Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
EuroPride is a pan-European international event dedicated to LGBTI pride, hosted by a different European city each year. The host city is one with an established pride event or a significant LGBTI community. For up to a month, numerous sporting and human rights events are staged throughout the host city. EuroPride culminates during a weekend with a traditional Mardi Gras-style pride parade, live music, human rights conference, special club nights, an AIDS memorial vigil. EuroPride was inaugurated in London in 1992, attended by estimated crowds of over 100,000; the following year, Berlin hosted the festivities. When Amsterdam hosted EuroPride in 1994, it turned into a financial disaster, leaving debts of 450,000 euros. In 1996, EuroPride moved to Copenhagen; the organisers were successful on all fronts but not able to achieve a financial surplus. Paris hosted EuroPride in 1997; the festival had numerous commercial sponsors and was hailed as a success. During the parade, over 300,000 people marched to the Bastille.
Stockholm was the host city in 1998. London was to host EuroPride again in 1999, but the event was canceled when the organisers went bankrupt. In 2000, WorldPride took place for the first time and, as has happened each time since, when WorldPride is in Europe, no separate EuroPride takes place; the event was well-attended by LGBTI people from all over the world. After supporting the event, city leaders pulled their support just days before due to pressure exerted by the Vatican, organising its Great Jubilee. Vienna hosted the 2001 EuroPride. In 2002, Köln, held the then-biggest EuroPride. EuroPride was hosted by Manchester in 2003, Hamburg in 2004. Oslo hosted it with Ian McKellen as the guest of honour. London hosted the event in 2006, organising a two-week festival culminating in a parade on the final day in which marchers were invited to walk down Oxford Street, one of the city's busiest shopping streets, the first time they had been allowed to do so; the parade was attended by Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, Conservative MP Alan Duncan, human rights campaigner Peter Tatchell, the first transgender MEP, Italian Vladimir Luxuria.
Following the parade, events were held in three of the capital's squares: a rally in Trafalgar Square addressed by Ian McKellen, entertainment in Leicester and Soho Squares. EuroPride 2006 marked the first time that London's main pride rally and entertainment areas were staged within the city itself, rather than in open parks. In 2007, Madrid hosted EuroPride, which took place in Chueca, the capital's gay village, during the last week in June. Madrid was chosen because of the gay marriage and gender identity laws Spain had passed during the previous two years. More than 1.2 million people attended the final parade as it passed through the downtown streets of Alcalá, Gran Vía, ending up at Plaza de España. For the first time, Madrid City Hall contributed financing to the MADO organisation. In addition, a private event, the Infinitamentegay Party, took place in Casa de Campo Park. In 2008, the Stockholm Pride organization organised EuroPride for a second time, held from 25 June to 3 August in Stockholm, a decade after hosting EuroPride 1998.
Zurich hosted EuroPride in 2009 with a month-long roster of events from 2 May to 7 June, culminating in a parade through downtown Zurich on 6 June. The 2010 event was held in Poland. Organisers prepared multifaceted events between July 9 to 18; the Parade took place on July 17. It marked the first time this pan-European LGBT celebration took place in a former communist country; the Warsaw EuroPride formulated, as its main theme, a demand for legalisation of same sex civil partnerships. In 2011, EuroPride returned to Rome. Hosted by Claudia Gerini, the parade closed with a performance and a speech by Lady Gaga at the Circus Maximus; that year one million people took part. The 2013 EuroPride was in Marseille, France from July 10–20, focusing on gay marriage in France and celebrated the biggest gay wedding in Europe The 2016 EuroPride returned to Amsterdam. UK singer/songwriter Tara McDonald sang her single "I Need A Miracle", chosen as the EuroPride anthem and was remixed by Gregor Salto. There was no EuroPride in 2017.
The European Pride Organisers Association, which licences EuroPride and owns the trademark, has decided that a World Pride event held in Europe automatically carries the title of EuroPride. The first World Pride was held in Rome in 2000; the second WorldPride was held in Jerusalem in 2005-2006. London hosting the 2012 Summer Olympics, beat out competing candidate, Stockholm, in the fall of 2008 to hold World Pride 2012, held from 23 June to 8 July. WorldPride 2017 was held in Madrid, WorldPride 2021 will be held in Copenhagen, Denmark. Madrid's EuroPride 2007 was the most well-attended with an estimated 2.5 million visitors. This huge attendance was not only a success for Madrid, but for the whole LGBT Spanish community, due to the celebration of the change of terms in the laws related to gay marriage and adoptions. Madrid was one of the first Spanish cities celebrating the legalization of gay marriage, with the support of all political parties the conservatives in the Government, headed by the ex-mayor of the city, Alberto Ruíz Gallardón from Partido Popular.
Due to these and other advances in same-sex freedom and social progress, Madrid was chosen in 2012 to host WorldPride 2017. The European Pride Organisers Association was fou
Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired. It is traditionally written with embossed paper. Braille users can read computer screens and other electronic supports using refreshable braille displays, they can write braille with the original slate and stylus or type it on a braille writer, such as a portable braille notetaker or computer that prints with a braille embosser. Braille is named after its creator, Louis Braille, a Frenchman who lost his sight as a result of a childhood accident. In 1824, at the age of fifteen, he developed a code for the French alphabet as an improvement on night writing, he published his system, which subsequently included musical notation, in 1829. The second revision, published in 1837, was the first small binary form of writing developed in the modern era; these characters have rectangular blocks called cells. The number and arrangement of these dots distinguish one character from another. Since the various braille alphabets originated as transcription codes for printed writing, the mappings vary from language to language, within one.
Braille cells are not the only thing to appear in braille text. There may be embossed illustrations and graphs, with the lines either solid or made of series of dots, bullets that are larger than braille dots, etc. A full braille cell includes six raised dots arranged in each column having three dots; the dot positions are identified by numbers from one to six. There are 64 possible solutions using zero or more dots. A cell can be used to represent a letter, punctuation mark, or a word. In the face of screen reader software, braille usage has declined. Braille was based on a tactile military code called night writing, developed by Charles Barbier in response to Napoleon's demand for a means for soldiers to communicate silently at night and without a light source. In Barbier's system, sets of 12 embossed dots encoded 36 different sounds, it was rejected by the military. In 1821 Barbier visited the Royal Institute for the Blind in Paris. Braille identified two major defects of the code: first, by representing only sounds, the code was unable to render the orthography of the words.
Braille's solution was to use 6-dot cells and to assign a specific pattern to each letter of the alphabet. At first, Braille was a one-to-one transliteration of French orthography, but soon various abbreviations and logograms were developed, creating a system much more like shorthand; the expanded English system, called Grade-2 Braille, was completed by 1905. For blind readers, Braille is an independent writing system, rather than a code of printed orthography. Braille is derived from the Latin alphabet, albeit indirectly. In Braille's original system, the dot patterns were assigned to letters according to their position within the alphabetic order of the French alphabet, with accented letters and w sorted at the end; the first ten letters of the alphabet, a–j, use the upper four dot positions: ⠁⠃⠉⠙⠑⠋⠛⠓⠊⠚. These stand for the ten digits 1–9 and 0 in a system parallel to Hebrew gematria and Greek isopsephy; the next ten letters, k–t, are identical to a–j apart from the addition of a dot at position 3: ⠅⠇⠍⠝⠕⠏⠟⠗⠎⠞: The next ten letters are the same again, but with dots at positions both 3 and 6.
Here w was left out as not being a part of the official French alphabet at the time of Braille's life. The next ten, ending in w, are the same again, except that for this series position 6 is used without position 3. In French braille these are â ê î ô û ë ï ü ö w; the a -- j series lowered by one dot. Letters a ⠁ and c ⠉, which only use dots in the top row, were lowered two places for the apostrophe and hyphen: ⠄⠤. In addition, there are ten patterns. There had been nine decades; the fifth through ninth used dashes as well as dots, but proved to be impractical and were soon abandoned. These could be replaced with what we now know as the number sign, though that only caught on for the digits; the dash occupying the top row of the original sixth decade was dropped, producing the modern fifth decade. There have been three principles in assigning the values of a linear script to Braille: Using Louis Braille's original French letter values.
Pink Dot SG
Pink Dot SG is an annual event that started in 2009 in support of the lesbian, gay and transgender community in Singapore. Attendees of Pink Dot events gather to form a "pink dot" to show support for inclusiveness and the freedom to love. In addition to the titular formation, Pink Dot events feature concert performances and booths sponsored by organizations supporting the LGBT community and cause. Other Pink Dot events followed in several other cities, so that the Singapore event became known as Pink Dot SG, it has been held each year in Singapore from 2009 to 2017 at Speakers' Corner on a Saturday in May, June or July. The 2019 event is scheduled for 29 June. In September 2008, the rules governing activities conducted at Singapore's Speakers' Corner at Hong Lim Park were relaxed, allowing demonstrations organised by Singaporeans to be held at the park, providing that all participants are either citizens or permanent residents; this allowed the first Pink Dot SG event to take place at the Speakers' Corner on 16 May 2009.
A total of nine Pink Dot events have been held in Singapore, occurring annually on Saturdays in May, June or July. Many organisations around the world modeled LGBT events after the Pink Dot concept borrowing the "Pink Dot" prefix. For distinction, the Singapore events became known as Pink Dot SG; the design of the Pink Dot SG mascot "Pinkie", a personification of the pink dot, was provided by graphic designer Soh Ee Shaun. Each event from 2009 to 2017 took place on a Saturday at Speakers' Corner in Hong Lim Park. Pink Dot SG 2009 was held on 16 May, launched with a campaign video titled "RED + WHITE = PINK", it was Singapore's first public, open-air, pro-LGBT event and established the record for the greatest turnout for a gathering at Speakers' Corner in Hong Lim Park since the venue's inception. The event was deemed a milestone for Singapore's LGBT community. Ambassadors of the event were local celebrities: actor Timothy Nga, actress Neo Swee Lin and radio DJ Rosalyn Lee. During the event, formations of the words "LOVE" and "4All" were created by participants.
The event concluded with the formation of the titular Pink Dot. The pioneer Pink Dot SG event was given extensive coverage in both local media. Locally, The Straits Times and TODAY newspapers covered the event. However, reports regarding the number of attendees were inconsistent. Organisers estimated an attendance of 2,500, while The Straits Times reported a turnout of 1,000, TODAY reported "at least 500". Internationally, the event was covered by the BBC and the New York Times, with reports syndicated to publications around the world through wire services the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse. Pink Dot SG 2010 was held on 15 May, with the theme: "Focusing on Our Families". There was a turnout of 4,000 participants and the event received local media coverage by Channel News Asia and The Sunday Times; the event was reported internationally by the BBC, the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse. Ambassadors of the event were local celebrities: actor Adrian Pang, actress Tan Kheng Hua and DJ Bigkid.
Pink Dot SG 2011 was held on 18 June with more than 10,000 participants. The event featured the theme song "I Want To Hold Your Hand" by the Beatles and a campaign video by Boo Junfeng; the event had attracted Google as a corporate sponsor, the multinational company continued to support the event in subsequent years. Local musical cabaret trio the Dim Sum Dollies made an appearance as the official ambassadors of the event. Pink Dot SG 2011 was covered by local and international mainstream media. An aerial shot of Pink Dot SG was featured on xinmsn news for June's "2011 Year in Pictures"; this was the first time Pink Dot SG was featured in "Time Out Singapore" with a full article devoted to it. The event was promoted in an article on CNNGo. International Pink Dot events were held the same day in Alaska. Pink Dot SG 2012 was held on 30 June and had the campaign theme "Someday" and the theme song "True Colors". At this event, 15,000 participants formed a glowing pink dot with mobile phones and flashlights.
The event added Barclays alongside Google. Celebrity ambassadors were former actress Sharon Au, actor Lim Yu-Beng and drag queen actor-comedian Kumar. Pink Dot SG 2012 was reported in the mainstream media and by international media agencies, including The Wall Street Journal, Taiwan's lihpao, Thailand's PBS, Egypt's bikyamasr. Singer Jason Mraz, giving a performance on 29 June in Singapore, made a shout-out in a video in support of Pink Dot 2012, prior to the event; the 2012 event inspired the launch of Pink Dot Okinawa, which had its first event the following year. Pink Dot 2013 was held the evening of 29 June; the event marked its fifth year under a campaign of "Home", the title of a local National Day song which doubled as the event's theme song. The campaign featured a video, directed by local filmmaker Boo Junfeng, depicting three individual true-life experiences. Like the previous year, the event included the formation of the Pink Dot with pink lights. Pink Dot organisers claimed a record turnout of 21,000, which would make it the largest civil society gathering in the country.
To accommodate the large number of participants, a second "satellite" focal point was created to channel traffic away from the busiest areas. Prior to the formation of the Pink Dot, participants were treated to a range of activities by more than 20 community groups and partners. Pink Dot SG 2013's list of corporate contributors grew to include global financial firm JPMorgan Chase, local hotel Parkroyal on Pickering, contact lens specialist CooperVision and audio branding agency The Gunnery, in addition to Google and Barclays. Local
Efva Katarina Attling, is a Swedish silversmith and jewellery designer. In the early 1980s she played in the band "X Models" and released the hit single Två av oss, she worked as a professional model for twelve years after being spotted by Eileen Ford. She was noted for being one of Sweden's best professional disco dancers. Attling designed for Levi's and H&M and in the mid 1990s she started her own line of jewellery, her pendant "Homo Sapiens" was worn by Madonna in 1999, Meryl Streep is known to wear her jewellery. She has stores in Sweden, Norway and New York; the estimated turnover for her company was SEK 100 million in 2011. Attling was married to pop singer/writer Niklas Strömstedt, with whom she has two children, from 1985 to 1995, she entered a civil union with Swedish pop singer Eva Dahlgren in 1996. They were married in 2009. Attling has received a medal from the Royal Swedish Patriotic Society in April 2011 for distinguishing herself as an internationally known jewellery designer
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Lars Wallin is a Swedish fashion designer. He made his debut on the Swedish fashion stage in 1990 after graduating from Beckmans. Since he has received many prestigious assignments, designing for Miss World and the Eurovision Song Contest, he is known for designing dresses for Crown Princess Victoria. Wallin designed the clothes Carola Häggkvist wore when she won Melodifestivalen in 2006 and he designed new ones for her appearance at the Eurovision Song Contest in Athens. Lars Wallin went to Tillbergaskolan in Västerås in 7th to 9th grade. Lars has created his own jewelry brand