Karl Gunnar Myrdal was a Swedish economist and sociologist. In 1974, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Friedrich Hayek for "their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic and institutional phenomena." He is best known in the United States for his study of race relations, which culminated in his book An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy. The study was influential in the 1954 landmark U. S. Supreme Court Decision Brown v. Board of Education. In Sweden his work and political influence were important to the establishment of the Folkhemmet and the welfare state. Myrdal was born on 6 December 1898 in Skattungbyn, Sweden, to Karl Adolf Pettersson, a railroad employee, his wife Anna Sofia Karlsson, he took the name Myrdal in 1914 after his ancestors' farm Myr in Dalarna. There is a apocryphal story about an interaction between him and Gustav Cassel, where Cassel was reported to say, "Gunnar, you should be more respectful to your elders, because it is we who will determine your promotion," and he replied, "Yes, but it is we who will write your obituaries."Gunnar Myrdal graduated with a law degree from Stockholm University in 1923 and a doctorate in economics in 1927.
In 1919, he met Alva Reimer, whom he married in 1924. In Gunnar Myrdal's doctoral dissertation, published in 1927, he examined the role of expectations in price formation, his analysis influenced the Stockholm school. He built on Knut Wicksell's theories of cumulative process of endogenous money, stressing the importance of Knightian uncertainty and Ex ante and Ex post expectations role in the economic process. Between 1925 and 1929 he studied in Germany, he was a Rockefeller Fellow and visited the United States in 1929–1930. During this period he published his first books, including The Political Element in the Development of Economic Theory. Returning to Europe, he served for one year as associate professor in the Graduate Institute of International Studies, Switzerland. Gunnar Myrdal was at first fascinated by the abstract mathematical models coming into fashion in the 1920s, helped found the Econometric Society in London. However, he accused the movement of ignoring the problem of distribution of wealth in its obsession with economic growth, of using faulty statistics and substituting Greek letters for missing data in its formulas and of flouting logic.
He wrote, "Correlations are not explanations and besides, they can be as spurious as the high correlation in Finland between foxes killed and divorces." Professor Myrdal was an early supporter of the theses of John Maynard Keynes, although he maintained that the basic idea of adjusting national budgets to slow or speed an economy was first developed by him and articulated in his book Monetary Economics, published in 1932, four years prior to Keynes' General Theory of Employment and Money. William Barber’s comment upon Myrdal’s work on monetary theory goes like this: If his contribution had been available to readers of English before 1936, it is interesting to speculate whether the ‘revolution’ in macroeconomic theory of the depression decade would be referred to as'Myrdalian' as much as'Keynesian'. Economist G. L. S. Shackle claimed the importance of Gunnar Myrdal's analysis by which saving and investment are allowed to adjust ex ante to each other. However, the reference to ex ante and ex post analysis has become so usual in modern macroeconomics that the position of Keynes to not include it in his work was considered as an oddity, if not a mistake.
As Shackle put it: Myrdalian ex ante language would have saved the General Theory from describing the flow of investment and the flow of saving as identically, tautologically equal, within the same discourse, treating their equality as a condition which may, or not, be fulfilled. Gunnar Myrdal developed the key concept circular cumulative causation, a multi-causal approach where the core variables and their linkages are delineated. Gunnar Myrdal became professor at Stockholms Högskola 1933. Myrdal was professor of economics at Stockholms Högskola for 15 years, until 1947, he became a Social Democratic Member of Parliament from 1933 and from 1945 to 1947 he served as Trade Minister in Tage Erlander's government. During this period he was criticised for his financial agreement with the Soviet Union. At the same time he was accused of being responsible for the Swedish monetary crisis in 1947, he coauthored with Alva Myrdal, the Crisis in the Population Question. The work of Gunnar and Alva inspired policies adopted by the Minister of Social Affairs, Gustav Möller, to provide social support to families.
Gunnar Myrdal headed a comprehensive study of sociological, economic and legal data on race relations in the United States funded by the Carnegie Corporation, starting in 1938. The result of the effort was Gunnar Myrdal's best-known work, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy, published in 1944, written with the collaboration of R. M. E. Sterner and Arnold Rose, he characterized the problem of race relations as a dilemma because of a perceived conflict between high ideals, embodied in what he called the "American Creed," on the one hand and poor performance on the other. In the generations since the Civil War, the U. S. had been unable to put its human rights ideals into practice for the African-American tenth of its population. This book was cited by the U. S. Supreme Court in its 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education, which outlawed racial segregation in public schools. Myrdal planned on doing a similar study on gender inequal
Peace Research Institute Oslo
The Peace Research Institute Oslo is an independent peace and conflict studies research institution, based in Oslo, Norway. It is regarded as the world's "oldest and most prominent peace research center." It was founded in 1959 by a group of Norwegian researchers led by Johan Galtung, the principal founder of peace and conflict studies, the institute's first director. The Journal of Peace Research, the discipline's preeminent journal, is published by the institute; the institute is funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, receives funding from the Ministry of Defence, various international organisations such as the World Bank and the European Union, private foundations. The institute has around 75 employees. PRIO headquarters are located in central Oslo, next to the headquarters of the Norwegian Red Cross. PRIO was founded in 1959 by a group of Norwegian researchers led by Johan Galtung; the institute was a department of the Norwegian Institute for Social Research in Oslo and became an independent institute in 1966.
It was one of the first centres of peace research in the world, it is Norway’s only peace research institute. The institute's director since 2009 is Kristian Berg Harpviken, with Inger Skjelsbæk as deputy director. Since 2005, the institute has been located in the former gas works building in central Oslo. PRIO is an independent foundation, governed by a seven-member board; the board includes two PRIO employees, two members appointed by the Research Council of Norway, one member appointed by the Institute for Social Research, one by the University of Oslo, one by the Nordic International Studies Association. Previous PRIO directors are, Johan Galtung, Asbjørn Eide, Helge Hveem, Nils Petter Gleditsch, Kjell Skjelsbæk, Ole Kristian Holthe, Tord Høivik, Marek Thee, Sverre Lodgaard, Hilde Henriksen Waage, Dan Smith, Stein Tønnesson, Kristian Berg Harpviken, Henrik Urdal. After Galtung's resignation in 1969, the institute staff elected a leader for one year at a time. In 1986 this was changed to a three-year period, again in 1993 to a maximum of two consecutive four-year periods.
PRIOs first chairman of the board was director of Institute for Social Research. He was succeeded by Torstein Eckhoff, Bernt Bull, Frida Nokken, Helge Pharo, Øyvind Østerud, Bernt Aardal and Åslaug Marie Haga; the institute's purpose, as formulated in the statutes, is "to engage in research concerning the conditions for peaceful relations between nations and individuals". Researchers come from a variety of disciplines in the social sciences and humanities, including political science, anthropology, human geography, history of religion, philosophy. Output from the research is published as articles in peer-reviewed academic journals, anthologies or monographs, but as more policy-oriented reports and papers such as PRIO's in-house series. 15 percent of the institute's budget is made up of a core grant from the Research Council of Norway, the remaining 85 per cent is funded on project basis. The two largest project funders are the Research Council of Norway and the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Other funders include the European Union, the World Bank, the Norwegian Ministry of Defence. In 2009, PRIO initiated the founding of the US based Peace Research Endowment. In Oslo, PRIO hosts the Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers; this is a joint initiative of PRIO, the Norwegian Red Cross and the Norwegian Church Aid to help block the spread of small arms to areas where they are to be used in warfare, armed violence or human rights abuses. The staff comprises a core group of support staff. In addition, there are researchers with a part-time affiliation with PRIO, visiting scholars and students. PRIO cooperates with the Australian National University and the University of Stellenbosch in offering master programmes in international studies. From 2003 to 2012, PRIO hosted the Centre for the Study of Civil War, one of the original 13 "Centres of Excellence" in Norway; the director for the full 10-year period was Scott Gates. The institute maintains a centre in Nicosia, known as the PRIO Cyprus Centre.
Through its network and dialogue forums, the PRIO Cyprus Centre aims to foster cooperation between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and strengthen regional cooperation in the Eastern Mediterranean at large. PRIO owns two academic journals, both edited at the institute and published by SAGE Publications: Journal of Peace Research, edited by Gudrun Østby and Security Dialogue, edited by Mark B. Salter. Initiated in 2010, the PRIO Annual Peace Address intends to create awareness, stir public debate and increase understanding about the conditions for peace in the world. Inviting researchers and other people with strong views on peace-related topics, the idea is to challenge the peace research community by suggesting new measures and bringing new perspectives on peace and war. 2010: Jon Elster: Justice, Peace 2011: John Lewis: The Role of Nonviolence in the Struggle for Liberation 2012: Azar Gat: Peace for Our Time? 2013: Jody Williams: The Power of Global Activism 2014: Paul Collier: Civil Conflict: What are the Current Risks, What are the Realistic Solutions?
2015: John Mueller: The Dangers of Alarmism 2016: Francesca Borri: The Journalistic Contribution to Peace 2017: Obiageli Ezekwesili: Education and Peace 2018: Debarati Gu
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Philanthropy means the love of humanity. A conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life", which combines an original humanistic tradition with a social scientific aspect developed in the 20th century; the definition serves to contrast philanthropy with business endeavors, which are private initiatives for private good, e.g. focusing on material gain, with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, e.g. focusing on provision of public services. A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist. Philanthropy has distinguishing characteristics separate from charity. A difference cited is that charity aims to relieve the pain of a particular social problem, whereas philanthropy attempts to address the root cause of the problem—the difference between the proverbial gift of a fish to a hungry person, versus teaching them how to fish. In the second century CE, Plutarch used the Greek concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior human beings.
During the Roman Catholic Middle Ages, philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love, valued for salvation and escape from purgatory. Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1600s, credited with preventing the word from being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be synonymous with "goodness", correlated with the Aristotelian conception of virtue, as consciously instilled habits of good behaviour. Samuel Johnson defined philanthropy as "love of mankind; this definition still survives today and is cited more gender-neutrally as the "love of humanity." In London prior to the 18th century and civic charities were established by bequests and operated by local church parishes or guilds. During the 18th century, however, "a more activist and explicitly Protestant tradition of direct charitable engagement during life" took hold, exemplified by the creation of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and Societies for the Reformation of Manners.
In 1739, Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, received a royal charter to establish the Foundling Hospital to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This was "the first children's charity in the country, one that'set the pattern for incorporated associational charities' in general." The hospital "marked the first great milestone in the creation of these new-style charities."Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763, the society had recruited over 10,000 men and it was incorporated in 1772. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard—some charities received state recognition in the form of the Royal Charter.
Philanthropists, such as anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce, began to adopt active campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded in ending the slave trade throughout the Empire starting in 1807. Although there were no slaves allowed in Britain itself, many rich men owned sugar plantations in the West Indies, resisted the movement to buy them out until it succeeded in 1833. Financial donations to organized charities became fashionable among the middle-class in the 19th century. By 1869 there were over 200 London charities with an annual income, all together, of about £2 million. By 1885, rapid growth had produced with an income of about £ 4.5 million. They included a wide range of religious and secular goals, with the American import, the YMCA as one of the largest, many small ones such as the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association.
In addition to making annual donations wealthy industrialists and financiers left generous sums in their wills. A sample of 466 wills in the 1890s revealed a total wealth of £76 million, of which £20 million was bequeathed to charities. By 1900 London charities enjoyed an annual income of about £8.5 million. Led by the energetic Lord Shaftesbury, philanthropists organized themselves. In 1869 they set up the Charity Organisation Society, it was a federation of one in each of the 42 Poor Law divisions. Its central office had experts in coordination and guidance, thereby maximizing the impact of charitable giving to the poor. Many of the charities were designed to alleviate the harsh living conditions in the slums; such as the Labourer's Friend Society founded in 1830. This included the promotion of allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement, in 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company—an organization that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, while at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment.
This was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavor that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century, brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust, t
Adam Daniel Rotfeld
Adam Daniel Rotfeld is a Polish researcher and former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland from 5 January 2005 until 31 October 2005 when a change of government took place. He served earlier as the deputy foreign minister. While in that position, Rotfeld established the Warsaw Reflection Group on the UN Reform and the Transformation of the Euro-Atlantic Security Institutions, with participation from leading US and European experts and politicians. From 1991 up to 2002 he served as Director of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and in 1989–1991 project leader on Building a Cooperative Security System in and for Europe at SIPRI. Rotfeld was born in Przemyślany near Poland, he survived the Holocaust in a monastery of the Studite Brethren. Rotfeld was married to Barbara Sikorska-Rotfeld and has one daughter, born in 1971. Rotfeld studied international diplomacy in Warsaw, he wrote his PhD dissertation on the right of self-determination of people in modern international law at the Jagiellonian University, Kraków which he defended in 1969.
Habilitation on European Security in Statu Nascendi. He was appointed professor at Warsaw University by the President of Poland in 2001. From 1961, Rotfeld worked as a researcher at the Polish Institute of International Affairs, he was a member of the UN Secretary General Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters from 2006 to 2011, its chair in 2008. After 1989, he has served as leader of the Project on Building a Co–operative Security System in and for Europe at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, he was appointed as Director of SIPRI from 1 July 1991 and re–elected in 1996 for a second term, lasting until June 2002. He is a member of many consultative bodies and scientific councils, including the Institute of Political Studies at the Polish Academy of Sciences, he is co-chairman of Polish-Russian Group on Difficult Matters. He has participated in many multilateral conferences on security and arms control. Rotfeld has edited more than 20 monographs and over 400 articles, his work focused on the legal and political aspect of relations between Germany and Central and East European states after World War II and multilateral process of security and cooperation in Europe initiated by the Helsinki Accords, as well as arms control and non-proliferation.
After the end of the cold war he co-edited the volume Germany and Europe in Transition with Walther Stützle. Since his publications have focused on human rights, cooperative security, CSBMs, multilateral security structures and the political and legal structures of the security system in Europe, he was editor of the SIPRI Yearbook: Armaments and International Security from 1991 to 2002. He has written more than 20 chapters on global and regional security systems and European and transatlantic security structures for the SIPRI Yearbook, he initiated the Warsaw Reflection Group and chaired the series of reports on the UN reform, multilateral European security institutions and on arms control, non-proliferation and denuclearization. In his capacity as Director of SIPRI, he was appointed in 1992 as Personal Representative of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office to elaborate the political settlement of the conflict in the Trans–Dniester region of Moldova. Since 2001 he has been a member of the President of Poland’s National Security Council.
He became Undersecretary of State at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in November 2001. Since 2006 he has been a member of the UN Secretary-General's Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. Since 2008, former Foreign Minister Rotfeld has been Co-Chairing the Polish-Russian Group For Difficult Issues, in particular the Katyn massacre, together with Rector of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Anatoly V. Torkunov, he is a member of different boards: the Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences. He has been a member of the European Council on Foreign Relations since 2009. Since March 2011 he has been professor at the Warsaw University Institute of Interdisciplinary Research, he has lectured at many universities and academic institutions in Europe, the United States, Russia and Japan. As former Polish minister for integration, in 2012 signed the Soros' open letter calling for more Europe in the single currency turmoil. Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta – 2010The Commander's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta – 2005Bene Merito Honorary Badge – 2009Polish-Ukrainian Reconciliation Award – 2007 Honorary Doctorate in National Defense
Dan Smith (British author)
Dan Smith OBE is a British author and peace researcher. He is Professor of Conflict Studies at the University of Manchester, he was Director of Peace Research Institute Oslo from 1993 to 2001. Smith was the Secretary General of the independent peacebuilding organisation International Alert and is the Director of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. After graduating in English Literature from the University of Cambridge in 1973, Smith worked first for the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament before taking up research on UK defence policies in 1976, he was a fellow first of the Richardson Institute for Conflict and Peace Research and of the Department of Economics at Birkbeck College in London. During the 1980s Smith worked as writer. In 1989 he became co-director of the Transnational Institute in Amsterdam, becoming its sole director in 1991, moving to Oslo where he was Director of the international Peace Research Institute Oslo from 1993 to 2001. In 2001 he held a brief fellowship at the Norwegian Nobel Institute and in 2003 at the Hellenic Foundation for Foreign and European Policy in Athens.
Smith was the Secretary General of International Alert between December 2003 and August 2015. In 2013 Smith was appointed part-time Professor of Peace and Conflict at the University of Manchester’s Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute. In September 2015, Smith left International Alert and became the Director of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Dan Smith was nominated by the UK government and appointed by the UN Secretary-General to be a member of the UN Peacebuilding Fund’s Advisory Group in 2007, became Chairman of the group for 2010 through 2011, when he stood down, he was Chairman of the Board of the London-based NGO Institute for War and Peace Reporting from 1993 until 2006. He was awarded the OBE in 2002. Dan Smith has been publishing in a variety of formats since the mid-1970s, his main works are: The Defence of the Realm in the 1980s Protest and Survive The Penguin Atlas of War and Peace – four editions since 1983, the first two co-authored with Michael Kidron, the 3rd & 4th as sole author.
Prospectus for a Habitable Planet European Security in the 1990s Gender and Conflict The State of the Middle East, 1st edition The State of the Middle East, 2nd edition The State of the World Atlas, 6th edition The State of the World Atlas, 7th edition The State of the World Atlas, 8th edition, ranked in "The 10 Best Atlases" by The Independent newspaper. The State of the World Atlas, 9th edition, which Stephen Williams of the New African said comprised "extraordinary statistics... made understandable by the excellent graphics". Smith is responsible for over 100 articles in journals and periodicals and chapters in anthologies, as well as a number of reports, of which the two most significant are: Towards a Strategic Framework for Peacebuilding: Getting Their Act Together, published by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. A Climate of Conflict published by International Alert. Smith authored three crime novels, all published by Macmillan: Fathers’ Law, Serious Crimes and The Fourth Crow.
Dan Smith's blog Analysis & commentary on world issues Video: Dan Smith on Climate and Conflict on YouTube