Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, stars, nebulae and comets. More all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject is physical cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is one of the oldest of the natural sciences; the early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Indians, Nubians, Chinese and many ancient indigenous peoples of the Americas, performed methodical observations of the night sky. Astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, but professional astronomy is now considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Professional astronomy is split into theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, analyzed using basic principles of physics.
Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences in which amateurs still play an active role in the discovery and observation of transient events. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, such as finding new comets. Astronomy means "law of the stars". Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are now distinct. Both of the terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics" may be used to refer to the same subject. Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the Earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties," while "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena."
In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook The Physical Universe by Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject. However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could be called astrophysics; some fields, such as astrometry, are purely astronomy rather than astrophysics. Various departments in which scientists carry out research on this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics" depending on whether the department is affiliated with a physics department, many professional astronomers have physics rather than astronomy degrees; some titles of the leading scientific journals in this field include The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Astronomy and Astrophysics. In early historic times, astronomy only consisted of the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye.
In some locations, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops and in understanding the length of the year. Before tools such as the telescope were invented, early study of the stars was conducted using the naked eye; as civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Persia, China and Central America, astronomical observatories were assembled and ideas on the nature of the Universe began to develop. Most early astronomy consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, the nature of the Sun and the Earth in the Universe were explored philosophically; the Earth was believed to be the center of the Universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the Ptolemaic system, named after Ptolemy.
A important early development was the beginning of mathematical and scientific astronomy, which began among the Babylonians, who laid the foundations for the astronomical traditions that developed in many other civilizations. The Babylonians discovered. Following the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, he proposed a model of the Solar System where the Earth and planets rotated around the Sun, now called the heliocentric model. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and inven
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
A constellation is a group of stars that forms an imaginary outline or pattern on the celestial sphere representing an animal, mythological person or creature, a god, or an inanimate object. The origins of the earliest constellations go back to prehistory. People used them to relate stories of their beliefs, creation, or mythology. Different cultures and countries adopted their own constellations, some of which lasted into the early 20th century before today's constellations were internationally recognized. Adoption of constellations has changed over time. Many have changed in shape; some became popular. Others were limited to single nations; the 48 traditional Western constellations are Greek. They are given in Aratus' work Phenomena and Ptolemy's Almagest, though their origin predates these works by several centuries. Constellations in the far southern sky were added from the 15th century until the mid-18th century when European explorers began traveling to the Southern Hemisphere. Twelve ancient constellations belong to the zodiac.
The origins of the zodiac remain uncertain. In 1928, the International Astronomical Union formally accepted 88 modern constellations, with contiguous boundaries that together cover the entire celestial sphere. Any given point in a celestial coordinate system lies in one of the modern constellations; some astronomical naming systems include the constellation where a given celestial object is found to convey its approximate location in the sky. The Flamsteed designation of a star, for example, consists of a number and the genitive form of the constellation name. Other star patterns or groups called asterisms are not constellations per se but are used by observers to navigate the night sky. Examples of bright asterisms include the Pleiades and Hyades within the constellation Taurus or Venus' Mirror in the constellation of Orion.. Some asterisms, like the False Cross, are split between two constellations; the word "constellation" comes from the Late Latin term cōnstellātiō, which can be translated as "set of stars".
The Ancient Greek word for constellation is ἄστρον. A more modern astronomical sense of the term "constellation" is as a recognisable pattern of stars whose appearance is associated with mythological characters or creatures, or earthbound animals, or objects, it can specifically denote the recognized 88 named constellations used today. Colloquial usage does not draw a sharp distinction between "constellations" and smaller "asterisms", yet the modern accepted astronomical constellations employ such a distinction. E.g. the Pleiades and the Hyades are both asterisms, each lies within the boundaries of the constellation of Taurus. Another example is the northern asterism known as the Big Dipper or the Plough, composed of the seven brightest stars within the area of the IAU-defined constellation of Ursa Major; the southern False Cross asterism includes portions of the constellations Carina and Vela and the Summer Triangle.. A constellation, viewed from a particular latitude on Earth, that never sets below the horizon is termed circumpolar.
From the North Pole or South Pole, all constellations south or north of the celestial equator are circumpolar. Depending on the definition, equatorial constellations may include those that lie between declinations 45° north and 45° south, or those that pass through the declination range of the ecliptic or zodiac ranging between 23½° north, the celestial equator, 23½° south. Although stars in constellations appear near each other in the sky, they lie at a variety of distances away from the Earth. Since stars have their own independent motions, all constellations will change over time. After tens to hundreds of thousands of years, familiar outlines will become unrecognizable. Astronomers can predict the past or future constellation outlines by measuring individual stars' common proper motions or cpm by accurate astrometry and their radial velocities by astronomical spectroscopy; the earliest evidence for the humankind's identification of constellations comes from Mesopotamian inscribed stones and clay writing tablets that date back to 3000 BC.
It seems that the bulk of the Mesopotamian constellations were created within a short interval from around 1300 to 1000 BC. Mesopotamian constellations appeared in many of the classical Greek constellations; the oldest Babylonian star catalogues of stars and constellations date back to the beginning in the Middle Bronze Age, most notably the Three Stars Each texts and the MUL. APIN, an expanded and revised version based on more accurate observation from around 1000 BC. However, the numerous Sumerian names in these catalogues suggest that they built on older, but otherwise unattested, Sumerian traditions of the Early Bronze Age; the classical Zodiac is a revision of Neo-Babylonian constellations from the 6th century BC. The Greeks adopted the Babylonian constellations in the 4th century BC. Twenty Ptolemaic constellations are from the Ancient Near East. Another ten have the same stars but different names. Biblical scholar, E. W. Bullinger interpreted some of the creatures mentioned in the books of Ezekiel and Revelation as the middle signs of the four quarters of the Zodiac, with the Lion as Leo, the Bull as Taurus, the Man representing Aquarius and the Eagle standing in for Scorpio.
The biblical Book of Job also
SVT2, is one of the two main television channels broadcast by Sveriges Television in Sweden. Launched in 1969 by Sveriges Radio, the channel was the most watched in Sweden for many years, but now serves as SVT's specialist television network, carrying more highbrow and minority programming compared to the more mainstream SVT1. Debate persisted throughout the 1960s over a second Swedish television channel, following the opening of Radiotjänst TV in 1956; some wanted the new channel to be private and funded by advertising, but it was decided that the public service broadcaster, Sveriges Radio, would take responsibility. Sweden was the second Nordic country to launch a second TV channel, after Finland who did it in March 1965. TV2 began broadcasting on Friday 5 December 1969 - an occasion known as the "channel split". While TV1 was broadcast on VHF frequencies, TV2 used UHF frequencies, which meant that households had to buy a special converter box if they wanted to see TV2. Although TV2 was part of the same company as TV1, they were both editorially independent and encouraged to compete with each other.
Both channels agreed not to compete directly with similar programmes. For example, the weekend variety shows were aired on TV2 on Friday nights and TV1 on Saturday nights. Both channels shared a national news service, TV-nytt, which broadcast short bulletins at 7pm and 9pm on TV2 - accompanying this on TV2 was Rapport, a 20-minute news magazine emphasising in-depth reports and commentary; the initial format gave rise to accusations of left-wing bias with TV2 described by some as the red channel. A revamp in 1972 saw Rapport move to 7.30pm and introduce a broader format establishing the programme as the most watched Swedish television news. The use of UHF frequencies allowed TV2 to broadcast regional programming for the first time. In November 1970, the first regional news bulletin, Sydnytt (covering Scania and Blekinge, was launched. In July 1979, both TV1 and TV2 were placed under the management of Sveriges Television. Having introduced regional news services across the country, TV2 was relaunched as the Sweden Channel in 31 August 1987.
As part of a reorganisation, the network's homegrown output consisted of programming from SVT's regional production centres, although some Stockholm-produced output continued, including Rapport. The revamp helped to establish TV2 as the most watched television network in Sweden, although by 1994, the channel lost its lead to commercial network TV4; the increasing competition led to a relaunch as SVT2 in 1996, with programming from both Stockholm and the regional centres now shared between both networks. Among the changes, the 6pm edition of SVT1's news service Aktuellt moved to the channel, while Rapport launched breakfast and lunchtime editions, but moved some of its shorter bulletins to SVT1. A major corporate revamp in 2001 saw SVT2 repositioned as a more specialist channel with SVT1 taking a broader, mainstream profile; as part of the revamp, Rapport moved to the first network and the less popular Aktuellt moved to SVT2 airing twice nightly at 6pm and 9pm. Regional news bulletins continued on SVT2 as before.
Other popular programming on the network moved to SVT1, although an effort was made to boost audiences with new programming schedules in 2003. In-vision continuity was abandoned in January 2005 in favour of pre-recorded announcements. A further revamp in August 2008 saw all regional news services moved to SVT1. Aktuellt relaunched as an in-depth current affairs programme, until March 2012, when the programme was extended to an hour on Mondays-Thursdays, incorporating extended news coverage, sport and a late regional news bulletin. Programming on SVT2 is more specialist than on the primary SVT1; the station's output includes most of SVT's cultural programming, minority output in the Sami and Finnish languages, sign language programming, independent films, current affairs and parliamentary coverage. SVT2 does not broadcast 24 hours a day; as of January 2019, SVT2 signs off at shortly after 5 am and resumes broadcasting between 8am and 9am. During the daytime on most weekdays, SVT Forum, the network's umbrella programme for live current events, airs.
A mid-afternoon Rapport bulletin airs at 4pm. At 5:15pm, SVT2 begins its evening schedule with three minority-language news bulletins: Ođđasat and Uutiset, followed by a documentary programme; the main news programme, Aktuellt, at 9pm includes sports updates and regional news and weather. Repeats of sport current affairs output air throughout the night. Acquired programming on SVT2 has included Six Feet Under, The Sopranos, K Street, The Kumars at No. 42, The Wire, Nip/Tuck and Veronica Mars. It has included a few daily telenovelas from some European and Latin American countries; as is the practice with the rest of Swedish television and film industry, acquired foreign programmes on SVT2 are shown in their respective original language audio with Swedish subtitles. SVT1 List of Swedish television channels SVT
Edvard Johannes Brost Forssell was a Swedish actor. He became recognized for his roles in the television programs Rederiet. In 2013, he won a Guldbagge award for his role in the film Avalon, he had several roles in theater. Brost was the son of author and journalist Sven Forssell, film and theater actor Gudrun Brost; the musician and actor Tomas Forssell—father of television and radio host Gry Forssell—was his half brother. As a child, he did not want to be an actor like his mother, he chose to start acting and applied to the Royal Dramatic Theatre drama school, but failed in the first round of auditions. He took private acting lessons with director Fred Hjelm and he applied to the Teaterhögskolan in Malmö, he graduated in 1970. After graduation he was employed by the Stockholm City Theatre. After that he acted at Åbo Svenska Theater in Finland and at Riksteatern, Unga Teatern and Malmö City Theatre, he took part in the Tältprojektet in 1977. In 1981, he had the leading role in the SVT children's television program Christmas calendar titled Stjärnhuset, which won him national recognition.
A year Brost became a panelist on the ratings success Gäster med gester, which began airing on SVT. He participated in several comedy plays such as Bäddat för sex and Är du inte riktigt fisk at Chinateatern. Brost became best known for his role as Joker the bartender in the television series Rederiet, he had roles in several films, including Black Jack, Änglagård, Jönssonligan dyker upp igen and The Visitors. He produced several summer revue shows there, he appeared in several plays directed by Eva Rydberg at Fredriksdalsteatern in Helsingborg. In 2013, Brost won a Guldbagge award for his leading role in the 2011 film Avalon, he played Pekka in the series Jordskott and appeared in the show Lilyhammer. In 2016, Brost took part in the SVT show Stjärnorna på slottet, in which he spoke about his life and career, he appeared as a celebrity dancer in Let's Dance 2017 on TV4. His last role, in December 2017, was that of Sievert Lindberg, a wealthy man interested in a friend of Dagmar Friman, in the SVT series Fröken Frimans krig'.
Brost became friends with singer Mick Jagger after they met in 1965 when Jagger and the Rolling Stones performed in Malmö and went to a nightclub where Brost was working. When told about Brost's death, Jagger stated that "He was a wonderful guy" and that "We will miss his humour" and his generosity. Brost had four children, he died from complications of throat cancer on 4 January 2018. Johannes Brost on IMDb
Sif Einarsdotter Ruud Fallde born Sif Einarsdotter Ruud, best known as Sif Ruud, was a Swedish film actress. Born in Stockholm to Einar Ruud and Inez Engström, she began her career in 1938, appeared in 140 films. At the 15th Guldbagge Awards she won the award for Best Actress for her role in A Walk in the Sun. Sif Ruud on IMDb
Children's television series
Children's television series are television programs designed for and marketed to children scheduled for broadcast during the morning and afternoon when children are awake. They can sometimes run during the early evening, allowing younger children to watch them after school; the purpose of the shows is to entertain and sometimes to educate. Children's television is nearly as old as television itself; the BBC's Children's Hour, broadcast in the UK in 1946, is credited with being the first TV programme for children. Television for children tended to originate from similar programs on radio. In the US in the early 1930s, adventure serials such as Little Orphan Annie began to emerge, becoming a staple of children's afternoon radio listening. Early children's shows included Kukla and Ollie, Howdy Doody, Captain Kangaroo. Many of the earliest Westerns were targeted at a children's audience, stemming back to when children's radio serials were set in a Western setting. Shows for young children include Sesame Street, The Electric Company, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood.
In the United States, early children's television was a marketing branch of a larger corporate product, such as Disney, it contained any educational elements. This practice continued, albeit in a much toned-down manner, through the 1980s in the United States, when the Federal Communications Commission prohibited tie-in advertising on broadcast television; these regulations do not apply to cable, out of the reach of the FCC's content regulations. The effect of advertising to children remains debated and extensively studied. Non-educational children's television programs included the science fiction programmes of Irwin Allen, the fantasy series of Sid and Marty Krofft, the extensive cartoon empire of Hanna-Barbera and the numerous sitcoms that aired as part of TGIF in the 1990s, many of these programs fit a broader description of family-friendly television, targeting a broad demographic that includes adults without excluding children. Commercial free children television debuted with Sesame Street on the Public Broadcasting Service PBS in the United States November 1969, produced by what is today the Sesame Workshop.
In the United States, Saturday mornings were scheduled with cartoon from the 1960s to 1980s as viewership with that programming would pull in 20 million watchers which dropped to 2 million in 2003. In 1992, teen comedies and a "Today" show weekend edition were first to displace the cartoon blocks on NBC. Starting in September 2002, the networks turned to their affiliated cable cartoon channels or outside programmers for their blocks; the other two Big Three television networks soon did the same. Infomercials replaced the cartoon on Fox in 2008; the Saturday cartoons were less of a draw due to the various cable cartoon channels being available all week starting in the 1990s. With recordable options becoming more prevalent in the 1990s with Videocassette recorder its 21st century replacements of DVDs, DVRs and streaming services. FCC rule changes in the 1990s regarding the E/I programming and limitation on kid-focus advertising made the cartoons less profitable. Another possible contributor is the rising divorce rate and the following children's visitation pushed more "quality time" with the kids instead of TV watching.
On September 27, 2014, the last traditional Saturday network morning cartoon block, Vortexx and was replaced the following week by the syndicated One Magnificent Morning on The CW. Children's television series can target a wide variety of key demographics. Few television networks target infants and toddlers under two years of age, in part due to widespread opposition to the practice. Children's programming can be targeted toward persons 2 to 11 years of age. Preschool-oriented programming is more overtly educational. In a number of cases, such shows are produced in consultation with educators and child psychologists in an effort to teach age-appropriate lessons. Adaptations of illustrated children's book series are one subgenre of shows targeted at younger children. A format that has increased in popularity since the 1990s is the "pseudo-interactive" program, in which the action of the show stops and breaks the fourth wall to give a young viewer the opportunity to answer a question or dilemma put forth on the show, with the action continuing as if the viewer answered correctly.
Shows that target the demographic of persons 6 to 11 years old focus on entertainment and can range from comedic cartoons to action series. Most children's television series targeting this age range are animated, many specifically target boys, girls or sometimes both. Efforts to create educational programming for this demographic have had a mixed record of success.