Ivar Justus Tengbom was a Swedish architect and one of the best-known representatives of the Swedish neo-classical architecture of the 1910s and 1920s. Tengbom was born in Vireda in Jönköping County, studied at the Chalmers School of Technology in Gothenburg 1894-1898, at the architecture school of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts in Stockholm 1898-1901 and abroad 1905-1906, he worked 1906-1912 with Ernst Torulf in Stockholm and Gothenburg 1906-1912, on his own from 1912 in Stockholm. He was appointed architect in the Office of the Chief Intendant in 1906 and professor of architecture in the Royal Swedish College of Art in 1916, he became a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts in 1917. In 1921 he was appointed Director General of the State Office of Construction; the architect firm Tengbom & Torulf won second prize in the 1905 competition for the Stockholm City Hall building, in 1906 again second prize for the Engelbrektskyrkan in Stockholm. They were more successful in the competition for the City Court building in Borås in 1909, where they won first prize and were allowed to execute their design.
Another public building designed by Tengbom in collaboration with Torulf was the new church in Arvika, completed in 1911. The Trelleborg Water Tower was built after drawings by Tengbom and completed in 1912. After Tengbom left the collaboration with Torulf, he made the design for the main office of the Stockholms Enskilda Bank at the Kungsträdgården Park in Stockholm. Another Stockholm office for the bank, at Götgatan on Södermalm, was built according to Tengbom's design in 1916. Another bank office was the one designed for the Borås Enskilda Bank. Other Tengbom buildings from the time period were that of the building for the daily newspaper Svenska Dagbladet at the street Karduansmakargatan in Stockholm, the Högalidskyrkan in Stockholm. In the 1920s he made the design for the building of the Stockholm School of Economics and the Stockholm Concert Hall at Hötorget Square; the home of the Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Orchestra and known as the place where the Nobel Prize ceremony takes place, the Hall, a light-blue building with a portico with tall, slender polygonal columns with corinthian capitals.
The concert hall is Tengbom's best-known building and, together with Gunnar Asplund's Stockholm Public Library, the most recognized example of the neo-classical architecture of the Swedish 1920s, in English referred to as Swedish Grace. In the last years of the 1920s, he designed the main office of Ivar Kreuger's corporation Svenska Tändsticksbolaget at Trädgårdsgatan in Stockholm, his production includes the building for the Swedish Institute at Rome 1938-1940. He was awarded one of the inaugural Prince Eugen Medals in 1945 for architecture, his son Anders Tengbom was in his own right, a famous architect. One of his greatest creations was one of the tallest buildings in Stockholm. Nordisk familjebok, vol. 28, col. 837-838 and vol. 38, col. 820 The Stockholm Concert Hall Images of a Minimal, Geometric Steinway Grand Piano, Designed by Ivar Tengbom
Nordic Classicism was a style of architecture that blossomed in the Nordic countries between 1910 and 1930. Until a resurgence of interest for the period during the 1980s, Nordic Classicism was regarded as a mere interlude between two far more well-known architectural movements, National Romanticism, or Jugendstil, Functionalism; the development of Nordic Classicism was no isolated phenomenon, but took off from classical traditions existing in the Nordic countries, from new ideas being pursued in German-speaking cultures. Nordic Classicism can thus be characterised as a combination of direct and indirect influences from vernacular architecture and Neoclassicism, but the early stirrings of Modernism from the Deutscher Werkbund – their exhibition of 1914 - and by the mid-1920s the Esprit Nouveau emerging from the theories of Le Corbusier; the modernist influence went beyond mere aesthetics: urbanisation tied to modern building techniques and the introduction of regulations both in building and town planning, moreover, to the rise of social forces that resulted in a change in political ideology toward the Left, resulting in the Nordic welfare state, new programmes for public buildings such as hospitals and schools.
But while Nordic classicism was employed for a number of important public buildings, it was applied as a model for low-cost housing and domestic architecture in general. 1930 is considered the end point of Nordic Classicism because, the year of the Stockholm Exhibition, designed by Gunnar Asplund and Sigurd Lewerentz, when a more purist Modernism was unveiled as a model for a modern society. However, key buildings continued to be built in the classical style after that, notably Östberg's Maritime Museum in Stockholm. Certain architects had reached the culmination of their careers when the National Romantic style came, but their latter works were in the Nordic Classicism style, the career of others culminated with Nordic Classicism, while others went on to achieve far greater significance as Modernist architects; the two figures who achieved greatest significance in both periods, were Swedish architects Gunnar Asplund and Sigurd Lewerentz. Denmark: Kay Fisker, Hack Kampmann, Kaj Gottlob, Ivar Bentsen, Povl Baumann, Poul Holsøe, Edvard Thomsen, Thomas Havning, Holger Jacobsen, Kaare Klint, Arne Jacobsen, Carl Petersen, Aage Rafn, Steen Eiler Rasmussen, Sven Risom, Frits Schlegel.
Finland: Gunnar Taucher, Uno Ullberg, Martti Välikangas, J. S. Sirén, Alvar Aalto, Pauli E. Blomstedt, Elsi Borg, Erik Bryggman, Hilding Ekelund, Heikki Siikonen, Oiva Kallio. Norway: Lars Backer, Lorentz Ree, Sverre Pedersen, Nicolai Beer, Finn Berner, Harald Hals, Herman Munthe-Kaas, Gudolf Blakstad, Finn Bryn, Jens Dunker and Johan Ellefsen. Sweden: Ragnar Östberg, Gunnar Asplund, Carl Westman, Sigurd Lewerentz, Carl Bergsten, Sigfrid Ericson, Torben Grut, Ragnar Hjorth, Cyrillus Johansson, Erik Lallerstedt, Gunnar Leche, Sven Markelius, Gunnar Morssing, George Nilsson, Ture Ryberg, Albin Stark, Eskil Sundahl, Lars Israel Wahlman, Sven Wallander, Hakon Ahlberg and Ivar Tengbom. Though these architects are listed by country, during this period there was an intense cultural exchange among the Nordic countries, but considerable development in the architect's sphere of activity, from consultant to the bourgeoisie to town planner concerned with infrastructure and public services; as Swedish historian Henrik O. Anderson, has put it, this was an architecture of democracy, not radical avant-gardism.
Furthermore, with the exception of Finland, the other Nordic countries had avoided getting involved in the First World War, allowing for continued cultural development. Interest in Nordic Classicism in its most classical form, arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s at the height of postmodernism when critics and architecture teachers were looking for historical precedents for the architecture of such architects as Michael Graves, Leon Krier and Robert Stern. Nordic classicism provided that precedent with such seminal buildings as Gunnar Asplund's Scandia Cinema in Stockholm, Listers District Courthouse, Villa Snellman in Djursholm and Stockholm Public Library, as well as the landscape and buildings of the Skogskyrkogården Cemetery, Stockholm by both Asplund and Sigurd Lewerentz. In regards to architectural style, there were several precedents or reasons which account for the rise of Nordic Classicism. First was the existing classical tradition, borne from the architecture of Absolutism – that is, the classical architectural symbols of power of the Swedish and Danish monarchies – down to the vernacular, for instance in terms of considerations for symmetry and proportion.
Throughout the 19th century there were a number of factors contributing to a more simplified classicism. The teachings of J. N. L. Durand at the École Polytechnique of Paris at the beginning of the 19th century had attempted to rationalise the language and building techniques of classicism, while allowing for simple additive compositions. Durand's teachings spread, entering German culture i
Polar Music Prize
The Polar Music Prize is a Swedish international award founded in 1989 by Stig Anderson, best known as the manager of the Swedish band ABBA, with a donation to the Royal Swedish Academy of Music. The award is annually given to one classical musician. Exceptions were made in 2001, when it was awarded to three musicians, 2003, when it was awarded only to one musician. Without any restrictions of nationality, the prize is to be "awarded for significant achievements in music and/or musical activity, or for achievements which are found to be of great potential importance for music or musical activity, it shall be referable to all fields within or connected with music"; the prize has been called the "Nobel Prize of Music" in Sweden. The first recipients were the Baltic States. Laureates are awarded 1 million kr handed over by king Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden in a ceremony at Stockholm Concert Hall in June every year; the Polar Music Prize is regarded as Sweden's foremost musical honour. The prize is overseen by the Stig Anderson Music Award Foundation, which includes members of Anderson's family and representatives of SKAP – the Swedish Society of Songwriters and Authors and the Swedish Performing Rights Society.
A committee of musicians, other experienced members of the music industry, members of Anderson's family selects the prize recipients from nominations submitted by representatives of several international music industry organizations, such as the European Composer and Songwriter Alliance. The prize amount is raised from revenue from the donation. In June, 2018 it was reported by Swedish public service radio that the Polar Prize organization has made large financial losses for several years; the current CEO of the Polar Music Prize is Marie Ledin. Official website
Hötorget is a city square in the center of Stockholm. During the daytime it is the site of a fruit and vegetable market, except on Sundays, when flea markets are arranged. To its east lies the Royal Concert Hall, to its south lies Filmstaden Sergel, one of the largest multiscreen cinemas in inner-city Stockholm, the Hötorgshallen food market halls, to the west lies the Haymarket by Scandic hotel. Southeast of the square are the five high-rise office buildings Hötorgsskraporna. To the north is the Kungshallen food court. Hötorget Metro station is decorated with light blue tiles; the station kept its "vintage" style, in contrast to other more modern stations on the same line, retaining its original construction arrangements and materials such as tiles, illumination, etc. There is an illuminated art installation on the ceiling of the station; the platforms of Hötorget Metro station make a brief appearance in Madonna's "Ray of Light" music video. Hötorget art is within painted art in Sweden a derogatory name for 20th century art where the artist did not follow elite principles for sellable art, such as making multiple copies of artworks, following simple peoples preferences etc.
Hötorget art is art which don't assign a value. Such art was sold on Hötorget by artists to common people. Media related to Hötorget at Wikimedia Commons
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers
Isaac Grünewald was a Swedish-Jewish expressionist painter born in Stockholm. He was the leading and central name in the first generation of Swedish modernists from 1910 up until his death in 1946, in other words during his entire career spanning four decades, he was a productive painter as well as a writer and public speaker. Having studied at an influential Swedish art school for three years, at age 19 Grünewald travelled to Paris where he soon began studies at Henri Matisse's academy. In 1909 he gained recognition in his homeland when he exhibited his work with a group of Scandinavian artists known as The Young Ones, he met his future wife Sigrid Hjertén in 1909 and encouraged her to study painting with him in Paris. Having married in 1911, Grünewald and Hjertén from 1912 on exhibited together at home and abroad. Art historians nowadays cite them as being responsible for introducing modernism to Sweden. At a time in history when anti-Semitism was both widespread and politically correct and women artists were frowned upon, their works were the subject of ridicule in the press.
In fact, recent research has shown that Grünewald who became the center of public controversy numerous times was the number one target of anti-Semitism in the Swedish press between 1910 and 1926. Despite or because of his role as the leading and most controversial pioneer in Swedish modernism in his days, in Swedish journalism and literature, he is still sometimes being portrayed as, in effect, the embodiment of a classic Jewish caricature, with insinuations of his not having earned his success fairly. In the 1920s, Grünewald began reaping major commercial successes, he created stage designs for other theaters. In 1925-26, he decorated the walls and ceiling in the minor hall at the Stockholm Concert Hall, site of the Nobel Prize ceremony, in 1928 the walls of the Matchstick Palace. Grünewald was a professor at the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts between 1932 and 1942 and in 1941 he opened his own art school. During the Second World War Grünewald worked at the renowned Rörstrand porcelain factory.
He was awarded the Prince Eugen Medal in 1945. His wife Sigrid Hjertén suffered from lifelong mental health problems that resulted in her being hospitalized for extended periods in the 1930s. Grünewald divorced Hjertén, hospitalized permanently, in 1937 and remarried. In 1946 he and his second wife Märta Grundell were killed in an airplane crash. Grünewald was the father of three sons born in 1910, 1911 and 1940; the author of numerous essays on art, during his influential 1918 exhibit at Stockholm's Liljevalchs Konsthall Isaac Grünewald published his manifesto The New Renaissance. According to the Swedish copyright organization BUS, Grünewald is still the single artist whose sales bring the highest yearly income to Swedish art dealers among the modernists. At Stockholm auctionist Bukowski's spring auction in 2009, one of Grünewald's lesser known paintings was sold for 2,65 million crowns - about 340 000 US dollars
Carl Milles was a Swedish sculptor. He was married to artist Olga Milles and brother to Ruth Milles and half brother to the architect Evert Milles. Carl Milles sculpted the Gustaf Vasa statue at the Stockholm Nordic Museum, the Poseidon statue in Gothenburg, the Orpheus group outside the Stockholm Concert Hall, the Fountain of Faith in Falls Church, Virginia, his home near Stockholm, Millesgården, is now a museum. Milles was born Carl Wilhelm Andersson, son of lieutenant Emil "Mille" Andersson and his wife Walborg Tisell, at Lagga outside Uppsala in 1875. In 1897 he made what he thought would be a temporary stop in Paris on his way to Chile, where he was due to manage a school of gymnastics. However, he remained in Paris, where he studied art, working in Auguste Rodin's studio and gaining recognition as a sculptor. In 1904 he and Olga moved to Munich. Two years they settled in Sweden, buying property on Herserud Cliff on Lidingö, a large island near Stockholm. Millesgården was built there between 1906 and 1908 as the sculptor's private residence and workspace.
It was turned into a foundation and donated to the Swedish people in 1936. In 1931, American publisher George Gough Booth brought Milles to Cranbrook Educational Community, in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, to serve as his sculptor in residence. Part of Booth's arrangement with his principal artists was that they were expected to create major commissions outside the Cranbrook environment. In 1938, for the 300th anniversary of the founding of New Sweden, the country commissioned a sculpture by Milles featuring a replica of the Kalmar Nyckel, the ship which brought the Swedish colonists to America; the sculpture is located at Fort Christina in Wilmington, near the landing site where the colonists arrived in 1638. In America he is best known for his fountains. Milles's fountain group The Wedding of the Waters in St. Louis symbolizes the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers merging just upstream. Commissioned in 1936 and unveiled in May 1940 to a crowd of about 3000 people, the fountain caused a local uproar because of its playful, irreverent and nearly cartoonish figures, because Milles had conceived the group as a wedding party.
Local officials insisted. Outside Detroit's Frank Murphy Hall of Justice is a Carl Milles statue, The Hand of God, sculpted in honor of Frank Murphy, Detroit Mayor, Michigan Governor, United States Supreme Court Associate Justice; the statue was placed on a pedestal with the help of sculptor Marshall Fredericks. The statue was commissioned by the United Automobile Workers, paid for by individual donations from UAW members; the Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research, an annual award for research on entrepreneurship, consists of a replica statuette of The Hand of God and a prize of 100,000 euros. Milles's sculptures sometimes offended American sensibilities, he had a'fig leaf' maker on retainer. Photographs of his sculptures, taken for a monograph on Milles, are now held in the Carl Milles Photograph Collection, c. 1938–1939, in the Ryerson & Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago. Milles and his wife returned to Sweden in 1951, lived in Millesgården every summer until Milles's death in 1955.
They spent winters in Rome. Milles and his wife, who died in 1967 in Graz, are buried in a small stone chapel, designed by Milles, at Millesgården; because Swedish law requires burial on sacred ground, it took the assistance of the reigning Gustaf VI Adolf to allow this resting place. Aganippe Fountain, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, 1951-55 Aviator Monument, Stockholm, 1931 Fountain of Faith, National Memorial Park cemetery, Falls Church, Virginia, 1939-52 Gustav Vasa Statue, Nordic Museum, Stockholm, 1905-07 and 1925 Folkung Fountain, Old Square, Linköping, 1924–27 Louis De Geer, Old Square, Norrköping, 1945 Sten Sture Monument, Uppsala, 1902–25 Vision of Peace, City Hall, Saint Paul, Minnesota, 1932–36 Bronze doors, Finance Building, Pennsylvania State Capitol Complex, Pennsylvania, 1938 Diana Fountain, Matchstick Palace, Stockholm, 1927–28 Europe and the Bull Fountain, Old Square, Halmstad, 1924–26 Exterior sculpted decor of Sweden's Royal Dramatic Theatre, Stockholm, 1903–08 God on the Rainbow, Nacka, 1995 Greendale War Memorial for Veterans of All Wars, Massachusetts, 1948 Man and Nature, lobby of 1 Rockefeller Plaza, Rockefeller Center, New York City, 1937–41 Man and Pegasus, Castle Park, Malmö, 1949 Maritime Goddess, Helsingborg, 1921–23 Meeting of the Waters, monumental fountain, St. Louis, Missouri, 1936–40 Monument to Johannes Rudbeckius, Västerås, 1923 Numerous works at Cranbrook Educational Community, Bloomfield Hills, including Mermaids & Tritons Fountain, 1930, Sven Hedin on a Camel, 1932, Jonah and the Whale Fountain, 1932, Orpheus Fountain, 1936.
On a Sunday Morning, monumental fountain, Ingalls Mall, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1939–41 Orpheus Group, in front of Stockholm Concert Hall, 1926–36 Playing Angels, Pennsylvania, 1950 Poseidon Fountain, Götaplatsen, Gothenburg, 1925–31 Saint Martin of Tours, Kansas City, Missouri, 1950-55 Sjöguden, Stockholm, 1913 Spirit of Transportation, Detroit Civic Center, Michigan, 1952 Sun Singer, Stockholm, 1926