highest level at the end. No continuation relieving the tension should be added; as for its being "oral," it is true that jokes may appear printed, but when further transferred, there is no obligation to reproduce the text verbatim, as in the case of poetry. It is held that jokes benefit from brevity, containing no more detail than is needed to set the scene for the punchline at the end.
In the case of riddle jokes or one-liners the setting is implicitly understood, leaving only the dialogue and punchline to be verbalised. However, subverting these and other common guidelines can be a source of humor—the shaggy dog story is in a class of its own as an anti-joke. Jokes are a form of humour; some humorous forms which are not verbal jokes are: involuntary humour, situational humour, practical jokes and anecdotes. Identified as one of the simple forms of oral literature by the Dutch linguist André Jolles, jokes are passed along anonymously, they are told in both public settings. Jokes are passed along in written form or, more through the internet. Stand-up comics and slapstick work with comic timing and rhythm in their performance, relying as much on actions as on the verbal punchline to evoke laughter; this distinction has been formulated in the popular saying. Any joke documented from the past has been saved through happenstance rather than design. Jokes do not belong to refined culture, but rather to the leisure of all classes.
As such, any printed versions were considered ephemera, i.e. temporary documents created for a specific purpose and intended to be thrown away. Many of these early jokes deal with scatological and sexual topics, entertaining to all social classes but not to be valued and saved. Various kinds of jokes have been identified in ancient pre-classical texts; the oldest identified joke is an ancient Sumerian proverb from 1900 BC containing toilet humour: "Something which has never occurred since time immemorial. Its records were dated to the Old Babylonian period and the joke may go as far back as 2300 BC; the second oldest joke found, discovered on the Westcar Papyrus and believed to be about Sneferu, was from Ancient Egypt circa 1600 BC: "How do you entertain a bored pharaoh? You sail a boatload of young women dressed only in fishing nets down the Nile and urge the pharaoh to go catch a fish." The tale of the three ox drivers from Adab completes the three known oldest jokes in the world. This is a comic triple dating back to 1200 BC Adab.
The earliest extant joke book is the Philogelos, a collection of 265 jokes written in crude ancient Greek dating to the fourth or fifth century AD. The author of the collection is obscure and a number of different authors are attributed to it, including "Hierokles and Philagros the grammatikos", just "Hierokles", or, in the Suda, "Philistion". British classicist Mary Beard states that the Philogelos may have been intended as a jokester's handbook of quips to say on the fly, rather than a book meant to be read straight through. Many of the jokes in this collection are familiar though the typical protagonists are less recognisable to contemporary readers: the absent-minded professor, the eunuch, people with hernias or bad breath; the Philogelos contains a joke similar to Monty Python's "Dead Parrot Sketch". During the 15th century, the printing revolution spread across Europe following the development of the movable type printing press; this was coupled with the growth of literacy in all social classes.
Printers turned out Jestbooks along with Bibles to meet both lowbrow and highbrow interests of the populace. One early anthology of jokes was the Facetiae by the Italian Poggio Bracciolini, first published in 1470; the popularity of this jest book can be measured on the twenty editions of the book documented alone for the 15th century. Another popular form was a collection of jests and funny situations attributed to a single character in a more connected, narrative form of the picaresque novel. Examples of this are the characters of Rabelais in France, Till Eulenspiegel in Germany, Lazarillo de Tormes in Spain and Master Skelton in England. There is a jest book ascribed to William Shakespeare, the contents of which appear to both inform and borrow from his plays. All of these early jestbooks corroborate both the rise in the literacy of the European populations and the general quest for leisure activities during the Renaissance in Europe; the practice of printers to use jokes and cartoons as page fillers was widely used in the broadsides and chapbooks of the 19th century and earlier.
With the incr
Bernard Lee "Pretty" Purdie is an American drummer, considered an influential and innovative funk musician. He is known for his precise musical time keeping and his signature use of triplets against a half-time backbeat: the "Purdie Shuffle." He was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 2013. Purdie recorded Soul Drums as a band leader and although he went on to record Alexander's Ragtime Band, the album remained unreleased until Soul Drums was reissued on CD in 2009 with the Alexander's Ragtime Band sessions. Other solo albums include Purdie Good, Soul Is... Pretty Purdie and the soundtrack for the blaxploitation film Lialeh. In the mid-1990s he was a member of The 3B's, with Bob Cunningham. Purdie was born on June 1939 in Elkton, Maryland, US, the eleventh of fifteen children. At an early age he began hitting cans with sticks and learned the elements of drumming techniques from overhearing lessons being given by Leonard Heywood, he took lessons from Heywood and played in Heywood's big band.
Purdie's other influences at that time were Papa Jo Jones, Buddy Rich, Gene Krupa, Joe Marshall, Art Blakey, as well as Cozy Cole, Sticks Evans, Panama Francis, Louis Bellson, Herbie Lovelle. In 1961 he moved from his home town of Maryland, to New York City. There he played sessions with Mickey and Sylvia and visited the Turf Club on 50th and Broadway, where musicians and promoters met and touted for business, it was during this period that he played for the saxophonist Buddy Lucas, who nicknamed him'Mississippi Bigfoot'. Barney Richmond contracted him to play session work. In a 1978 interview, Purdie claimed to have added drum overdubs to "several of the Beatles' Hamburg recording" with Tony Sheridan, including "Ain't She Sweet", "Take Out Some Insurance On Me Baby" and "Sweet Georgia Brown", to give them a punchier sound for the US market. Purdie was contracted by arranger Sammy Lowe to play a session with James Brown in 1965 and recording session records show that Purdie played on "Ain't That A Groove" at the same session.
This was one of several sessions he played with Brown and the track "Kansas City" from Brown's album Cold Sweat, displays one of the most sophisticated and driving shuffles recorded for Brown's catalogue. Purdie is credited on the albums Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud and Get on the Good Foot. Purdie started working with Aretha Franklin as musical director in 1970 and held that position for five years, as well as drumming for Franklin's opening act, King Curtis and The King Pins. 5–7 March 1971 he performed with both bands at the Fillmore West. His best known track with Franklin was "Rock Steady", on which he played what he described as "a funky and low down beat". Of his time with Franklin he once commented that "backing her was like floating in seventh heaven". Purdie was credited on the soundtrack album for Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and more he was the drummer for the 2009 Broadway revival of Hair and appeared on the associated Broadway cast recording. Purdie has been a resident of New Jersey, living in Edison and Springfield Township.
In 1973 Purdie founded Encounter Records and released five albums: EN 3000: Seldon Powell – Messin' With EN 3001: Sands of Time – Profile EN 3002: East Coast – East Coast EN 3003: Frank Owens – Brown N Serve EN 3004: Harold Vick as "Sir Edward" – The Power of Feeling Purdie is known as a groove drummer with immaculate timing and makes use of precision half note and grooves. Purdie's signature sixteenth note hi-hat lick pish-ship, pish-ship, pish-ship is distinct, he employs a straight eight groove sometimes fusing several influences such as swing and funk. He created the now well-known drum pattern Purdie Half-Time Shuffle, a blues shuffle variation with the addition of syncopated ghost notes on the snare drum. Variations on this shuffle can be heard on songs such as Led Zeppelin's "Fool in the Rain", the Police's "Walking on the Moon", Toto's "Rosanna". Purdie plays the shuffle on Steely Dan's "Babylon Sisters" and "Home At Last". Soul Drums Purdie Good! Stand by Me with The Playboys Soul Is...
Pretty Purdie Shaft recorded 1971 Lialeh Delights of the Garden with The Last Poets Purdie as a Picture with Galt MacDermot's New Pulse Jazz Band Coolin"N Groovin' Bernard Purdie's Jazz Groove Sessions in Tokyo After Hours with The 3B's Soothin"N Groovin' With The 3B's with Houston Person The Hudson River Rats Fatback! The Jazz Funk Masters Featuring Bernard Purdie Kick'N Jazz Soul to Jazz I with The WDR Big Band Soul to Jazz II with The WDR Big Band In the Pocket Get It While You Can with The Hudson River Rats The Masters of Groove Meet Dr. No with Reuben Wilson, Grant Green Jr. Tarus Mateen King Of The Beat Purdie Good Cookin' with Purdie's Powerhouse The God
A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that may include clowns, trained animals, trapeze acts, dancers, tightrope walkers, magicians, unicyclists, as well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists. The term circus describes the performance which has followed various formats through its 250-year modern history. Philip Astley is credited with being the father of the modern circus when he opened the first circus in 1768 in England. A skilled equestrian, Astley demonstrated trick riding, riding in a circle rather than a straight line as his rivals did, thus chanced on the format, named a "circus". In 1770 he hired acrobats, tightrope walkers, jugglers and a clown to fill in the pauses between acts. Performances developed through the next fifty years, with large-scale theatrical battle reenactments becoming a significant feature; the traditional format, whereby a ringmaster introduces a varied selection of acts that perform choreographed acts to traditional music, developed in the latter part of the 19th century and continued universally to be the main style of circus up until the 1970s.
As styles of performance have developed since the time of Astley, so too have the types of venues where these circuses have performed. The earliest modern circuses were performed in open air structures with limited covered seating. From the late 18th to late 19th century, custom-made circus buildings were built with various types of seating, a centre ring, sometimes a stage; the traditional large tents known as "Big Tops" were introduced in the mid-19th century as touring circuses superseded static venues. These tents became the most common venue and remain so to the present day. Contemporary circuses perform in a variety of venues including tents and casinos. Many circus performances are still held in a ring 13 m in diameter; this dimension was adopted by Astley in the late 18th century as the minimum diameter that enabled an acrobatic horse rider to stand upright on a cantering horse to perform their tricks. Contemporary circus has been credited with reviving the circus tradition since the 1980s when a number of groups introduced circuses based solely on human skills and which drew from other performing art skills and styles.
First attested in English 14th century, the word circus derives from Latin circus, the romanization of the Greek κίρκος, itself a metathesis of the Homeric Greek κρίκος, meaning "circle" or "ring". In the book De Spectaculis early Christian writer Tertullian claimed that the first circus games were staged by the goddess Circe in honour of her father Helios, the Sun God; the modern and held idea of a circus is of a Big Top with various acts providing entertainment therein. However, the history of circuses is more complex, with historians disagreeing on its origin, as well as revisions being done about the history due to the changing nature of historical research, the ongoing circus phenomenon. For many, circus history begins with Englishman Philip Astley, while for others its origins go back much further—to Roman times. In Ancient Rome, the circus was a building for the exhibition of horse and chariot races, equestrian shows, staged battles, gladiatorial combat and displays of trained animals.
The circus of Rome were similar to the ancient Greek hippodromes, although circuses served varying purposes and differed in design and construction, for events that involved re-enactments of naval battles, the circus was flooded with water. The Roman circus buildings were, not circular but rectangular with semi circular ends; the lower seats were reserved for persons of rank, There were various state boxes for the giver of the games and his friends. The circus was the only public spectacle at which women were not separated; some circus historians such as George Speaight have stated "these performances may have taken place in the great arenas that were called'circuses' by the Romans, but it is a mistake to equate these places, or the entertainments presented there, with the modern circus" Others have argued that the lineage of the circus does go back to the Roman circuses and a chronology of circus-related entertainment can be traced to Roman times, continued by the Hippodrome of Constantinople that operated until the 13th century, through medieval and renaissance jesters and troubadours to the late 18th century and the time of Astley.
The first circus in the city of Rome was the Circus Maximus, in the valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills. It was constructed during the monarchy and, at first, built from wood. After being rebuilt several times, the final version of the Circus Maximus could seat 250,000 people. Next in importance were the Circus Flaminius and the Circus Neronis, from the notoriety which it obtained through the Circensian pleasures of Nero. A fourth circus was constructed by Maxentius. For some time after the fall of Rome, large circus buildings fell out of use as centres of mass entertainment. Instead, itinerant performers, animal trainers and showmen travelled between towns throughout Europe, performing at local fairs; the origin of the modern circus has been attributed to Philip Astley, born 1742 in Newcastle-under-Lyme, England. He became a cavalry officer who set up the first modern amphitheatre for the display of horse riding tricks in Lambeth, London on 4 April 1768. Astley did not originate trick horse riding, nor was he first to introduce acts such as acrobats and clowns to the English public, but he wa
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
A rhythm section is a group of musicians within a music ensemble or band who provide the underlying rhythm and pulse of the accompaniment, providing a rhythmic and harmonic reference and "beat" for the rest of the band. Many of the rhythm section instruments, such as keyboard instruments and guitars, are used to play the chord progression upon which the song is based; the bass instrument plays the low-pitched bassline that supports the chord progression by emphasizing the roots of the chords. The term is common in modern small musical ensembles, such as bands that play jazz, country and rock. In modern rock music, a rhythm guitarist specializes in rhythmic and chordal playing repeating quaver, half note or whole note chords. In the louder genres, such as hard rock, heavy metal and punk rock, rhythm guitarists play power chords with distortion. Rhythm guitarists strum open chords in pop, rock and folk music and play barre chords in many pop and rock styles. A typical rhythm section comprises one or more guitars.
In some styles of music, there may be additional percussionists playing instruments such as the djembe or shakers. Some styles of music have two electric guitarists, such as rock genres like heavy metal music and punk rock; some styles of music use multiple keyboard instrument performers for a fuller sound. A rhythm section could be as small as two or three instruments or it may be a large ensemble with several keyboardists, several guitarists, auxiliary string players, a drummer and percussionists; the largest rhythm sections may be led by a bandleader or a conductor who indicates the tempo of each song, starts each song, leads slow-downs of the music at cadences, indicates when to change soloists and how and when the song will end. The instrumentalists used in a rhythm section vary according to the style of era. Modern pop and jazz band rhythm sections consist of a drummer, a bass player, one or more players of chordal instruments; the term rhythm section may refer to the instruments in this group.
In music industry parlance, the amplifiers and some of the instruments are nicknamed the "backline." Backline instruments are provided for bands at music festivals and other concerts where several bands will play during an event. By providing these backline instruments, this speeds up the changeover process when new bands take the stage; the backline includes large and heavy items that are hard to transport, including large bass amplifiers and guitar amplifiers and their speaker cabinets, the drum kit, a Hammond organ, stage piano, a keyboard amplifier. When a venue or festival provides a "backline", musicians must still supply some instruments themselves, such as guitars, an electric bass, and, in some cases, the cymbals and/or the snare drum; the venue informs musicians about which instruments are supplied as the backline for a specific concert or stage and in many cases, the contract signed by the band and the venue/promoter contains an explicit list of the backline gear that will be on stage specifying brand names and model numbers.
Although rhythm sections spend much of the time providing accompaniment for songs, in some cases, they provide other musical roles. In some songs or styles of music, instruments from the rhythm section may play soloistic roles on occasion or play a melodic role. Since rhythm sections are providing the background music for lead instruments and solo singers, rhythm sections are not as prominent as a singer or soloist, music fans tend to be more aware of lead singers than rhythm section members. However, since rhythm sections provide the underpinning for a good performance by the lead instruments and vocalists, good rhythm sections are valued in the music industry; some of the most accomplished rhythm sections have become famous, such as The Band, the E Street Band and Sly Dunbar and Robbie Shakespeare. As well, in some popular bands, all of the band members, including rhythm section members, have become famous as individuals. In all genres of popular music and traditional music that use rhythm sections, ranging from rock to country to jazz, the rhythm section members are expected to be able to improvise their parts or prepare their own parts for a given song by listening to the CD at home.
Once the bassist and chord-playing instruments are pro
In a drum kit, splash cymbals are the smallest accent cymbals. Splash cymbals and china cymbals are the main types of effects cymbals; the most common sized splash has a diameter of 10", followed by 8". Most splash cymbals are in the size range of 6" to 13", but some splash cymbals are as small as 4"; some makers have produced cymbals described as splash up to 22", but a splash of 14" or more is more described as a crash cymbal. Splash cymbals include: medium in weight with little or no taper. Rock splash cymbals, heavy but with a slight taper. China splash cymbals. Salsa splash cymbals. Thin splash cymbals. Bell cymbals. Specialised stack cymbals; the original and traditional splash, like many of the cymbal types in a drum kit, was invented and named by Gene Krupa in collaboration with the Avedis Zildjian Company. Used in the jazz music of the 1920s and 30s, this traditional splash cymbal was not seen for many years in mainstream music until Stewart Copeland playing in The Police brought it back to prominence.
Thanks to a toy cymbal he found in a trip in Asia and which he brought to Paiste, heavier splash cymbals, more suited to this style of drumming, were soon available and started being commercialized. A third phase in the development of splash cymbals occurred when china splash cymbals became popular; these added a new dimension to drumming in their own right, led to the development of cymbal stacks. Several other types that are now regarded as splash cymbals, such as bell and salsa cymbals, have more been added to the kits of leading drummers and to the catalogues of major cymbal manufacturers over the years. Today much of the color of an extended drum kit is provided by the wide variety of splash cymbals available. Traditional splash cymbals, as first popularized by Gene Krupa, are 8"-12" in size and medium in weight with little or no taper and therefore a thick rim for their size; the normal function of a splash cymbal is to provide a short highly syncopated accent. For their size, they are hit hard to produce a quick attack and decay.
They tend to have little taper in order to provide the necessary strength for this, the bell being the same thickness as the rim, resulting in limited richness of tone. Rock musicians favor a heavier splash cymbal with a slight taper, 6"-12", giving a fuller sound at higher volumes. China type cymbals of less than 14" are referred to as china splash cymbals when used in a drum kit, are made in a wide variety of shapes and in sizes 6"-12"; this terminology is not consistent. Sabian for example call their rounded bell 12" china a mini Chinese, this same design is available in 14", Paiste Twenty Series features a rounded bell mini china 8", 10" and 12", while in the Saluda Voodoo series the 12" square bell china is called a china, while the heavier 10" rounded bell model is called a china splash; this is not illogical. The 8" and 10" Sabian Rocktagon splash cymbals, smaller versions of their octagonal 16" and 18" Rocktagon crashes, are sometimes described as china splashes and have an intermediate tone.
China splashes were used in Mike Portnoy's original cymbal stacks, remain popular as the top cymbal in a stack. Examples: Hubei C series china 8" Sabian AAX Mini Chinese 12" Saluda Decadence China Blast 10" Paiste Twenty Mini China 8" A salsa splash is a small cymbal intended for use with a set of timbales. Use of a cymbal or cowbell is a fundamental part of many styles of timbale playing. Example: Sabian El Sabor Salsa Splash 13" Thin splash cymbals are made in sizes 8"-12" with a pronounced taper and a sound more akin to a crash than to traditional splashes, they are fragile and unsuitable for inexperienced drummers, then suitable only for quieter playing, only available in B20 alloy and in the more expensive and professional cymbal series. At the thinnest and most fragile end of the scale, a thin splash is identical to, interchangeable with, a cymbal designed for playing by hand rather than by stick, and in either case, a single careless stroke with a drumstick will split the cymbal. Bell cymbals, 4"-8" or bigger, are thick cymbals giving a bell-like tone.
Paiste makes one in 13". The earliest bell cymbals were made by cutting down a larger cymbal to salvage something from one, badly split at the edge. Bell cymbals range in shape from deep and cuplike, similar in shape to a church bell, to a traditional cymbal shape flat, many in between. Small sizzle cymbals, splash cymbals with sizzler attachments, give an shorter, washier tone than a traditional splash. Specialised thin stack cymbals, 8"-12", are designed for stacking, most as the upper cymbal, they are available individually or, more in sets of two or three, including larger cymbals intended as the lower cymbal or cymbals. These sets have provided new sounds but have not replaced the established technique of using a china, crash or another splash as the upper cymbal of a stack; the three way sets are designed to make possible several usable two-cymbal stacks in addition to the three-cymbal combination, most cymbals of all such sets are designed to be stacked with other cymbals, giving a wide range of tonal possibilities.
Despite the availability of these cymbals designed for stacking, many drummers still use a china or a splash as the upper cymbal. Examples: Sabian Max Stax High 8" Paiste Noise Works Tripple Raw Smash 12", 14", 14"