Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railway
The East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad was a rail transport system that operated in the southeastern United States during the late 19th century. Created with the consolidation of the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad and the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad in 1869, the ETV&G played an important role in connecting East Tennessee and other isolated parts of Southern Appalachia with the rest of the country, helped make Knoxville one of the region's major wholesaling centers. In 1894, the ETV&G merged with the Danville Railroad to form the Southern Railway. While efforts to establish a railroad in East Tennessee began in the 1830s, financial difficulties stalled construction until the late 1840s; the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad was built between 1847 and 1859, connecting Knoxville, Tennessee with Dalton, Georgia. The East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad was built between 1850 and 1856, connecting Knoxville with Bristol, Tennessee. Knoxville financier Charles McClung McGhee formed a syndicate which purchased both lines to form the ETV&G in 1869, through McGhee's efforts, the new ETV&G bought out numerous other rail lines across the region.
By 1890, the ETV&G controlled over 2,500 miles of tracks in five states. Throughout the first half of the 19th century, East Tennessee struggled to overcome the economic isolation created by its natural barriers, namely the Blue Ridge Mountains on the south and east and the Cumberland Plateau on the north and west. Shortly after the advent of railroads in the 1820s, the region's business leaders began discussing railroad construction as a way to relieve this isolation. In the mid-1830s, several businessmen, among them Knoxville physician J. G. M. Ramsey and promoted a line connecting Cincinnati and Charleston, but the Panic of 1837 doomed this initiative. In 1836, a group of businessmen chartered the Hiwassee Railroad, based in Athens, which sought to construct a line from Knoxville southward to Dalton, where it would join a planned extension of the Charleston and Hamburg line, providing Knoxville with a link to the Atlantic Coast. Like its competitors with the Cincinnati and Charleston, the Hiwassee ran into financial difficulties, the Hiwassee Company nearly collapsed.
The company was forced to focus on turnpike iron production to survive. In 1844, the Charleston and Hamburg extension to Dalton was completed, Knoxville and Athens businessmen again entertained the idea of building a rail line to Georgia; the Hiwassee Company was recharted in 1847 as the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad, with renewed support from the Tennessee state legislature, work on the line began the following year. By 1852, the line had reached just southeast of Knoxville. On June 22, 1855, the first train rolled into Knoxville over the East Tennessee and Georgia's tracks. On July 4, 1855, as Knoxvillians celebrated the arrival of the railroad, track work began on the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad, which sought to connect Knoxville with Bristol, where it would join existing tracks to create an unbroken rail line from New York to Memphis. Under the direction of Jonesborough physician Samuel B. Cunningham, this line reached New Market in 1856. After overcoming financial and engineering difficulties, the tracks from Knoxville to Bristol were completed on May 14, 1858, with Cunningham driving the last spike.
During the 1850s every major business and political leader in Knoxville was involved in railroad building. In 1852, congressmen Horace Maynard, William Montgomery Churchwell, John H. Crozier, along with attorney Oliver Perry Temple and minister Thomas William Humes, chartered the Knoxville and Kentucky Railroad, which planned to build a line northward into Kentucky, where it would join existing lines to Cincinnati and Louisville. By the outbreak of the Civil War, this company had laid just nine miles of track; the railroads in East Tennessee provided a major supply route between Virginia and the Deep South, thus both Confederate and Union forces considered the region of vital importance. On November 8, 1861, East Tennessee Union loyalists destroyed five railroad bridges, forcing the Confederate government to invoke martial law in the region. Throughout the war, both Confederate and Union forces destroyed railroad tracks and facilities to prevent them from falling under the other's control. After the war, Knoxville businessman Charles McClung McGhee and several other investors formed a syndicate which purchased both the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad and the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad.
In 1869, the two lines were consolidated to form the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad, with Thomas Calloway as president, McGhee and Richard T. Wilson as agents; as a nexus between northern financiers and local interests, McGhee was able to obtain for the ETV&G large amounts of capital, the new company expanded. In 1869, the ETV&G bought the Knoxville and Kentucky Railroad, revived after the war, over the subsequent decade extended its tracks to the Kentucky state line at Jellico. During this same period, the ETV&G acquired the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, which connected Memphis and Chattanooga, the Georgia Southern Railroad, which connected Dalton with Rome and the Macon and Brunswick Railroad, which connected Macon, Georgia with Brunswick, Georgia on the Atlantic Coast. By 1882, the ETV&G had completed tracks from Rome to Macon. In the early 1880s, the ETV&G managed to build a line through the rugged French Broad valley along the Tennessee-North Carolina state line to join with the Weste
Georgia State Senate
The Georgia State Senate is the upper house of the Georgia General Assembly. According to the state constitution of 1983, this body is to be composed of no more than 56 members elected for two-year terms. Current state law provides for 56 members. Elections are held the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years. Senators must be at least 25 years old, a citizen of the United States, a resident of Georgia for two years and their senatorial district for one year; the highest position in the Senate is the President of the Senate, a position held by Lieutenant Governor Geoff Duncan. The second highest position is that of President Pro Tempore held by Senator Butch Miller; the presiding officer of the Senate is the President of the Senate. A President pro tempore a high-ranking member of the majority party, acts as President in case of the temporary disability of the President. In case of the death, resignation, or permanent disability of the President or in the event of the succession of the President to the executive power, the President pro tempore becomes President.
The Senate has as an officer the Secretary of the Senate. Georgia General Assembly Georgia House of Representatives 155th Georgia General Assembly 154th Georgia General Assembly 153rd Georgia General Assembly 152nd Georgia General Assembly 151st Georgia General Assembly 150th Georgia General Assembly 149th Georgia General Assembly 148th Georgia General Assembly 147th Georgia General Assembly 146th Georgia General Assembly 140th Georgia General Assembly 139th Georgia General Assembly 138th Georgia General Assembly 137th Georgia General Assembly 136th Georgia General Assembly 135th Georgia General Assembly 134th Georgia General Assembly American Legislative Exchange Council members Georgia Senate Democratic Caucus Official Website General Assembly of Georgia, official website Georgia State Senate, official website Georgia State Senate at Ballotpedia
Henry County, Georgia
Henry County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. Per the 2010 census, the population of Henry County is 203,922; the county seat is McDonough. The county was named for Patrick Henry. Henry County is part of GA metropolitan statistical area, it is home to the Atlanta Motor Speedway in Hampton. The Henry County Courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1995, Henry County was the sixth-fastest-growing county in the United States. Henry County, Georgia was created by the Georgia State Legislature in 1821 from land acquired from the Creek Indian Nation by the First Treaty of Indian Springs. Henry's original land area was much larger than it is today, stretching from near Indian Springs in the south to the Chattahoochee River near Sandy Springs in the north. Before one year passed the size of the County was diminished through the separation of land areas which, in whole or in part, became present day DeKalb, Fulton and Newton Counties.
Divisions resulted in Clayton, Spalding and Butts counties. In the beginning Henry County was a virgin wilderness. Prior to 1821, the Creeks and a few trappers and traders were the only residents of this area; the Creek Indians left their mark through place names, a few small Indian Mounds scattered around the County and through the arrowheads and broken pottery which can be found throughout Henry County. Jesse Johnson, son of John Johnson and great-grandfather of U. S. President Lyndon Baines Johnson, was a "first settler" of Henry County, he was a prosperous farmer, the second sheriff, judge, before he moved to Texas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 327 square miles, of which 322 square miles is land and 4.4 square miles is water. The vast majority of Henry County is located in the Upper Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin, with just a small western corner, west of Hampton, located in the Upper Flint River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin.
DeKalb County – north Rockdale County – northeast Newton County – east Butts County – southeast Spalding County – southwest Clayton County – west The Henry County Board of Commissioners is responsible for administering county government to residents. Four commissioners are elected by voters in individual districts, while the commission chairman is elected countywide and serves as the county's chief executive. June Wood, the current commission chair, is the first African-American to serve in the position after being elected in a December 2016 run-off election; as of January 2019, the following individuals serve the county on the Board of Commissioners: Henry County operates its own reservation-based transit service for use by county residents. In addition, Xpress, a regional commuter bus service operated by the Georgia Regional Transportation Authority, serves park-and-ride lots in Stockbridge, McDonough; as of the census of 2000, there were 119,341 people, 41,373 households, 33,305 families residing in the county.
The population density was 370 people per square mile. There were 43,166 housing units at an average density of 134 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 81.38% White, 14.68% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.76% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.79% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races. 2.26% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Census Estimates from the 2008 American Community Survey indicate that the African-American population is 32.6%. There were 41,373 households out of which 42.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.40% were married couples living together, 10.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.50% were non-families. 15.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.87 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.20% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 34.90% from 25 to 44, 21.00% from 45 to 64, 7.40% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $57,309, the median income for a family was $61,607. Males had a median income of $41,449 versus $29,211 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,945. About 3.70% of families and 4.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.50% of those under age 18 and 7.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 203,922 people, 70,255 households, 54,445 families residing in the county; the population density was 633.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 76,533 housing units at an average density of 237.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 55.0% white, 36.9% black or African American, 2.9% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.4% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.8% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 10.7% were American, 9.3% were Irish, 9.2% were German, 8.2% were English. Of the 70,255 households, 45.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.5% were non-families, 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.89 and the aver
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Southern Railway (U.S.)
The Southern Railway is a name of a class 1 railroad, based in the Southern United States. The railroad is the product of nearly 150 predecessor lines that were combined and recombined beginning in the 1830s, formally becoming the Southern Railway in 1894. At the end of 1971, the Southern operated 6,026 miles of railroad, not including its Class I subsidiaries Alabama Great Southern Central Of Georgia Savannah & Atlanta Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway Georgia Southern & Florida and twelve Class II subsidiaries; that year, the Southern itself reported 26111 million net ton-miles of revenue freight and 110 million passenger-miles. The railroad joined forces with the Norfolk and Western Railway in 1982 to form the Norfolk Southern Corporation; the Norfolk Southern Corporation was created in response to the creation of the CSX Corporation. Southern and N&W continued as operating companies of Norfolk Southern until 1982, when Norfolk Southern merged nearly all of N&W's operations into Southern to form the Norfolk Southern Railway.
The railroad has used that name since, though N&W continued to exist on paper until 1982. Richmond, York River and Chesapeake Railroad Richmond and Danville Railroad Memphis and Charleston Railroad East Tennessee and Georgia Railway Cincinnati, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Railway The pioneering South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company, Southern's earliest predecessor line and one of the first railroads in the United States, was chartered in December 1827 and ran the nation's first scheduled steam-powered passenger train – the wood-burning Best Friend of Charleston – over a six-mile section out of Charleston, South Carolina, on December 25, 1830. By 1833, its 136-mile line to Hamburg, South Carolina, was the longest in the world; the company leased enslaved African Americans from plantation owners when free white people refused to work in the swamps. The company purchased 89 people to work as slaves; as railroad fever struck other Southern states, networks spread across the South and across the Appalachian Mountains.
By 1857 the Memphis and Charleston Railroad was completed to link Charleston, South Carolina, Memphis, Tennessee. The Western North Carolina Railroad was halted because voters were angry about that law allowed purchasers of private bonds to have the train tracks veer to their towns; the provision of the laws that allowed this was not repealed until Reconstruction. Rail expansion in the South was halted with the start of the Civil War; the Battle of Shiloh, the Siege of Corinth and the Second Battle of Corinth in 1862 were motivated by the importance of the Memphis and Charleston line, the only East-West rail link across the Confederacy. The Chickamauga Campaign for Chattanooga, Tennessee was motivated by the importance of its rail connections to the Memphis and Charleston and other lines. In 1862 the Richmond and York River Railroad, which operated from the Pamunkey River at West Point, Virginia to Richmond, was a major focus of George McClellan's Peninsular Campaign, which culminated in the Seven Days Battles and devastated the tiny rail link.
Late in the war, the Richmond and Danville Railroad was the Confederacy's last link to Richmond, transported Jefferson Davis and his cabinet to Danville, Virginia just before the fall of Richmond in April 1865. Known as the "First Railroad War," the Civil War left the South's railroads and economy devastated. Most of the railroads, were repaired and operated again. Convict lease was a near continuation of slavery as charges were only applied to people of African descent. Five-hundred African Americans were assigned to provide back breaking labor on the Western North Carolina Railroad. Men were shipped to and from the worksite in iron shackles and around twenty were drowned in the Tuckasegee River weighted down by their shackles. In the area along the Ohio River and Mississippi River, construction of new railroads continued throughout Reconstruction; the Richmond and Danville System expanded throughout the South during this period, but was overextended, came upon financial troubles in 1893, when control was lost to financier J.
P. Morgan, who reorganized it into the Southern Railway System. Southern Railway came into existence in 1894 through the combination of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, the Richmond and Danville system and the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad; the company owned two-thirds of the 4,400 miles of line it operated, the rest was held through leases, operating agreements and stock ownership. Southern controlled the Alabama Great Southern and the Georgia Southern and Florida, which operated separately, it had an interest in the Central of Georgia. Additionally, the Southern Railway agreed to lease the North Carolina Railroad Company, providing a critical connection from Virginia to the rest of the southeast via the Carolinas. Southern's first president, Samuel Spencer, drew more lines into Southern's core system. During his 12-year term, the railway built new shops at Spencer, North Carolina, Knoxville and Atlanta, Georgia and upgraded tracks, purchased more equipment, he mo