Left Party (Sweden)
The Left Party is a socialist political party in Sweden. The party originated as a split from the Swedish Social Democratic Party in 1917, as the Swedish Social Democratic Left Party, became the Communist Party of Sweden in 1921. In 1967, the party was renamed Left Party - the Communists; the party has never been part of a government at the national level. On economic issues, the party opposes advocates increased public expenditure; the Left Party was against accession to the European Union, supported a Swedish exit from the EU until February 2019. It did not succeed; the party supports feminism. From 1998 to 2006, the Left Party was in a confidence-and-supply arrangement with the ruling Social Democrats and the Green Party. Since 2014, it has supported the minority government of Social Democrats and Greens in the Swedish parliament, as well as in many of Sweden's counties and municipalities; the Left Party is a member of the Nordic Green Left Alliance, its sole MEP sits in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group.
In 2018, the party joined Maintenant le Peuple. Revolutionary fervour engulfed Sweden in 1917. Riots took place in many cities. In Västervik, a workers council took control of day-to-day affairs. In Stockholm, soldiers marched together with workers on May Day. In the upper-class neighbourhood of Stockholm, Östermalm, residents formed paramilitary structures to defend themselves from a possible armed revolution; the party originated as a split from the Swedish Social Democratic Party in 1917, as the Swedish Social Democratic Left Party. The split occurred as the Social Democratic Party did not support the 1917 Bolshevik revolution in Russia, whereas SSV did support the Bolsheviks. In 1921, in accordance with the 21 theses of the Comintern, the party name was changed to Communist Party of Sweden. Liberal and non-revolutionary elements were purged, they regrouped under the name SSV. In total, 6,000 out of 17,000 party members were expelled. Zeth Höglund, the main leader of the party during the split from the Social Democrats, left the party in 1924.
Höglund was displeased with the developments in Moscow after the death of Vladimir Lenin, he founded his own Communist Party, independent from the Comintern. Around 5,000 party members followed Höglund. On 23 and 24 January 1926, SKP organized a trade union conference with delegates representing 80,000 organized workers. In 1927, SKP organized a conference of National Association of the Unemployed, called for the abolition of the Unemployment Commission. In 1929, a major split, the largest in the history of the party, took place. Nils Flyg, Karl Kilbom, Ture Nerman, all MPs, the majority of the party membership were expelled by the Comintern; the expelled were called Kilbommare, those loyal to the Comintern were called Sillenare. Out of 17,300 party members, 4,000 sided with the Comintern. Conflicts erupted locally over control of property. In Stockholm, the office of the central organ, held by the Kilbommare, was besieged by Comintern loyalists. Fist-fights erupted in a clash over control of the party office.
The Kilbom-Flyg factions continued to operate their party under the name of Socialist Party, soon renamed Socialistiska partiet. Notably, they took with them the central organ of Folkets Dagblad Politiken. SKP started new publications, including Arbetar-Tidningen. Under Sillén's leadership, the party adhered to the "Class against Class"-line, denouncing any co-operation with the Social Democrats. Sven Linderot, a dynamic young leader, become the party chairman; the infamous Ådalen shootings of unarmed demonstrating workers took place in 1931. This development led to increased labour militancy and gave new life to the crisis-ridden SKP; the Spanish Civil War began in 1936. SKP and its youth wing sent a sizeable contingent to fight in the International Brigades. 520 Swedes took part in the 164 of them died there. An extensive solidarity work for the Second Spanish Republic and the people of Spain was organized in Sweden. During the 1930s, the party was rebuilt. By 1939, SKP had 19,116 members; the Second World War was a difficult time for the party.
The party was the sole political force in Sweden supporting the Soviet side in the Winter War, used as a pretext for the repression against the party. The party supported Soviet military expansion along its Western border. Ny Dag, the main party organ, wrote on 26 July: "The border states have been liberated from their dependence of imperialist superpowers through the help from the great socialist worker's state". Moreover, the party supported the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact; the Central Committee adopted a declaration in September 1939, which read: "The ruling cliques in England and France have in fear of Bolshevism, in their badly hidden sympathy for Fascism, in fear of workers power in Europe, refused to enter into an agreement with adoptable conditions for the Soviet Union to crush the plans of the warmongers. They have supported the refusal of Poland to accept the Soviet help; the Soviet Union has thus, in clear accordance with its consequent politics of peace, through a non-aggression pact with Germany sought to defend the 170-million people of the first socialist state against Fascist attacks and the bottomless misery of a world war."When Nazi Germany invaded Norway in April 1940, SKP took a neutralist stand.
In an article in Ny Dag, the
The Liberals is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Sweden. It was a part of the Alliance centre-right coalition government led by Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt from 2006 to 2014; the party is the seventh-largest party in the Swedish Riksdag. Until 22 November 2015 it was known as the Liberal People's Party; the party is a member of the Liberal International and Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. While the party was positioned in the centre of the Swedish political landscape, willing to cooperate with both the political left and the right, it has since the leaderships of Lars Leijonborg and Jan Björklund in the 2000s positioned itself more towards the right; the party's policies include action toward a free market economy and pushing for Sweden to join NATO and the Eurozone, as well as investing in nuclear power. 1809: The first liberal party is formed after a coup d'état ends 20 years of royal autocracy under the Union and Security Act. 1902: The Free-minded National Association is formed as the first liberal party with a national grassroots organisation.
It is reliant on the "free religious" church movement. 1910: After women become eligible to be elected to municipal councils in Sweden, suffragette Valborg Olander is elected to the Falun city council for the Liberal Party. 1923: The Free-minded National Association splits over alcohol prohibition. The Free-minded would come to lead several governments during the coming years. 1934: The parties reconcile and form the People's Party, i.e. the party in its present form. 1939–45: It takes part in a wartime coalition government comprising all parties except the communists. Sweden remains neutral during the Second World War. 1976: It enters a three-party government ending 44 years of Social Democratic Party rule. 1978: The People's Party forms a short-lived minority government by itself, with chairperson Ola Ullsten as prime minister. Hans Blix to become famous before the Iraq War, is foreign minister. 1979: A new attempt at a three-party coalition is made. 1980–82: It forms a two-party coalition government with the Centre party.
1990: It adds Liberal to its name to become the Liberal People's Party. 1991–94: It forms part of a four-party centre-right coalition government under Moderate Party leader Carl Bildt. 2002: It more than doubles its vote share and comes close to being the second-largest party in Riksdag elections. 2006–14: It forms part of the Alliance four-party centre-right coalition government under Moderate Party leader Fredrik Reinfeldt. 2015: It changes its name from the Liberal People's Party to the Liberals. 2018: It, together with the Centre Party, voted down a proposed Moderate-Christian Democrat government led by Ulf Kristersson after concerns that such a government would be dependent on the Sweden Democrats for support. 2019: It, together with the Centre Party, voted to tolerate a Social Democratic-Green government led by Stefan Lofven after coming up with a 73-point agreement. Jan Bjorklund announced he will step down as party leader and will not stand in the party's autumn leadership contest; the official party ideology has been social liberalism, which translates as a strong ideological commitment to a mixed economy, with support for comprehensive but market-based welfare state programs.
While allied with the Swedish Social Democratic Party in the struggle for democracy and social reform, the People's Party came to be part of the opposition from the thirties and onwards, opposing Social Democrat demands for nationalization of private businesses. It has stayed opposed to the Social Democrats since as the largest or second-largest party of the opposition block, but equally critical towards parties on the right. Over time, this has shifted towards a more clear-cut rightwing role. In the mid-nineties the party seemed to have ruled out the alternative of co-operation with the Social Democrats, focusing instead on bringing them down by strengthening the opposition. Foreign aid and women's equality were important issues for the party in the past, today the party advocates liberal feminism and giving a full percent of the gross national income as foreign aid. Foreign policy is another high-profile issue. Always oriented towards the United States and the United Kingdom, the party was a strong opponent of Communism and Nazism during the 20th century.
While it was part of and supported the Swedish coalition government and its position of neutrality during World War II, the party advocated an active stance against the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The party supported the struggle of the Baltic peoples against the Soviet regime, whereas Social Democrats were wary of irritating the Soviets; as a consequence, it suffered several worded rebukes from the often-ruling Social Democrats for endangering Swedish relations with the Soviet Union. It criticised what it perceived as Social Democrat tolerance of left-wing dictatorships in the third world, supported the United States in the Vietnam War. After the end of the Cold War it became the first Swedish party to call for abandoning the country's traditional neutrality in favor of joining NATO. Among issue
The Stockholm Underground is a rapid transit system in Stockholm, Sweden. The first line opened in 1950, today the system has 100 stations in use, of which 47 are underground and 53 above ground. There are three coloured main lines on the tube maps; these do however form seven actual routes. Routes number 17, 18 and 19, 13 and 14 and 10 and 11 all go through Stockholm City Centre in a centralized metro system. All seven actual lines use The T-Centralen hub station. Apart from this central station for the metro, there exists just one other junction, the Fridhemsplan station, although both the green and red lines are mutually accessible at the Slussen and Gamla Stan stations; the underground is like the London Underground and the Paris Métro, but unlike the U-Bahn and S-Bahn in Berlin, in that it is equipped with ticket gates. Single tickets must be bought in advance, or at ticket machines that are available in all underground stations and on several tram- bus- or boat stops. Passengers can buy tickets at the ticket booth, just by the gates to the underground.
In 2017, the underground carried 353 million passengers, which corresponds to 1,2 million in a normal weekday. The 105.7-kilometre-long underground system is owned by the Stockholm County Council through the company Storstockholms Lokaltrafik. The operation is contracted to MTR Nordic since 2 November 2009; the Stockholm underground system has been called'the world's longest art gallery', with more than 90 of the network's 100 stations decorated with sculptures, rock formations, paintings, installations and reliefs by over 150 different artists. The decision to build an underground was made in 1941; the following years, in some cases earlier, some routes were built with near underground standard but operated with trams. These included Slussen -- Blåsut and Telefonplan -- Hägerstensåsen; the first part of the metro was opened on 1 October 1950, from Slussen to Hökarängen, having been converted from tram to metro operation. In 1951 a second line from Slussen to Stureby was opened. In 1952, a second system, from Hötorget to the western suburbs was opened.
In 1957, the two parts were connected via the Central station and the Old Town, forming the Green Line. During the period 1950-1960 the Green Line was extended piece by piece; the Red Line was opened in 1964, from T-Centralen over Liljeholmen ending in Fruängen and Örnsberg, both in the Southwest. It was extended piece by piece until 1978, when it reached Mörby centrum via a bridge over Stocksundet sea strait; the third and final system, the Blue Line, was opened in 1975, with two lines running northwest from the city center. As the construction requirements have become more strict over the years, newer segments have more tunnels than older, the Blue Line is all in tunnel; the latest addition to the whole network, Skarpnäck station, was opened in 1994. There are 100 stations in use in the Stockholm metro. One station, was built but never taken into use. One station has been demolished; the Bagarmossen old surface station was demolished and replaced with a new underground station, this being prior to the metro extension to the Skarpnäck metro station.
The Stockholm metro is well known for its decoration of the stations. Several of the stations are left with the bedrock exposed and unfinished, or as part of the decorations. At Rissne, an informative wall fresco about the history of Earth's civilizations runs along both sides of the platform; the following details relate to the present network. The designations "blue line", etc. have only been used since the late 1970s, only since the 1990s. They originated from the fact that the "blue line" tended to operate newer train stock painted blue, while the "green line" had older stock in the original green livery. There was never any red painted stock, but red was chosen to differentiate this line from the other two networks on route maps; the Green line has 3 routes and 49 stations: 37 above ground stations. The track is 41,256 metres long, it opened 1 October 1950. It is used by 451,000 passengers per workday or 146 million per year; the Red line has 2 routes and 36 stations: 15 above ground stations.
The track is 41,238 metres long. It opened 5 April 1964, it is used by 394,000 passengers per workday or 128 million per year. The Blue line has 20 stations: 19 subterranean and one elevated station; the track is 25,516 metres long. It opened 31 August 1975, it is used by 171,000 passengers per 55 million per year. Trains are operated with extended all night service on Fridays and Saturdays. All lines have trains every 10 minutes during daytime, reduced to every 15 minutes in early mornings and late evenings, every 30 minutes during nights. Additional trains in peak hours gives a train every 5–6 minutes on most stations, with 2–3 minutes between trains on the central parts of the network; the metro contains four interchanges and lacks any kind
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Sweden Democrats or Swedish Democrats is a social conservative and right-wing populist political party in Sweden, founded in 1988. The party describes itself as social conservative with a nationalist foundation; the party has been characterized by others as far-right, national-conservative, anti-immigration. Jimmie Åkesson has been party leader since 2005; the party has its roots in Swedish fascism and was a white nationalist movement through the early-1990s, when it first began distancing itself from its past. Today, the Sweden Democrats reject both fascism and Nazism; the Sweden Democrats crossed the 4% threshold necessary for parliamentary representation for the first time in the 2010 general election, polling 5.7% and gaining 20 seats in the Riksdag. This increase in popularity has been compared by international media to other similar anti-immigration movements in Europe; the party received increased support in the 2018 Swedish general election, when it polled 17.5% and secured 62 seats in parliament, becoming the third largest party in Sweden.
The Sweden Democrats remained isolated in the Riksdag for a long time because the other parties staunchly maintained a policy of refusing cooperation with them. However, in March 2019 Christian Democratic leader Ebba Busch Thor announced that her party was ready to start negotiations with the Sweden Democrats in the Riksdag; the Sweden Democrats are a member of European Conservatives and Reformists group in the European Parliament. The party was against the European Union, supported a Swedish exit from the EU until January 2019; the Sweden Democrats party was founded in 1988 as a direct successor to the Sweden Party, which in turn had been formed in 1986 by the merger of Bevara Sverige Svenskt and a faction of the Swedish Progress Party. SD claims 6 February 1988 as the date of its foundation, although observers tend to see the party's foundation as part of a complex decade-long series of events, with some calling into question whether a meeting took place on 6 February; the party has its roots in Swedish fascism and was a white nationalist movement through the early-1990s, when it first began distancing itself from its past.
The SD's logo from the 1990s until 2006 was a version of the torch used by the UK National Front. While opinions on the early SD vary, it is agreed that SD has never been a Nazi party, although various connections have existed through some of its former members; the party sponsored music of the nationalist Viking rock band Ultima Thule, various party officials today acknowledge that being fans of Ultima Thule's music factored prominently in their decision to become politically engaged. Among the founding officials of the party were several people that had expressed strong support for the ideology of Nazi Germany; the party's first auditor, Gustaf Ekström, was a Waffen-SS veteran and had been a member of the national socialist party Svensk Socialistisk Samling in the 1940s. In 1989, Ekström was a member of the Sweden Democrats' national board. SD's first chairman Anders. Early on, the party recommended international connections to its members such as the National Democratic Party of Germany, the American National Association for the Advancement of White People and publications like the Nazi Nation Europa and Nouvelle École, a newspaper that advocates racial biology.
From 1995 onwards the party's new leader, Mikael Jansson, strove to make the party more respectable and, after photographs surfaced of some members posing in Nazi uniforms at party meetings, the wearing of any kind of uniform was formally banned in 1996. During the 1990s, the party became more influenced by the French National Front, as well as the Freedom Party of Austria, the Danish People's Party, German The Republicans and Italian National Alliance. SD received economic support for the 1998 election from the French National Front, was active in Le Pen's Euronat from the same time. SD, however, in 1999 left its membership in Euronat to its youth organisation. In 2001 the most extreme faction was expelled from the party, leading to the formation of the more radical National Democrats. During the 2000s the so-called "Scania gang", or "Gang of Four" – Jimmie Åkesson, Björn Söder, Mattias Karlsson and Richard Jomshof – continued and expanded the moderation policy, which included ousting extremist members.
Before the 2002 election, former Moderate Party MP Sten Christer Andersson defected to SD, citing that the party had gotten rid of its extreme-right elements. In 2003 the party declared the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to be a cornerstone of its policies. In 2006 the party changed its logo from the torch to one featuring an Anemone hepatica, reminiscent of the party's first, but short-lived, logo. In the 2010 general election, SD won representation in the Swedish Riksdag for the first time, with 5.7% of the vote and 20 MPs. Sweden Democrat MP William Petzäll was persuaded to leave the party on 26 September 2011 while still retaining his parliamentary seat; this was done because of Petzäll's substance abuse and the problems this might cause for SD's public image. Petzäll died of an overdose and his seat was turned over to Stellan Bojerud in September 2012. In November 2012, videos from August 2010 were released, in segments, over the course of three days by Swedish newspaper Expressen.
This came to be known as the Iron pipe scandal, although t
MTR Corporation Limited is a Hong Kong company listed on the Hong Kong Exchange, a component of Hang Seng Index. MTR runs Hong Kong's Mass Transit Railway, is a major property developer and landlord in Hong Kong, it invests in railways in different parts in the world, has obtained contracts to operate rapid transit systems in London, Beijing, Macau, Shenzhen and Sydney. The Mass Transit Railway Corporation was established on 22 September 1972 as a government-owned statutory corporation to build and operate a mass transit railway system to meet Hong Kong's public transport needs. On 30 June 2000 the MTRC was succeeded by the MTR Corporation Limited; as with the MTRC, the MTRCL's principal business is to operate the mass transit railway system. Following a successful initial public offering, the MTRCL was listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange on 5 October 2000, however the government is still the major stakeholder in the MTRCL. On 11 September 2000, the Financial Secretary of the Hong Kong Government, Mr Donald Tsang, announced the partial privatisation of MTR Corporation Limited.
The offering was for one billion shares. On 5 October 2000, the company was listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange with 600,000 shareholders. In June 2001, MTR was added to the Hang Seng Index. At the time of the initial public offering, the company was operating with a budget surplus of HK$360 million, which had increased from a surplus of HK$278 million in 1997; the MTR has continued to be one of the few profitable public transport systems in the world. There had been some discussion of merging the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation, government-owned, the MTR to make the territory's transport system more efficient; the MTRCL backed. In March 2004, the Hong Kong Government encouraged the two companies to merge. On 11 April 2006, the Hong Kong Government announced the details of the proposed merger. Under the non-binding Memorandum of Understanding the Government has signed with KCRC, KCRC would grant a Service Concession to the MTRCL to operate the Kowloon–Canton Railway system, with an initial period of 50 years.
The KCRC would receive a one-time upfront payment of HK$4.25 billion, a fixed annual payment of HK$750 million and a variable annual payment based on revenues generated from operation of the KCR system. In addition, MTRCL would make a payment of $7.79 billion for the acquisition of property and other related commercial interests. The railway lines the KCRC operated were less profitable than the MTRC, the KCRC was less active in property development, it was considered that the Government's choice was to avoid being criticised for selling assets of the KCRC, which it wholly owned to MTRCL at an underpriced level. Leasing the operation right of the KCR system to the MTRCL could avoid selling the KCRC. On 2 December 2007, the Chinese name of the MTRCL was changed to 香港鐵路有限公司 after being granted the Service Concession while the English name will remain unchanged; the KCRC is now a holding company of the KCR system, without actual railway operations. The merger was approved by shareholders of the MTRCL on 9 October 2007.
The merger is effective for 50 years. This resulted in changing the system's Chinese name from "地鐵" to "港鐵" ". All adult Octopus Card holders would be the first to benefit from the merger. Student and Concessionary Octopus holders would benefit from the merger by further reducing $0.1 from their 50% off fares. Student Octopus holders would continue to pay the current reduced concessionary fares on the MTR network. Elderly Octopus holders would be introduced to a new fare system which only the elderly can enjoy a $2 fare to anywhere on the MTR network. MTR Corporation is responsible for the operation of MTR; the rail lines are profitable, but the MTR Corporation derives most of its profits from property development and other commercial activities in Hong Kong, including the letting of retail and poster advertising space, ATM banking facilities, personal telecommunication services. Mass Transit Railway is the rapid transit railway system in Hong Kong. Opened in 1979, the system includes 221 km of rail with 159 stations, including 91 railway stations and 68 light rail stops.
There are several future projects of the MTR. Property is one of the main businesses of the MTR generating most of the profits. In 2009 of a net profit of HK$7.3 billion, MTR made HK$3.55 billion from property and HK$2.12 billion from transport operations. The MTR tries to develop suitable sites related to their new railway projects and their existing railway. For instance, the reclaimed land situated in West Kowloon, owned by the MTR will be developed into an area with residential and retail space. Two of Hong Kong's largest banks, HSBC and the Bank of China are to have office towers there. Furthermore, will be more than 7,000 housing units in the development; the MTR owns several shopping centres, as well as the International Finance Centre. The MTR Corporation invested to develop large-scale shopping centres around MTR stations; the most recent example is the PopCorn mall located at Tseung Kwan O station. It is connected to high-end housing and hotels. Another example of such a shopping centre is Maritime Square locat
Centre Party (Sweden)
The Centre Party is a liberal and nordic agrarian political party in Sweden. Traditionally part of the Nordic agrarian family, the party has shifted its focus towards free market economics, environmental protection, gender equality and decentralisation of governmental authority; the party's major issues are national economy and integration and it is represented in all of the Riksdags parliamentary committees. The party was founded in 1913 as the Farmers' League. In 1922 it merged with the National Farmers' Union to become the Farmers' League; the party adopted its current name in 1957. At that time it had been the closest ally of the Swedish Social Democratic Party for 25 years, its coalition partners between 1936 and 1945 as well as between 1951 and 1957, but it has since revised this strategy in order to establish a closer long-term alliance between the centre-right parties, that achieved power between 1976 and 1982 and between 1991 and 1994. Thorbjörn Fälldin was the leader of the Centre Party and Prime Minister from 1976 until 1982, except a short interregnum in 1978–1979 by Liberal People's Party leader Ola Ullsten.
The Centre Party again joined a centre-right government following the 1991 election led by Moderate Party leader Carl Bildt. During the leaderships of Maud Olofsson and Annie Lööf in the 2000s the party has positioned itself on the political right as a small business-friendly party, leaning towards neoliberal and libertarian policies and viewing the Social Democrats as its main opponent. In 2005 the Centre Party sold its ownership of the newspaper group Centertidningar AB for 1.8 billion SEK, thus making it – at the time – the richest political party in the world. The 2006 Swedish election was a success for the Centre Party, its support had been increasing through recent elections. In the 2006 elections 7.88% of the vote went to the Centre Party, entitling them to 29 of the 349 seats in the Swedish Riksdag. Furthermore, their alliance with the other parties in the Alliance for Sweden, a coalition which won a majority of parliament seats in this election, meant that the Centre Party shared the ministry posts with their Alliance for Sweden allies: the Moderate Party, the Liberal People's Party and the Christian Democrats.
The strong victory by C in the 2006 election has been studied by political scientist Dr. Lina M. Eriksson. Who in her dissertation from the Department of Government at Uppsala University, entitled "Natural Disasters and National Election", performs a rigorous statistical analysis of election data combined with interviews with Maud Olofsson, Eskil Erlandsson, Ulrica Messing and Mona Sahlin. Dr, Eriksson's research finds that both the Indian Ocean's 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami and 2005 Storm Gudrun, which struck only two weeks following the tsunami, are major events that impacted government popularity in the 2006 election and contributed to the redistribution of voter support and across party-blocs, with interesting results for C. "The core findings from this thesis show that the Social Democratic government’s poor crisis response to Gudrun, the hitherto most costly natural disaster in Swedish history, alone has an estimated effect of a magnitude that contributed to the 2006 historic regime shift, while the tsunami seems to have mattered.
The tsunami is interesting, as S’s poor international crisis response to the event constitutes the first natural disaster situation to knowingly have affected an election on the other side of the planet. Moreover, to some degree voters recognized the active opposition by C as effective representation and rewarded the party for its strong stance on the poor handling of both events by S. In fact, the active voice of C concerning these disasters helped move the party from the periphery of party politics to becoming the third-largest party in Swedish politics". Part of the dissertation has been published in Electoral Studies, to be considered the leading scientific journal in election research. In the article long-term effects are found over the 2010 and 2014 election, which implies that the Storm, in particular, triggered long-lasting changes in voter support from the left to the right side of the political spectrum. A comprehensive summary of the dissertation is available for download via Uppsala University.
Centerpartiet has in both liberal and conservative medias been described as one of Sweden's most market liberal parties. However, the party describes themselves as a party with a green and earthy liberalism; the party leadership has many times taken distance from libertarianism. The party advocates lower taxes reduced employer contributions, a freer market and an increased RUT-deductioned; the party is a big advocator for small-business and entrepreneurs. They want to invest in the infrastructure and transportation so employees could work in bigger cities but still live in the rural areas. On economic policy, they've described their opponents to be the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Sweden Democrats. Centerpartiet is a liberal immigration party, who stands that they want to combine a generous immigration policy with an more restrictive contribution policy to the immigrants. After the big immigration wave in autumn 2015, the party proposed to replace the existing establishment grants with establishment loans, similar to the Swedish student loans.
The party is clear with the responsibility of Sweden to receiving refugees but the responsibility of the immigran