The Cyclopedia of New Zealand
The Cyclopedia of New Zealand: industrial, historical, biographical facts, illustrations was an encyclopaedia published in New Zealand between 1897 and 1908 by the Cyclopedia Company Ltd. Arthur McKee was one of the original directors of the company that published The Cyclopedia, his business partner H. Gamble worked with him on the first volume. Six volumes were published on the people and organisations of provinces of New Zealand. Despite being vanity press and wholly restricted to white male European colonists to the exclusion of Māori and other minorities, the Cyclopedia is now a key historical resource because of its breadth of coverage. Many small towns and social institutions were covered which were poorly covered by contemporary newspapers; the first volume, which covered Wellington included the colonial government, politicians and public servants. The first volume was produced in Wellington, the remaining volumes were produced in Christchurch. Volume 1. Wellington Provincial District.
Published 1897 Volume 2. Auckland Provincial District. Published 1902 Volume 3. Canterbury Provincial District. Published 1903 Volume 4. Otago and Southland Provincial Districts. Published 1905 Volume 5. Nelson and Westland Provincial Districts. Published 1906 Volume 6. Taranaki, Hawke's Bay and Wellington Provincial Districts. Published 1908The Cyclopedia of New Zealand was superseded by the three-volume An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand published by the Government of New Zealand in 1966 and later Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, a government-run, born-digital encyclopaedia established in 2002; the Cyclopedia was digitised by the New Zealand Electronic Text Centre in 2008–2009. Full text of The Cyclopedia of New Zealand at New Zealand Electronic Text Centre Commercially produced version on CD RootsWeb comments about the Cyclopedia, including comments on reliability
Howick, New Zealand
Howick is an eastern suburb of Auckland, New Zealand, forming part of what is sometimes called East Auckland. Due to the numerous remaining heritage buildings and other historical remnants from its early European settlement past, it has been called "perhaps Auckland's most conscious place"; the local iwi was the Ngai Tai people of Tainui descent. They had lived there for around 300 years with pa at Te Waiarohia and Tuwakamana; the Howick and Whitford areas were part of the Fairburn claim. William Thomas Fairburn, with his wife and family, established a Church Missionary Society Mission Station at Maraetai in 1836; the local Māori insisted they buy the 40,000 acres between the Tamaki and Wairoa Rivers to prevent attack by the Ngapuhi and Waikato tribes. As an act of Christian peacemaking, Fairburn reluctantly bought the land with his life savings. In 1840, following the Treaty of Waitangi, the Government took 36,000 acres which it used for the Fencible settlements of Otahuhu and Howick and sold most of the remaining land to settlers, as well as paying Māori and returning most of the Wairoa Valley to them.
Howick itself is named after Henry George Grey, 3rd Earl Grey as Viscount Howick, Secretary for the Colonies in the British Parliament and was responsible for the Royal New Zealand Fencible Corps immigration scheme. The suburb was therefore established in 1847 as a fencible settlement, where soldiers were given land with the implied understanding that in wartime, they would be raised as units to defend it. A large amount of the early features from this time have been retained; the Māori recognised the advantages of co-operation and trade. Māori labourers built the Fencibles cottages under Royal Engineers supervision, although it was noted that the Europeans had to live in raupo huts, having been falsely promised that houses would been available for them and their families. There were about 250 Fencibles in Howick. Local Maori had been taught to write by the Fairburn LMS missionaries at Maraetai; the Fencibles and their families were poor with no capital apart from a small number of officers. About half were half Protestant.
Quite a few of the adults were illiterate. 101 Howick fencibles served with their sons in the 1860s Land Wars. Howick's links to Auckland’s pioneering and Fencible past has influenced its development and is evident in the names of many streets. Others are named for British military heroes or battles. Bleakhouse was the name given to a Fencible officer’s house built in Bleakhouse Rd for Surgeon-Captain John Bacot who became a magistrate in Howick. In the hands of the Macleans family it became the heart of the social scene in the 1850s/60s; the house gave its name to the street. Other roads such as Bacot, Fencible Drive, Montressor Place and Sale Street, plus many others have Fencible connexions, e.g. Sir Robert Sale was one of the ships. Montressor Place was named for Captain Charles Henry Montressor-Smith who arrived in Howick with the First Battalion of Fencibles in 1847, he moved to a property in neighbouring Pakuranga, where his house, known as Bell House, still stands at the end of Bell Rd next to the Howick Historical Village.
Moore St was named after General Sir John Moore, a British military hero, who lived from 1761-1809. General Moore fought against Napoleon alongside Sir David Baird for whom Baird St was named and he died at Corunna during the Peninsular War whilst serving under the Duke of Wellington. At Corunna he was attended by Dr J. Bacot, father of the Howick Fencible doctor, who lived in Bleakhouse. Moore St was part of the original Fencible village and was sub-divided into one acre allotments down to Rodney St. People will, no doubt, recognise that Wellington and Nelson Sts spring from the most famous of British war heroes, Lord Nelson and the Duke of Wellington and that Selwyn Rd takes its name from the first Bishop of New Zealand, George Augustus Selwyn. There are streets such as Granger Road named for John Granger, manager of the brick works, which once stood at Little Bucklands Beach near the rock outcrop where the Bucklands Beach Centre board clubrooms now stands, before moving to Whitford. Litten Rd and John Gill Rd are named after former landowner families.
An Irishman, John Gill, settled in Howick in the 1850s, his family farmed the land, now Cockle Bay and Shelly Park. Litten Road is the boundary of the one of the old Gill-Litten farms. To the north of Picton Street, the main street of Howick, is Stockade Hill. In 1863 a field work was constructed on what is now called Stockade Hill, for the purpose of defending Auckland from hostile Māoris who might advance overland from the south, or by canoes from the Firth of Thames; the ditches of the stockade can still be seen today. In the centre is a war memorial were services are held each ANZAC Day; the top of Stockade Hill provides uninterrupted views in all directions. Settlement in Howick centred around the domain, the village developed as a service centre for the prosperous farming community; the centre of Howick shifted to Picton Street, now the centre. It became popular as a retirement and seaside holiday location. In 1865 Howick became a road board district; the 1930s saw the construct
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
Panmure, New Zealand
Panmure is a south-eastern suburb of Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand. It is located 11 kilometres southeast of the Auckland CBD, close to the western banks of the Tamaki River and the northern shore of the Panmure Basin. To the north lies the suburb of Tamaki, to the west is the cone of Maungarei / Mount Wellington; the Maori name for the area was Tauoma. One of the traditional portages between the Waitematā Harbour and the Manukau Harbour was near here. 4.6 km up the Tamaki River Maori would beach their waka at the end of a small creek and drag them overland to the Manukau harbour. During the Musket wars in late September 1821, Mokaia Pa was the scene of severe fighting and was sacked by 4000 musket carrying warriors such as Nga Puhi from the north led by Hongi Hika; the fighting devastated what had been the Ngāti Pāoa population centre of the Auckland Isthmus during pre-European times which had a population of about 7,000. 3000 men with up to 100 muskets took part in the defence of the Pa but after a close and bitter battle were defeated by the combined northern alliance who had between 500 and 1000 muskets.
Mokaia Pa, on the headland to the east of the Panmure lagoon, was visited in 1820 by the missionary Samuel Marsden. In 1841, the Government bought the Kohimaramara block from Ngati Paoa. In January 1842 Felton Mathew surveyed "Tehmaki" into 37 farms totalling 3,856 acres. Part of this became the Fencible settlement of Panmure, between the Tamaki River. In 1848, 80 Fencible families came here from Ireland and England on the ship Clifton and established a settlement with 99 raupo huts on the eastern shores of the lagoon, they called the area Maggotty Hollow. Located on the Tamaki River, Panmure was favoured by Felton Mathew to be the new capital of New Zealand. William Hobson, decided otherwise, the new town of Auckland arose further to the west along the shores of the Waitematā Harbour. Panmure was instead created as a fencible settlement, where retired soldiers were contracted to defend the settlement in return for land; the soldiers had to give 12 days military service per year and parade on Sunday in full military equipment.
The only time they were called to arms was in 1851 when a flotilla of 20 waka took about 350 warriors to Mechanics Bay to attack Auckland. The Panmure fencibles were issued ammunition to defend the Tamaki River and stop any armed Maori attack. Only the Onehunga fencibles were marched to the hill over looking Mechanics Bay to join a British line regiment. In the 1863 attack on Auckland the government used professional soldiers instead. Panmure was an important town and port as it was strategically placed near the narrowest part of the isthmus, during the New Zealand land wars of the 1863 it became a busy place. After the railway reached Auckland in 1908, Panmure somewhat continued as a transport hub — steamers from Auckland en route to the goldfields in the Coromandel and Firth of Thames would call in here. Panmure prospered due to being on the route between Auckland and the much larger fencibles settlement of Howick in the 1800s. People and goods used the ferry at the narrow point below Mokoia Pa.
Until about the middle of the 20th century, Panmure remained a prosperous but pastoral setting, the smallest borough of Auckland, described as "a quarter of a square mile of farmlets surrounding a sleepy village that boasted little more than a church, post office, a handful of shops, a two-storey hotel, known from horse and buggy days". It was only with the explosive growth of suburbia around it after World War II, better bridges to Pakuranga that Panmure suddenly started to grow and become a commercial centre. Major recent developments in the area include the opening of Sylvia Park, New Zealand's largest shopping mall, in the nearby Mount Wellington area. Work has completed on the Panmure section of the Auckland Transport project called AMETI which aims to improve the connections of eastern Auckland towards the south-east; as part of this the Panmure train station has undergone a major upgrade, increasing capacity and frequency of trains into the city. The new Te Horeta Rd, the last major milestone, opened on 2 November 2015.
Other related upgrades included the building of new cycle paths and foot paths. Stage 2 of AMETI will see the completion of the 7 km Eastern Busway which will link Panmure Train Station with Pakuranga and Botany; this is expected to cut public transport journey times and relieve congestion on roads. The busway is expected to attract 5.5 million passengers a year. The famous Panmure Roundabout will become an intersection, a change that will see new investment in the redevelopment of the land adjacent to and north of the rail station; the Tamaki Transformation Programme was announced in early 2012 by NZ Housing Minister Phil Heatley. This will be the country's first urban regeneration programme, he went on to say that East Auckland was chosen because it was an area with "significant potential". "It is close to the Manukau central business districts. It has a young population, a sense of history and community, green spaces and near-coastal location". Following this announcement, the Auckland Council and the New Zealand Government formed the Tamaki Redevelopment Company to deliver the Tamaki Transformation Programme with the aim of creating a "thriving, attractive and self-reliant community through a series of interlinking and complimentary economic, urban space and housing projects".
Substantial Central and Loca
Anzac Day is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served". Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was devised to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps who served in the Gallipoli Campaign, their first engagement in the Great War. Anzac Day marks the anniversary of the first campaign that led to major casualties for Australian and New Zealand forces during the First World War; the acronym ANZAC stands for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, whose soldiers were known as Anzacs. Anzac Day remains one of the most important national occasions of both New Zealand. According to Dr Martin Crotty, a historian at the University of Queensland, Anzac commemorations have “suited political purposes right from 1916 when the first Anzac Day march was held in London and Australia, which were much around trying to get more people to sign up to the war in 1916-1918.”
In 1915, Australian and New Zealand soldiers formed part of an Allied expedition that set out to capture the Gallipoli Peninsula to open the way to the Black Sea for the Allied navies. The objective was to capture Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, an ally of Germany during the war; the ANZAC force landed at Gallipoli on 25 April, meeting fierce resistance from the Ottoman Army commanded by Mustafa Kemal. What had been planned as a bold strike to knock the Ottomans out of the war became a stalemate, the campaign dragged on for eight months. At the end of 1915, the Allied forces were evacuated after both sides had suffered heavy casualties and endured great hardships; the Allied deaths totalled over 56,000, including 2,721 from New Zealand. News of the landing at Gallipoli made a profound impact on Australians and New Zealanders at home and 25 April became the day on which they remembered the sacrifice of those who had died in the war. Though the Gallipoli campaign failed to achieve its military objectives of capturing Constantinople and knocking the Ottoman Empire out of the war, the actions of the Australian and New Zealand troops during the campaign bequeathed an intangible but powerful legacy.
The creation of what became known as an "Anzac legend" became an important part of the national identity in both countries. This has shaped the way their citizens have viewed both their past and their understanding of the present; the heroism of the soldiers in the failed Gallipoli campaign made their sacrifices iconic in New Zealand memory, is credited with securing the psychological independence of the nation. On 30 April 1915, when the first news of the landing reached New Zealand, a half-day holiday was declared and impromptu services were held. Adelaide, South Australia was the site of Australia's first built memorial to the Gallipoli landing, unveiled by Governor-General Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson on "Wattle Day", 7 September 1915, just over four months after the first landings; the monument was the centrepiece of the Wattle Day League's Gallipoli Memorial Wattle Grove on Sir Lewis Cohen Avenue in the South Parklands. The original native pines and remnant seedlings of the original wattles still grow in "Wattle Grove", but in 1940 the Adelaide City Council moved the monument and its surrounding pergola a short distance away to Lundie Gardens.
In South Australia, Eight Hour Day, 13 October 1915, was renamed "Anzac Day" and a carnival was organised to raise money for the Wounded Soldiers Fund. The name "Anzac Day" was won by Robert Wheeler, a draper of Prospect. Melbourne observed an Anzac Remembrance Day on 17 December 1915. In Queensland on 10 January 1916 Canon David John Garland was appointed the honorary secretary of the Anzac Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland at a public meeting which endorsed 25 April as the date to be promoted as "Anzac Day” in 1916 and after. Devoted to the cause of a non-denominational commemoration that could be attended by the whole of Australian society, Garland worked amicably across all denominational divides, creating the framework for Anzac Day commemorative services. Garland is credited with initiating the Anzac Day march, the wreath-laying ceremonies at memorials and the special church services, the two minutes silence, the luncheon for returned soldiers. Garland intended the silence to be used in lieu of a prayer to allow the Anzac Day service to be universally attended, allowing attendees to make a silent prayer or remembrance in accordance with their own beliefs.
He feared that the universality of the ceremony would fall victim to religious sectarian disputes. The date 25 April was named Anzac Day in 1916. In New Zealand it was gazetted as a half-day holiday. Over 2,000 people attended the service in Rotorua. In London, over 2,000 Australian and New Zealand troops marched through the streets of the city. An unnamed London newspaper reputedly dubbed them "The Knights of Gallipoli". Marches were held all over Australia. In Egypt, General John Monash paraded the troops on Anzac Day 1916. For the remaining years of the war, Anzac Day was used as an occasion for patriotic rallies and recruiting campaigns, marches of serving members of the AIF were held in most cities. From 1916 onwards, in both Australia and New Zealand, An
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 1250 and 1300. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups based on organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants; the arrival of Europeans to New Zealand, starting in the 17th century, brought enormous changes to the Māori way of life. Māori people adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were amicable, with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted as part of a new British colony. Rising tensions over disputed land sales led to conflict in the 1860s. Social upheaval, decades of conflict and epidemics of introduced disease took a devastating toll on the Māori population, which fell dramatically.
By the start of the 20th century, the Māori population had begun to recover, efforts have been made to increase their standing in wider New Zealand society and achieve social justice. Traditional Māori culture has thereby enjoyed a significant revival, further bolstered by a Māori protest movement that emerged in the 1960s. In the 2013 census, there were 600,000 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up 15 percent of the national population, they are the second-largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders. In addition, more than 140,000 Māori live in Australia; the Māori language is spoken to some extent by about a fifth of all Māori, representing 3 per cent of the total population. Māori are active in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, with independent representation in areas such as media and sport. Disproportionate numbers of Māori face significant economic and social obstacles, have lower life expectancies and incomes compared with other New Zealand ethnic groups.
They suffer higher levels of crime, health problems, educational under-achievement. A number of socioeconomic initiatives have been instigated with the aim of "closing the gap" between Māori and other New Zealanders. Political and economic redress for historical grievances is ongoing. In the Māori language, the word māori means "normal", "natural" or "ordinary". In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings—tāngata māori—from deities and spirits. Wai māori denotes "fresh water", as opposed to salt water. There are cognate words in most Polynesian languages, all deriving from Proto-Polynesian *maqoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, genuine"; the spelling of "Māori" with or without the macron is inconsistent in general-interest English-language media in New Zealand, although some newspapers and websites have adopted the standard Māori-language spelling. Early visitors from Europe to New Zealand referred to the indigenous inhabitants as "New Zealanders" or as "natives".
The Māori used the term Māori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense. Māori people use the term tangata whenua to identify in a way that expresses their relationship with a particular area of land; the term can refer to the Māori people as a whole in relation to New Zealand as a whole. The Māori Purposes Act of 1947 required the use of the term "Māori" rather than "Native" in official usage; the Department of Native Affairs was renamed as the Department of Māori Affairs. Before 1974, the government required documented ancestry to determine the legal definition of "a Māori person". For example, bloodlines or percentage of Māori ancestry was used to determine whether a person should enroll on the general electoral roll or the separate Māori roll. In 1947, the authorities determined that a man, five-eighths Māori had improperly voted in the general parliamentary electorate of Raglan; the Māori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 changed the definition, allowing individuals to self-identify as to their cultural identity.
In matters involving financial benefits provided by the government to people of Māori ethnicity—scholarships, for example, or Waitangi Tribunal settlements—authorities require some documentation of ancestry or continuing cultural connection but no minimum "blood" requirement exists as determined by the government. The most current reliable evidence indicates that the initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE, at the end of the medieval warm period. Previous dating of some kiore bones at 50–150 has now been shown to have been unreliable. Māori oral history describes the arrival of ancestors from Hawaiki, in large ocean-going waka. Migration accounts vary among tribes, whose members may identify with several waka in their genealogies. In the last few decades, mitochondrial-DNA research has allowed an estimate to be made of the number of women in the founding population—between 50 and 100. Evidence fro
Colony of New Zealand
The Colony of New Zealand was a British colony that existed in New Zealand from 1841 to 1907, created as a Crown colony. The power of the British Government was vested in a governor, but the colony was granted self-government in 1852; the 1852 Constitution was inaugurated after the first parliament was elected in 1853, the first government of New Zealand was formed in 1856. The Colony of New Zealand had three capitals: Old Russell and Wellington. In 1907, the colony became the Dominion of New Zealand with a more explicit recognition of self-government within the British Empire. Following the proclamation of sovereignty over New Zealand from Sydney in January 1840, Captain William Hobson came to New Zealand and issued the same proclamation on 1 February 1840; the Treaty of Waitangi was subsequently signed on 6 February 1840, William Hobson declaring British sovereignty over the islands of New Zealand on 21 May 1840 in two separate formal declarations. In the first declaration, Hobson declared British sovereignty over the North Island.
The basis for the claim over the North Island was the Treaty of Waitangi between the Māori and the British Crown. In the English version of the treaty, Māori ceded sovereignty in return for the rights and protection of being a British subject. However, the Māori translation of the treaty referred to kawanatanga, translated as governance rather than sovereignty and this point remains a subject of much controversy and political debate. In the second declaration, Hobson declared British sovereignty over the South Island and Stewart Island on the basis of "first discovery" by Captain James Cook in 1769. New Zealand was part of the Colony of New South Wales, Lieutenant-Governor Hobson was answerable to his superior, the Governor of New South Wales. By letters patent, the British government issued the Charter for Erecting the Colony of New Zealand on 16 November 1840; the Charter stated that the Colony of New Zealand would be established as a Crown colony separate from New South Wales on 1 July 1841.
With the establishment of the Crown colony, Hobson became Governor of New Zealand. The first organs of the New Zealand Government were established to assist the Governor: an Executive Council and a legislative council; the Executive Council consisted of the attorney-general, colonial secretary, colonial treasurer. The Legislative Council consisted of the governor, Executive Council, three justices of the peace appointed by the governor; the Legislative Council had the power to issue Ordinances, statutory instruments. The colony was divided into three provinces: New Ulster Province, New Munster Province, New Leinster Province; as new European settlements were founded in the colony, demands for self-government became louder. The New Zealand Company settlement of Port Nicholson had its own elected council, forcibly dissolved by Lieutenant-Governor William Hobson in 1840. Wellington became the centre of agitation by settlers for representative government led by Samuel Revans, who founded the Wellington Settlers' Constitutional Association in 1848.
The first New Zealand Constitution Act was passed in 1846, though Governor George Grey was opposed to provisions that would divide the country into European and Māori districts. As a result all of the Act was suspended for six years pending a new Act of 1852, with the only operative part of the 1846 Act being the creation of New Zealand's first provinces. In the meantime, Grey drafted his own Act which established both provincial and central representative assemblies, allowed for Māori districts and an elected governor; the latter proposal was rejected by the Parliament of the United Kingdom when it adopted Grey's constitution. The six provinces formed in 1853 were Auckland, New Plymouth, Nelson and Otago, though in 1858 New Plymouth was renamed Taranaki; the second New Zealand Constitution Act was passed in 1852 and became the central constitutional document of the colony. It created the General Assembly, which consisted of the Legislative Council and an elected House of Representatives; the first general election for the House of Representatives was held on between 14 July and 1 October 1853.
The 1st New Zealand Parliament was opened on 24 May 1854. The Administrator of Government, Robert Wynyard, was confronted by the demands of the new parliament that responsible government be granted to the colony immediately. Wynyard refused, stating that the Colonial Office made no mention of responsible government in its dispatches; the Executive Council advised Wynyard against implementing responsible government, in the meantime he sent a dispatch to London requesting clarification. Wynyard offered to add some elected members of parliament to the Executive Council, appointed James FitzGerald, Henry Sewell and Frederick Weld to the council; the compromise worked for a few weeks but on 1 August parliament demanded complete power to appoint ministers. Wynyard refused, all three MPs resigned from the council. In response, Wynyard prorogued parliament for two weeks. On 31 August, he appointed Thomas Forsaith, Jerningham Wakefield and James Macandrew to the Executive Council, but when parliament met again, it moved a motion of no confidence in the members.
Parliament met on 8 August 1855, by which time Wynyard had received instructions from the Colonial Office to introduce responsible government. The new governor, Sir Thomas Gore Browne, arrived on 6 September 1855 and relieved Wynyard of his duties. On 28 January 1858, Wynyard was appointed to the Legislative Council. Governor Thom