Government of Sweden
The Government of the Kingdom of Sweden is the national cabinet and the supreme executive authority of Sweden. The short-form name Regeringen is used both in the Fundamental Laws of the Realm and in the vernacular, while the long-form is only used in international treaties; the Government operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister—appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of the Riksdag —and other cabinet ministers and dismissed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Government is responsible for its actions to the Riksdag. Following the adoption of the 1974 Instrument of Government on 1 January 1975—the Government in its present constitutional form was constituted—and in consequence thereof the Swedish Monarch is no longer vested any nominal executive powers at all with respect to the governance of the Realm, but continues to serve as a ceremonial head of state. Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1; the Instrument of Government —one of the Fundamental Laws of the Realm—sets out the main responsibilities and duties of the Government and how it relates to other organs of the State.
Instrument of Government, Chapter 12, Article 1. Most state administrative authorities, as opposed to local authorities, sorts under the Government, including the Armed Forces, Coast Guard, Customs Service and the Swedish police. While the Judiciary technically sort under the Government in the fiscal sense, Chapter 11 of the Instrument of Government provides safeguards to ensure its independence. In a unique feature of the Swedish constitutional system, individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; the Government of Sweden is the high contracting party when entering treaties with foreign sovereign states and international organisations, as per 10:1 of the Instrument of Government. In most other parliamentary systems this formal function is vested in the head of state but exercised by ministers in such name. Chapter 6, Article 7 prescribes that laws and ordinances are promulgated by the Government, are subsequently published in the Swedish Code of Statutes.
Following a general election, Speaker of the Riksdag begins to hold talks with the leaders of the parties with representation in the Riksdag, the Speaker nominates a candidate for Prime Minister. The nomination is put to a vote in the chamber. Unless an absolute majority of the members votes "no", the nomination is confirmed, otherwise it is rejected; the Speaker must find a new nominee. This means. After being elected the Prime Minister appoints the cabinet ministers and announces them to the Riksdag; the new Government takes office at a special council held at the Royal Palace before the Monarch, at which the Speaker of the Riksdag formally announces to the Monarch that the Riksdag has elected a new Prime Minister and that the Prime Minister has chosen his cabinet ministers. The Riksdag can cast a vote of no confidence against any single cabinet minister, thus forcing a resignation. To succeed a vote of no confidence must be supported by an absolute majority or it has failed. If a vote of no confidence is cast against the Prime Minister this means the entire government is rejected.
A losing government has one week to call for a general election or else the procedure of nominating a new Prime Minister starts anew. Each appointment of a new Prime Minister is considered to result in a new cabinet, irrespective if the Prime Minister is reappointed or not. However, there is no automatic resignation following a defeat in a general election, so an election does not always result in a new cabinet. Known as the Royal Chancery, the name was changed to the Government Offices on 1 January 1975 with the current Instrument of Government entering into effect; the Instrument of Government mentions in Chapter 7, Article 1 that there is a staff organization supporting the Government known as the Government Offices. The present organizational charter for the Government Offices is found in the ordinance named Förordning med instruktion för Regeringskansliet. Since the issuance of that ordinance in 1996, all the ministries are technically entities within the Government Offices, rather than as separate organisations though they operate as such.
Below follows a short summary of the current structure. Only current ministries and offices are listed below: Government Offices Prime Minister's Office Ministry of Justice Ministry for Foreign Affairs Ministry of Defence Ministry of Health and Social Affairs
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most known as Norden. The term includes Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, as well as Greenland and the Faroe Islands—which are both part of the Kingdom of Denmark—and the Åland Islands and Svalbard and Jan Mayen archipelagos that belong to Finland and Norway whereas the Norwegian Antarctic territories are not considered a part of the Nordic countries, due to their geographical location. Scandinavians, who comprise over three quarters of the region's population, are the largest group, followed by Finns, who comprise the majority in Finland; the native languages Swedish, Norwegian and Faroese are all North Germanic languages rooted in Old Norse. Native non-Germanic languages are Finnish and several Sami languages; the main religion is Lutheran Christianity. The Nordic countries have much in common in their way of life, religion, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure.
The Nordic countries have a long history of political unions and other close relations, but do not form a separate entity today. The Scandinavist movement sought to unite Denmark and Sweden into one country in the 19th century, with the indepedence of Finland in the early 20th century, Iceland in the mid 20th century, this movement expanded into the modern organised Nordic cooperation which includes the Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers. In English, Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, but that term more properly refers to the three monarchies of Denmark and Sweden. Geologically, the Scandinavian Peninsula comprises the mainland of Norway and Sweden as well as the northernmost part of Finland; the combined area of the Nordic countries is 3,425,804 square kilometres. Uninhabitable icecaps and glaciers comprise about half of this area in Greenland. In January 2013, the region had a population of around 26 million people; the Nordic countries cluster near the top in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life and human development.
With only four language groups, the common linguistic heterogeneous heritage is one of the factors making up the Nordic identity. The languages of Danish, Swedish and Faroese are all rooted in Old Norse and Danish and Swedish are considered mutually intelligible; these three dominating languages are taught in schools throughout the Nordic region. For example, Swedish is a mandatory subject in Finnish schools, since Finland by law is a bilingual country. Danish is mandatory in Faroese and Greenlandic schools, as these insular states are a part of the Danish Realm. Iceland teaches Danish, since Iceland too was a part of the Danish Realm until 1918. Beside these and the insular Scandinavian languages Faroese and Icelandic, which are North Germanic languages, there are the Finnic and Sami branches of the Uralic languages, spoken in Finland and in northern Norway and Finland, respectively. All the Nordic countries have a North Germanic official language called a Nordic language in the Nordic countries.
The working languages of the Nordic region's two political bodies are Danish and Swedish. Each of the Nordic countries has its own economic and social models, sometimes with large differences from its neighbours, but to varying degrees the Nordic countries share the Nordic model of economy and social structure: a market economy is combined with strong labour unions and a universalist welfare sector financed by heavy taxes. There is a high degree of income redistribution and little social unrest and these include support for said "universalist" welfare state aimed at enhancing individual autonomy and promoting social mobility; the Nordic countries consists of historical territories of the Scandinavian countries, areas that share a common history and culture with Scandinavia. It is meant to refer to this larger group, since the term Scandinavia is narrower and sometimes ambiguous; the Nordic countries are considered to refer to Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, including their associated territories.
The term "Nordic countries" found mainstream use after the advent of Foreningen Norden. The term is derived indirectly from the local term Norden, used in the Scandinavian languages, which means "The North". Unlike "the Nordic countries", the term Norden is in the singular; the demonym is nordbo meaning "northern dweller". Scandinavia refers to either the cultural and linguistic group formed by the three monarchies Denmark and Sweden, or the Scandinavian peninsula, formed by mainland Norway and Sweden as well as the northwesternmost part of Finland. Outside of the Nordic region the term Scandinavia is used incorrectly as a synonym for the Nordic countries. First recorded use of the name by Pliny the Elder about a "large, fertile island in the North". Fennoscandia refers to the area that includes the Scandinavian peninsula, Kola Peninsula and Karelia; this term is
The Swedish Empire was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries. The beginning of the Empire is taken as the reign of Gustavus Adolphus, who ascended the throne in 1611, its end as the loss of territories in 1721 following the Great Northern War. After the death of Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, the empire was controlled for lengthy periods by part of the high nobility, such as the Oxenstierna family, acting as regents for minor monarchs; the interests of the high nobility contrasted with the uniformity policy. In territories acquired during the periods of de facto noble rule, serfdom was not abolished, there was a trend to set up respective estates in Sweden proper; the Great Reduction of 1680 put an end to these efforts of the nobility and required them to return estates once gained from the crown to the king. Serfdom, remained in force in the dominions acquired in the Holy Roman Empire and in Swedish Estonia, where a consequent application of the uniformity policy was hindered by the treaties by which they were gained.
After the victories in the Thirty Years' War, Sweden reached the climax of the great-power era during the Second Northern War, when its primary adversary, was neutralized by the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. However, in the further course of this war, as well as in the subsequent Scanian War, Sweden was able to maintain her empire only with the support of her closest ally, France. Charles XI of Sweden consolidated the empire, but a decline began with his son, Charles XII. After initial Swedish victories, Charles secured the empire for some time in the Peace of Travendal and the Treaty of Altranstädt, before the disaster that followed the king's war in Russia; the Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava put an end to Sweden's eastbound expansion, by the time of Charles XII's death in 1718 only a much-weakened and far smaller territory remained. The last traces of occupied continental territory vanished during the Napoleonic Wars, Finland went to Russia in 1809. In older Swedish history telling, Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII were heroic warriors.
Sweden emerged as a great European power under King Gustavus Adolphus. As a result of acquiring territories seized from Russia and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as well as its involvement in the Thirty Years' War, Sweden found itself transformed into the leader of Protestantism. During the Thirty Years' War, Sweden managed to conquer half of the member states of the Holy Roman Empire; the fortunes of war would shift forth several times. After its defeat in the Battle of Nördlingen, confidence in Sweden among the Swedish-controlled German states was damaged, several of the provinces refused further Swedish military support, leaving Sweden with only a couple of northern German provinces. After France intervened on the same side as Sweden, fortunes shifted again; as the war continued, the civilian and military death toll grew, when it was over, it had led to severe depopulation in the German states. Although exact population estimates do not exist, historians estimate that the population of the Holy Roman Empire fell by one-third as a result of the war.
Sweden founded overseas colonies, principally in the New World. New Sweden was founded in the valley of the Delaware River in 1638, Sweden laid claim to a number of Caribbean islands. A string of Swedish forts and trading posts was constructed along the coast of West Africa as well, but these were not designed for Swedish settlers. At the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War, the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 granted Sweden territories as war reparations. Sweden demanded Silesia, Pomerania (which had been in its possession since the Treaty of Stettin, a war indemnity of 20,000,000 Riksdaler. Through the efforts of Johan Oxenstierna and Johan Adler Salvius it obtained: Swedish Pomerania, the Swedish share of the former Duchy of Pomerania since the Treaty of Stettin, consisting of Western Pomerania, with the islands of Rügen and Wollin, as well as the towns of Stettin and Stralsund; these German possessions were to be held as fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire. This allowed Sweden a vote in the Imperial Diet and enabled it to "direct" the Lower Saxon Circle alternately with Brandenburg.
France and Sweden, became joint guarantors of the treaty with the Holy Roman Emperor and were entrusted with carrying out its provisions, as enacted by the executive congress of Nuremberg in 1650. After the peaces of Brömsebro and Westphalia, Sweden was the third-largest area of control in Europe by land area, only surpassed by Russia and Spain. Sweden reached its largest territorial extent during this time under the rule of Charles X Gustav after the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658; as a result of eighteen years of war, Sweden gained small and scattered possessions, but had secured control of three principal rivers in northern Germany—the Oder, the Elbe and the Weser—and gained toll-collection rights for those important commercial arteries. Two principal reasons for the small reparations were Queen Christina's impatience; as a result of Sweden's intervention, Swede
Age of Liberty
In Swedish and Finnish history, the Age of Liberty is a half-century-long period of parliamentary governance and increasing civil rights, beginning with Charles XII's death in 1718 and ending with Gustav III's self-coup in 1772. The shift of power from monarch to parliament was a direct effect of the Great Northern War, disastrous for Sweden. Suffrage under the parliamentary government of the Age of Liberty was not universal. Although the taxed peasantry was represented in the Parliament, its influence was disproportionately small, while commoners without taxed property had no suffrage at all. Following the death of Charles XI of Sweden, his young son Charles XII became king, in 1697, only 15 years old, was proclaimed of age and took over the rule from the provisional government; the states which Sweden's expansion into a great power had been at the expense of, Denmark and Russia, formed a coalition with Saxony two years to partition Sweden. After initial successes, Sweden's army was reduced while the list of enemies grew.
In a siege of Fredrikstens Castle in 1718, Charles was killed, after which most hostilities in the west ended. At the beginning of 1719, peace overtures were made to Britain, Hanover and Denmark. By the Treaties of Stockholm on 20 February 1719 and 1 February 1720 Hanover obtained the Duchies of Bremen and Verden for herself and Southern Swedish Pomerania with Stettin for her confederate Brandenburg-Prussia. Northern Swedish Pomerania with Rügen which had come under Danish rule during the war, was retained by Sweden. By the Treaty of Frederiksborg on 3 July 1720 peace was signed between Denmark and Sweden, Denmark returning Rügen, Further Pomerania as far as the Peene, Wismar to Sweden, in exchange for an indemnity of 600,000 Riksdaler, while Sweden would pay the Sound tolls and give up her protectorate over Holstein-Gottorp. Peace with Russia was achieved in 1721. By the Treaty of Nystad Sweden ceded to Russia Ingria and Estonia, the Finnish province of Kexholm and Viborg Castle. Finland west of Viborg and north of Käkisalmi was restored to Sweden.
She received an indemnity of two million Riksdaler and a solemn undertaking of non-interference in her domestic affairs. Early in 1720 Charles XII's sister, Ulrika Eleonora, elected queen of Sweden after his death, was permitted to abdicate in favour of her husband Frederick the prince of Hesse, elected king 1720 under the title of Frederick I of Sweden. All power was vested in the people as represented by the Riksdag, consisting, as before, of four distinct estates: nobles, priests and peasants; the conflicting interests of these four independent assemblies, who sat and deliberated apart and with their mutual jealousies, made the work of legislation exceptionally difficult. No measure could now become law until it had obtained the assent of at least three of the four estates; each estate was ruled by its talman, or speaker, now elected at the beginning of each Diet, but the archbishop was, ex officio, the talman of the clergy. The lantmarskalk, or speaker of the House of Nobles, presided when the estates met in congress and by virtue of his office, in the secret committee.
This famous body, which consisted of 50 nobles, 25 priests, 25 burgesses, exceptionally, 25 peasants, possessed during the session of the Riksdag not only the supreme executive but the supreme judicial and legislative functions. It prepared all bills for the Riksdag and deposed all ministries, controlled the foreign policy of the nation, claimed and exercised the right of superseding the ordinary courts of justice. During the parliamentary recess, the executive remained in the hands of the Privy Council, responsible to the Riksdag alone; the policy of the Hats party was a return to the traditional alliance between Sweden. When Sweden descended to a position of a second-rate power the alliance with the French became too costly a luxury. Chancery President, Count Arvid Horn had perceived this and his cautious neutrality was, the soundest statesmanship, but the politicians who had ousted Horn thought differently. To them, prosperity without glory was a worthless possession, they aimed at restoring Sweden to her former position as a great power.
France hailed with satisfaction the rise of a faction, content to be her armour bearer in the north and the golden streams which flowed from Versailles to Stockholm during the next two generations were the political life-blood of the Hat party. The first blunder of the Hats was the ill-advised war with Russia; the European complications consequent upon the simultaneous deaths of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor and Empress Anne of Russia seemed to favour the Hats' adventurous schemes. Despite the frantic protests of the Caps party, a project for the invasion of Russian Finland was rushed through the premature Riksdag of 1740. On 20 July 1741 war was formally declared against Russia; the first blow was not struck till six months after the declaration of war. Nothing else was done on either side for six months more. By the time that the "tacit truce" had come to an end the Swedish forces were so demoralized that the mere rumour of a hostile attack made them retire panic-stricken to Helsinki
Market capitalization is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares. Market capitalization is equal to the share price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding; as outstanding stock is bought and sold in public markets, capitalization could be used as an indicator of public opinion of a company's net worth and is a determining factor in some forms of stock valuation. Market cap reflects only the equity value of a company, it is important to note that a firm's choice of capital structure has a significant impact on how the total value of a company is allocated between equity and debt. A more comprehensive measure is enterprise value, which gives effect to outstanding debt, preferred stock, other factors. For insurance firms, a value called. Market capitalization is used by the investment community in ranking the size of companies, as opposed to sales or total asset figures, it is used in ranking the relative size of stock exchanges, being a measure of the sum of the market capitalizations of all companies listed on each stock exchange.
In performing such rankings, the market capitalizations are calculated at some significant date, such as June 30 or December 31. The total capitalization of stock markets or economic regions may be compared with other economic indicators; the total market capitalization of all publicly traded companies in the world was US$51.2 trillion in January 2007 and rose as high as US$57.5 trillion in May 2008 before dropping below US$50 trillion in August 2008 and above US$40 trillion in September 2008. In 2014 and 2015, global market capitalization was US$68 trillion and US$67 trillion, respectively. Market cap is given by the formula MC = N × P, where MC is the market capitalization, N is the number of shares outstanding, P is the closing price per share. For example, if a company has 4 million shares outstanding and the closing price per share is $20, its market capitalization is $80 million. If the closing price per share rises to $21, the market cap becomes $84 million. If it drops to $19 per share, the market cap falls to $76 million.
This is in contrast to mercantile pricing where purchase price, average price and sale price may differ due to transaction costs. Not all of the outstanding shares trade on the open market; the number of shares trading on the open market is called the float. It is equal to or less than N; the free-float market cap uses just the floating number of shares in the calculation resulting in a smaller number. Traditionally, companies were divided into large-cap, mid-cap, small-cap; the terms mega-cap and micro-cap have since come into common use, nano-cap is sometimes heard. Different numbers are used by different indexes; the cutoffs may be defined as percentiles rather than in nominal dollars. The definitions expressed in nominal dollars need to be adjusted over decades due to inflation, population change, overall market valuation, market caps are to be different country to country. List of corporations by market capitalization List of finance topics List of stock exchanges London Stock Exchange Market price Market trend Middle-market company NASDAQ New York Stock Exchange Public float Shares authorized Treasury stock How to Value Assets – from the Washington State government web site Year-end market capitalization by country – World Bank, 1988–2010
The Pleistocene glaciations scoured the landscape clean and covered much of it in deep quaternary sediments. Therefore, no undisputed Early or Middle Palaeolithic sites or finds are known from Sweden; as far as it is known, the country's prehistory begins in the Allerød interstadial c. 12,000 BC with Late Palaeolithic hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province. Shortly before the close of the Younger Dryas, the west coast of Sweden was visited by hunter-gatherers from northern Germany; this cultural group is referred to as the Ahrensburgian and were engaged in fishing and sealing along the coast of western Sweden during seasonal rounds from the Continent. We refer to this group as the Hensbacka culture and, in Norway, as the Fosna culture group. During the late Preboreal period, colonization continued as people move towards the north-east as the ice receded. Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that they arrived first from the south-west and, in time from the north-east and met half-way.
An important consequence of de-glaciation was a continual land uplift as the Earth's crust rebounded from the pressure exerted by the ice. This process, very rapid, continues to this day, it has had the consequence that shore-bound sites along much of Sweden's coast are sorted chronologically by elevation. Around the country's capital, for instance, the earliest seal-hunter sites are now on inland mountain tops, they grow progressively as one moves downhill toward the sea; the Late Palaeolithic gave way to the first phase of the Mesolithic in c. 9,600 BC. This age, divided into the Maglemosian and Ertebølle Periods, was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers with a microlithic flint technology. Where flint was not available and slate were used. In the Ertebølle, semi-permanent fishing settlements with pottery and large inhumation cemeteries appeared. Farming and animal husbandry, along with monumental burial, polished flint axes and decorated pottery, arrived from the Continent with the Funnel-beaker Culture in c. 4,000 BC.
Whether this happened by diffusion of knowledge or by mass migration or both is controversial. Within a century or two, all of Denmark and the southern third of Sweden became neolithised and much of the area became dotted with megalithic tombs. Farmers were capable of rearing calves to collect milk from cows all year round; the people of the country's northern two thirds retained an Mesolithic lifestyle into the first millennium BC. Coastal south-eastern Sweden reverted from neolithisation to a hunting and fishing economy after only a few centuries, with the Pitted Ware Culture. In c. 2,800 BC the Funnel Beaker Culture gave way to the Battle Axe Culture, a regional version of the middle-European Corded Ware phenomenon. Again, diffusion of knowledge or mass migration is disputed; the Battle Axe and Pitted Ware people coexisted as distinct archaeological entities until c. 2,400 BC, when they merged into a homogeneous Late Neolithic culture. This culture produced the finest flintwork in the last megalithic tombs.
Sweden's southern third was part of the stock-keeping and agricultural Nordic Bronze Age Culture's area, most of it being peripheral to the culture's Danish centre. The period began in c. 1,700 BC with the start of bronze importation. Copper mining was never tried locally during this period, Scandinavia has no tin deposits, so all metal had to be imported though it was cast into local designs on arrival. Iron production began locally toward the period's end as a kind of trade secret among bronze casters: iron was exclusively used for tools to make bronze objects; the Nordic Bronze Age was pre-urban, with people living in hamlets and on farmsteads with single-story wooden long-houses. Geological and topographical conditions were similar to those of today. Rich individual burials attest to increased social stratification in the Early Bronze Age. A correlation between the amount of bronze in burials and the health status of the deceased's bones shows that status was inherited. Battle-worn weapons show.
The elite most built its position on control of trade. The period's abundant rock carvings portray long rowing ships: these images appear to allude both to trade voyages and to mythological concepts. Areas with rich bronze finds and areas with rich rock art occur separately, suggesting that the latter may represent an affordable alternative to the former. Bronze Age religion as depicted in rock art centres upon the sun and public ritual. Wetland sacrifices played an important role; the part of the period after about 1,100 BC shows many changes: cremation replaced inhumation in burials, burial investment declined and jewellery replaced weaponry as the main type of sacrificial goods. In the absence of any Roman occupation, Sweden's Iron Age is reckoned up to the introduction of stone architecture and monastic orders about 1,100 AD. Much of the period is proto-historical, that is, there are written sources but most hold a low source-critical quality; the scraps of written matter are either much than the period in question, written in areas far away, or local and coeval but brief.
The archaeological record for the fifth to third centuries BC is rich in rural settlements and remains of agriculture but poor in artifacts. This is due to austere burial customs where few people received formal burial and those who did
Elections in Sweden
Elections to determine the makeup of the legislative bodies on the three levels of administrative division in the Kingdom of Sweden are held once every four years. At the highest level, these elections determine the allocation of seats in the Riksdag, the national legislative body of Sweden. Elections to the 20 county councils and 290 municipal assemblies – all using the same electoral system – are held concurrently with the legislative elections on the second Sunday in September. Sweden holds elections to the European Parliament, which unlike Swedish domestic elections are held in June every five years, although they are held on a Sunday and use an identical electoral system; the last Swedish general election was held on 9 September 2018. The last Swedish election to the European Parliament was held on 25 May 2014. Elections to Sweden's county councils occur with the general elections on the second Sunday of September. Elections to the municipal assemblies occur on the second Sunday of September.
Elections to the European Parliament occur every five years in June throughout the entire European Union. To vote in a Swedish general election, one must be:a Swedish citizen, at least 18 years of age on election day, have at some point been a registered resident of Sweden To vote in Swedish local elections, one must: be a registered resident of the county or municipality in question and be at least 18 years of age on election day fall into one of the following groups:Swedish citizens Citizens of Iceland, Norway, or any country in the European Union Citizens of any other country who have permanent residency in Sweden and have lived in Sweden for three consecutive yearsIn order to vote in elections to the European Parliament, one must be 18 years old, fall into one of the following groups: Swedish citizens who are or have been residents of Sweden Citizens of any other country in the European Union who are residents of Sweden. Unlike in many countries where voters chose from a list of candidates or parties, each party in Sweden has separate ballot papers.
The ballot papers must be identical in size and material, have different colors depending on the type of election: yellow for Riksdag elections, blue for county council elections and white for municipal elections and elections to the European Parliament. Sweden uses open lists and utilizes apparentment between lists of the same party and constituency to form a cartel, a group of lists that are allied for purposes of seat allocation. A single preference vote may be indicated as well. Swedish voters can choose between three different types of ballot papers; the party ballot paper has the name of a political party printed on the front and is blank on the back. This ballot is used when a voter wishes to vote for a particular party, but does not wish to give preference to a particular candidate; the name ballot paper has a party name followed by a list of candidates. A voter using this ballot can choose to cast a personal vote by entering a mark next to a particular candidate, in addition to voting for their political party.
Alternatively, a voter can write a party name on it. If a party hasn't registered its candidates with the election authority, it is possible for a voter to manually write the name of an arbitrary candidate. In reality, this option is exclusively available when voting for unestablished parties. However, it has caused individuals to be elected into the city council to represent parties they don't support as a result of a single voter's vote; the municipalities and the national election authority have the responsibility to organise the elections. On the election day, voting takes place in a municipal building such as a school, it is possible to do early voting in a municipal building, available in day time, such as a library. Early voting can be performed anywhere in Sweden, not just in the home municipality. Swedish election policy of always displaying the ballot papers for voters to select in public, making it impossible for many voters to vote secretly, has been criticised as undemocratic. Many use subterfuge and select bunches of additional ballots which they do not intend to use.
For the general elections, the State pays for the printing and distribution of ballot papers for any party which has received at least one percent of the vote nationally in either of the previous two elections. For local elections, any party, represented in the legislative body in question is entitled to free printing of ballot papers. In Riksdag elections, constituencies are coterminous with one of the Swedish counties, though the Counties of Stockholm, Skåne, Västra Götaland are divided into smaller electoral constituencies due to their larger populations; the number of available seats in each constituency is based on its number of voters, parties are apportioned seats in each constituency based on their votes in that constituency. In County Council elections, individual muni