Dagens Nyheter, abbreviated DN, is a daily newspaper in Sweden. It is published in aspires to full national and international coverage. Dagens Nyheter was founded by Rudolf Wall in December 1864; the first issue was published on 23 December 1864. During its initial period the paper was published in the morning. In 1874 the paper became a joint stock company, its circulation in 1880 was 15,000 copies. In the 1890s, Wall left Dagens Nyheter and soon after, the paper became the organ of the Liberal Party. From 1946 to 1959 Herbert Tingsten was the executive editor; the newspaper is owned by the Bonnier Group. Dagens Nyheter operates from the so-called "DN-skrapan" in Stockholm; this was designed by the architect Paul Hedqvist. It has 27 floors, none of which are underground. In 1996, the entire enterprise moved to its current location on Gjörwellsgatan, adjacent to the old tower; the newspaper Expressen owned by the Bonnier Group, is located in this building as well. Opinion leaders choose Dagens Nyheter as the venue for publishing major opinion editorials.
The stated position of the editorial page is "independently liberal". However, it left its formal alliance with the liberal establishment in the country in 1972. In the 1960s the circulation of Dagens Nyheter was much higher than that of other Swedish dailies; the paper has the largest circulation among the Swedish morning newspapers followed by Göteborgs-Posten and Svenska Dagbladet, is the only morning newspaper, distributed to subscribers across the whole country. In 2001 its circulation was 361,000 copies; the 2004 circulation of the paper was 363,000 copies. The circulation of the paper was 363,100 copies in weekdays in 2005 and had dropped to 292,300 copies in 2010. In 2013, the print edition of Dagens Nyheter had a circulation of 282,800 copies, reaching an approximate 758,000 persons every day; the web edition, dn.se, had on average 1.5 million unique visitors per week during 2013. List of newspapers in Sweden Official website in Swedish
A ring road is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country. The most common purpose of a ring road is to assist in reducing traffic volumes in the urban centre, such as by offering an alternate route around the city for drivers who do not need to stop in the city core; the name "ring road" is used for the majority of metropolitan circumferential routes in the European Union, such as the Berliner Ring, the Brussels Ring, the Amsterdam Ring, the Boulevard Périphérique around Paris and the Leeds Inner and Outer ring roads. Australia and India use the term ring road, as in Melbourne's Western Ring Road, Lahore's Lahore Ring Road and Hyderabad's Outer Ring Road. In Canada the term is the most used, with "orbital" used, but to a much lesser extent. In Europe, some ring roads those of motorway standard which are longer in length, are known as "orbital motorways". Examples include the London Rome Orbital. In the United States, many ring roads are called beltlines, beltways, or loops, such as the Capital Beltway around Washington, D.
C. Some ring roads, such as Washington's Capital Beltway, use "Inner Loop" and "Outer Loop" terminology for directions of travel, since cardinal directions cannot be signed uniformly around the entire loop; the term'ring road' is – and inaccurately – used interchangeably with the term'bypass'. Bypasses around many large and small towns were built in many areas when many old roads were upgraded to four-lane status in the 1930s to 1950s, such as those along the Old National Road in the United States, leaving the old road in place to serve the town or city, but allowing through travelers to continue on a wider and safer route. Construction of circumferential ring roads has occurred more beginning in the 1960s in many areas, when the U. S. Interstate Highway System and similar-quality roads elsewhere were designed. Ring roads have now been built around numerous cities and metropolitan areas, including cities with multiple ring roads, irregularly shaped ring roads, ring roads made up of various other long-distance roads.
London has three ringroads. Other British cities have two. Columbus, Ohio, in the United States has two, while Houston, Texas will have three official ring roads; some cities have far more – Beijing, for example, has six ring roads numbered in increasing order from the city center. Geographical constraints can prohibit the construction of a complete ring road. For example, the Baltimore Beltway in Maryland crosses Baltimore Harbor on a high arch bridge, much of the completed Stockholm Ring Road in Sweden runs through tunnels or over long bridges. However, some towns or cities on seacoasts or near rugged mountains cannot have a full ring road, such as Dublin's ring road. Adjacency of international boundaries may prohibit ring road completion in other cases. Construction of a true ring road around Detroit is blocked by its location on the border with Canada. Sometimes, the presence of significant natural or historical areas limits route options, as for the long-proposed Outer Beltway around Washington, D.
C. where options for a new western Potomac River crossing are limited by a nearly continuous corridor of visited scenic and historical landscapes in the Potomac River Gorge and adjacent areas. When referring to a road encircling a capital city, the term "beltway" can have a political connotation, as in the American term "Inside the Beltway", derived metonymically from the Capital Beltway encircling Washington, D. C. Most orbital motorways are purpose-built major highways around a town or city without either signals or road or railroad crossings. In the United States, beltways are parts of the Interstate Highway System. Similar roads in the United Kingdom are called "orbital motorways". Although the terms "ring road" and "orbital motorway" are sometimes used interchangeably, "ring road" indicates a circumferential route formed from one or more existing roads within a city or town, with the standard of road being anything from an ordinary city street up to motorway level. An excellent example of this is London's North Circular/South Circular ring road.
In some cases, a circumferential route is formed by the combination of a major through highway and a similar-quality loop route that extends out from the parent road reconnecting with the same highway. Such loops not only function as a bypass for through traffic, but to serve outlying suburbs. In the United States, an Interstate highway loop is designated by a three-digit number beginning with an digit before the two-digit number of its parent interstate. Interstate spurs, on the other hand have three-digit numbers beginning with an odd digit. Circumferential highways are prominent features near many large cities in the United States. In many cases, such as Interstate 285 in Atlanta, circumferential highways se
Sveriges Riksbank or the Riksbank, is the central bank of Sweden. It is the third oldest bank in operation; the first part of the word riksbank, stems from the Swedish word rike, which means realm, empire or nation in English. A literal English translation of the bank's name could thus be Sweden's realm's bank; the bank, doesn't translate its name to English but uses its Swedish name the Riksbank in its English communications. The Riksbank began operations in 1668. Sweden was served by the Stockholms Banco, founded by Johan Palmstruch in 1656. Although the bank was private, it was the king who chose its management: in a letter to Palmstruch, he gave permission to its operations according to stated regulations, but Stockholms Banco collapsed as a result of the issuing of too many notes without the necessary collateral. Palmstruch, considered responsible for the bank's losses, was condemned to death, but received clemency. On 17 September 1668, the privilege of Palmstruch to operate a bank was transferred to the Riksens Ständers Bank and was run under the auspices of the parliament of the day.
Due to the failure of Stockholm Banco, the new bank was managed under the direct control of the Riksdag of the Estates to prevent the interference from the king. When a new Riksdag was instituted in 1866, the name of the bank was changed to Sveriges Riksbank. Having learned the lesson of the Stockholms Banco experience, the Riksbank was not permitted to issue bank-notes. In 1701, permission was granted to issue so called credit-notes"; some time in the middle of the 18th century, counterfeit notes began appearing, which caused serious problems. To prevent forgeries, it was decided that the Riksbank should produce its own paper for bank-notes and a paper-mill, Tumba Bruk, was founded in Tumba, on the outskirts of Stockholm. A few years the first commercial banks were founded and these were allowed to issue bank-notes; the bank-notes represented a claim to the bank without interest paid, thus became a considerable source of income for banks. Nonetheless, security in the form of a deposit at the Riksbank was required to cover the value of all notes issued.
During the 19th century, the Riksbank maintained a dominant position as a credit institution and issuer of bank-notes. The bank managed national trade transactions as well as continuing to provide credit to the general public; the first branch-office was opened in 1824 followed with subsidiary branches opening in each county. The present operational activities as a central bank differ from those during the 19th century. For example, no interest-rate-related activities were conducted; the position of the Riksbank as a central bank dates back to 1897, when the first Riksbank Act was accepted concurrently with a law giving the Riksbank the exclusive right to issue bank-notes. This copyright concluded its role and importance regarding monetary policy in a modern sense, as the exclusive right to issue notes is a condition when conducting monetary policy and defending the value of a currency. Behind the decision were repeated demands that the private banks should cease to issue notes as it was considered that the ensuing profits should befall the general public.
The Swedish currency was backed by gold and the paper-certificates could be exchanged for gold coins until 1931, when a specialized temporary law freed the bank from this obligation. This law was renewed every year until the new constitution was ratified in 1975 which split the bank from the government into a stand-alone organization not obligated to exchange notes for gold. In November 1992, the fixed exchange rate regime of the Swedish Krona collapsed. A few months in January 1993, the Governing Board of the Riksbank developed a new monetary policy regime based on a floating exchange rate and an inflation target; these policies were extensively influenced by assistance from the Bank of Canada, which had extensive previous experience controlling inflation, while being a similar small open economy subject to foreign exchange rate swings. From 1991 to 1993, Sweden experienced its most severe recession since the 1930s termed the "Swedish banking rescue", it forced inflation down to around 2%, inflation continued to be low during the subsequent years of strong growth in the late 1990s.
During the 2000s, the operations and administrative departments were downsized on behalf of the policy departments Financial Stability Department and Monetary Policy Department. A direct consequence of the changing times was that the Riksbank closed down all its branches in Sweden and outsourced the handling of coins and bills to a private company. Today the policy departments are the core of the central bank and they employ about half of the bank's 350 full-time posts; the motto of the Bank is Hinc robur et securitas, Latin for "Herefore strength and safety". Following its third centennial in 1968, the bank instituted the annual Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, awarded with the Nobel Prizes at the Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm, on 10 December, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death; the Riksbank has a reputation for innovation among central banks due to implementing policies such as: On 2 July 2009, Sweden's Riksbank was the first central bank in the world to implement a negative interest rate, when it lowered its repo rate to 0.25%.
This caused its linked overnight deposit rate to be pushed down to −0.25%
Norra länken is a motorway in Stockholm, between the port of Värtahamnen and Karlberg, where it connects to Essingeleden. The road is part of the incomplete Stockholm Ring Road. Norra länken is 5 kilometers in length; the part between Karlberg and Norrtull was opened in 1991, the tunnel between Norrtull and Värtan was opened in 2014. The other parts of the ring road are the congested Essingeleden in the west, opened in 1966, Södra länken in the south, opened in 2004, Österleden in the east, where plans have been canceled; the part of Norra länken between Karlberg and Norrtull was finished and opened in 1991. As part of the Dennis Agreement, a political agreement, the construction eastward of the remaining part to Värtahamnen was to be completed as well; the construction was cancelled in 1997 when the project was appealed to the Supreme Administrative Court which determined that the detail plan for the part between Norrtull and Roslagstull was in conflict with the law protecting the Royal National City Park.
The political agreement was broken and it was uncertain whether the road project would be completed. The government and Stockholm Municipality agreed in 2002 on a new alignment between Norrtull and Roslagstull; the detail plan was again appealed, but the Supreme Administrative Court rejected the appeal on February 26, 2007, construction resumed on May 11, 2007. The tunnel between Nortull and Värtahamnen was opened on November 30, 2014, the total cost of the tunnel was 10.6 billion SEK. Entrances and exits have been placed at the areas of Norrtull, Frescati, Värtahamnen. Swedish Transport Administration page for Norra Länken Media related to Norra länken at Wikimedia Commons
Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden
The Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden is the supreme court and the third and final tier for administrative court cases in Sweden, is located in Stockholm. It has a parallel status to that of the Supreme Court of Sweden, the supreme court for criminal and civil law cases, it hears cases which have been decided by one of the four Administrative courts of appeal, which represent the second tier for administrative court cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided, a leave to appeal must be obtained, only granted when the case is of interest as a precedent; the bulk of its caseload consist of taxation and social security cases. Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court are appointed by government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, the government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court. By law, there shall be fourteen Justices of the Supreme Administrative Court or such a higher a number as may be required, at the government's discretion; as of 2009, there were eighteen Justices in the court.
One of the Justices serves as president and head of the court, is appointed by the government to this function. Since 3 January 2011, Justice Mats Melin serves as the court's president. In total the court has 100 employees; the court was founded in 1909. Before that, the Supreme Court of Sweden handed administrative court matters as well. From 1972 until 2009, the Supreme Administrative Court resided in the Stenbock Palace on the Riddarholmen islet in central Stockholm. Since 2011 the court sits in the Sparre Palace on Riddarholmen. Courts of Sweden: The Supreme Administrative Court
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Österleden is a planned motorway in Stockholm, Sweden. The road is intended to on the east side of the Stockholm City Centre bind together the Norra länken and Södra länken motorways to create a completed Stockholm ring road; as of 2007 the road project has undergone a feasibility study, is awaiting feedback from the County Administrative Board of Stockholm. In January 2008 Kristina Axén Olin, the Mayor of Stockholm, said that the political majority in Stockholm Municipality was in favor of constructing the road, but according to the plan with the Swedish Road Administration the construction start would not occur until 2020 and completion in 2030. Plans on a road connection using a bridge east of the city centre were part of the early regional plans, city general plans in 1928 and 1960. A motorway in a tunnel east of the city centre was one of the road projects of the Dennis Agreement from 1992, a political agreement for road construction in the Stockholm area. Österleden was to be the eastern part of a ring road around central Stockholm.
The planning of the road was cancelled in 1997. A new feasibility study was finished in 2006, is as of 2007 awaiting feedback from the County Administrative Board; the feasibility study contains three suggested alignments of the road: Alternative C New tunnel beneath the Stockholm City Centre west of Southern Djurgården Estimated cost: 12–15 billion SEK Alternative D New tunnel with the same alignment as in the early 1990s plans, beneath Saltsjön and Djurgården Estimated cost: 9–12 billion SEK Alternative F New tunnel between Nacka and Lidingö Estimated cost: 10–15 billion SEK