United States Department of the Treasury
The Department of the Treasury is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government. Established by an Act of Congress in 1789 to manage government revenue, the Treasury prints all paper currency and mints all coins in circulation through the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and the United States Mint, respectively. S. government debt instruments. The Department is administered by the Secretary of the Treasury, a member of the Cabinet. Senior advisor to the Secretary is the Treasurer of the United States. Signatures of both officials appear on all Federal Reserve notes; the first Secretary of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton, sworn into office on September 11, 1789. Hamilton was appointed by President George Washington on the recommendation of Robert Morris, Washington's first choice for the position, who had declined the appointment. Hamilton established—almost singlehandedly—the nation's early financial system and for several years was a major presence in Washington's administration.
His portrait appears on the obverse of the ten-dollar bill, while the Treasury Department building is depicted on the reverse. The current Secretary of the Treasury is Steven Mnuchin, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 13, 2017. Jovita Carranza, appointed on April 28, 2017, is the incumbent treasurer; the history of the Department of the Treasury began in the turmoil of the American Revolution, when the Continental Congress at Philadelphia deliberated the crucial issue of financing a war of independence against Great Britain. The Congress had no power to levy and collect taxes, nor was there a tangible basis for securing funds from foreign investors or governments; the delegates resolved to issue paper money in the form of bills of credit, promising redemption in coin on faith in the revolutionary cause. On June 22, 1775—only a few days after the Battle of Bunker Hill—Congress issued $2 million in bills. On July 29, 1775, the Second Continental Congress assigned the responsibility for the administration of the revolutionary government's finances to joint Continental treasurers George Clymer and Michael Hillegas.
The Congress stipulated. To ensure proper and efficient handling of the growing national debt in the face of weak economic and political ties between the colonies, the Congress, on February 17, 1776, designated a committee of five to superintend the Treasury, settle accounts, report periodically to the Congress. On April 1, a Treasury Office of Accounts, consisting of an Auditor General and clerks, was established to facilitate the settlement of claims and to keep the public accounts for the government of the United Colonies. With the signing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, the newborn republic as a sovereign nation was able to secure loans from abroad. Despite the infusion of foreign and domestic loans, the united colonies were unable to establish a well-organized agency for financial administration. Michael Hillegas was first called Treasurer of the United States on May 14, 1777; the Treasury Office was reorganized three times between 1778 and 1781. The $241.5 million in paper Continental bills devalued rapidly.
By May 1781, the dollar collapsed at a rate of from 500 to 1000 to 1 against hard currency. Protests against the worthless money swept the colonies, giving rise to the expression "not worth a Continental". Robert Morris was designated Superintendent of Finance in 1781 and restored stability to the nation's finances. Morris, a wealthy colonial merchant, was nicknamed "the Financier" because of his reputation for procuring funds or goods on a moment's notice, his staff included a comptroller, a treasurer, a register, auditors, who managed the country's finances through 1784, when Morris resigned because of ill health. The treasury board, consisting of three commissioners, continued to oversee the finances of the confederation of former colonies until September 1789; the First Congress of the United States was called to convene in New York on March 4, 1789, marking the beginning of government under the Constitution. On September 2, 1789, Congress created a permanent institution for the management of government finances:Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be a Department of Treasury, in which shall be the following officers, namely: a Secretary of the Treasury, to be deemed head of the department.
Alexander Hamilton took the oath of office as the first Secretary of the Treasury on September 11, 1789. Hamilton had served as George Washington's aide-de-camp during the Revolution and was of great importance in the ratification of the Constitution; because of his financial and managerial acumen, Hamilton was a logical choice for solving the problem of the new nation's heavy war debt. Hamilton's first official act was to submit a report to Congress in which he laid the foundation for the nation's financial health. To the surprise of many legislators, he insisted upon federal assumption and dollar-for-dollar repayment of the country's $75 million debt in order to revitalize the public credit: "he debt of the United States was the price of liberty; the faith of America has been pledged for it, with solemnities that give peculiar force to the obligation." Hami
Lucius Benedict Peck
Lucius Benedict Peck was an American lawyer and politician. He served as a U. S. Representative from Vermont. Peck was born in Vermont to General John Peck and Anna Benedict Peck, he pursued classical studies and attended the United States Military Academy in West Point, New York for one year, before resigning due to poor health. He studied law with Vermont Supreme Court Justice Samuel Prentiss, was admitted to the bar in 1825. Peck began the practice of law in Barre, he served as a member of the Vermont House of Representatives in 1838 and 1839. Peck moved to Montpelier. Peck was elected as a Democrat to the Thirtieth and Thirty-first Congresses, serving from March 4, 1847 until March 3, 1851. During the Thirty-first Congress, he served as chairman of the Committee on Manufactures. Peck did not seek renomination in 1850, was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Vermont. Following the election for governor, Peck resumed the practice of law. In 1852 Peck was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention.
Appointed by President Franklin Pierce, Peck served as the United States Attorney for the District of Vermont from 1853 until 1857. From 1859 until his death in 1866, Peck served as President of the Canada Railroad. In 1864, Peck was counsel for the banks robbed in the St. Albans Raid. Peck married Martha Day on May 22, 1832, they had one daughter named Mary. Peck died on December 28, 1866 in Lowell, is interred in Green Mount Cemetery in Montpelier. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Govtrack.us The Political Graveyard Lucius Benedict Peck at Find a Grave History50States.com This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Norwich University – The Military College of Vermont is a private university in Northfield, Vermont. It is the oldest private military college in the United States; the university was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont, as the American Literary and Military Academy. It is the oldest of six senior military colleges and is recognized by the United States Department of Defense as the "Birthplace of ROTC"; the university was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont by Captain Alden Partridge, military educator and former superintendent of West Point. Partridge believed in the "American System of Education," a traditional liberal arts curriculum with instruction in civil engineering and military science. After leaving West Point because of congressional disapproval of his system, he returned to his native state of Vermont to create the American Literary and Military Academy. Partridge, in founding the academy, rebelled against the reforms of Sylvanus Thayer to prevent the rise of what he saw as the greatest threat to the security of the young republic: an aristocratic and careerist officer class.
He believed that a well-trained militia was an urgent necessity and developed the American system around that idea. His academy became the inspiration for a number of military colleges throughout the nation, including The Citadel, the land grant colleges created through the Morrill Act of 1862. Today, Norwich offers substantial online distance graduate programs and is similar in many regards to The Citadel in mission, online offerings, student body composition, size. Partridge was the founding father of the Citizen-Soldier concept. All entering freshman entering the Corps of Cadets are called "Rooks" and their first year at Norwich is called "Rookdom"; the institution of "Rookdom" consists of two three-month processes that mold civilians into Norwich Cadets: Rook Basic Training and Basic Leadership Training. Culmination of Rook Basic Training marks the halfway point toward Recognition and occurs before Thanksgiving break, after which Rooks are awarded privileges. Recognition into the Corps of Cadets occurs around the eighteenth week.
Partridge's educational beliefs were considered radical at the time, this led to his conflicting views with the federal government while he was the superintendent of West Point. Upon creation of his own school, he incorporated classes of agriculture and modern languages in addition to the sciences, liberal arts, various military subjects. Field exercises, for which Partridge borrowed cannon and muskets from the federal and state governments, supplemented classroom instruction and added an element of realism to the college’s program of well-rounded military education. Partridge founded seven other military institutions during his quest to reform the fledgling United States military, they were the Virginia Literary and Military Academy at Portsmouth, Pennsylvania Literary and Military Academy at Bristol, Pennsylvania Military Institute at Harrisburg, Wilmington Literary and Military Academy at Wilmington, the Scientific and Military Collegiate Institute at Reading, Pennsylvania and Military Institute at Pembroke, New Hampshire and the National Scientific and Military Academy at Brandywine Springs, Delaware.
In 1825 the academy moved to Middletown, Connecticut, to provide better naval training to the school's growing Corps of Cadets. Beginning in 1826, the academy offered the first program of courses in civil engineering in the US. In 1829, the state of Connecticut declined to grant Captain Partridge a charter and he moved the school back to Norwich. In 1834, Vermont recognized the institution as Norwich University. During the 1856 academic year, the first chapter of the Theta Chi Fraternity was founded by cadets Frederick Norton Freeman and Arthur Chase. With the beginning of the Civil War in 1861, Norwich cadets served as instructors of the state militias throughout the Northeast and the entire class of 1862 enlisted upon its graduation. Norwich turned out hundreds of officers and soldiers who served with the federal armies in the American Civil War, including four recipients of the Medal of Honor. One graduate led a corps, seven more headed divisions, 21 commanded brigades, 38 led regiments, various alumni served in 131 different regimental organizations.
In addition, these men were eyewitnesses to some of the war's most dramatic events, including the bloodiest day of the conflict at Antietam, the attack up Marye's Heights at Fredericksburg, the repulse of Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg. Seven hundred and fifty Norwich men served in the Civil War, of whom an estimated fifty-six fought for the Confederacy; because of the university's participation in the struggle, the number of students dwindled to seven in the class of 1864 alone. The Confederate raid on St. Albans, Vermont precipitated fear that Newport, Vermont was an imminent target; the Corps of Cadets boarded an express train for Newport, the same day, October 19, 1864, to the great relief of the inhabitants. After a catastrophic fire in 1866 which devastated the Old South Barracks and the entire Military Academy, the town of Northfield welcomed the struggling school; the Civil War, the fire, the uncertainty regarding the continuation of the university lowered the attendance, the school opened in the fall of 1866 with only 19 students.
The 1870s and 1880s saw many financially turbulent times for the institution and the renaming of the school to Lewis College in 1880. In 1881, the student body was reduce
William Upham was a United States Senator from Vermont. William Upham was born in Massachusetts to Samuel Upham and Martha Upham, he moved with his father to Montpelier, Vermont in 1802. He attended the district schools and the Montpelier Academy, was tutored, he attended the University of Vermont and studied law with Samuel Prentiss. Upham commenced practice in Montpelier. In addition to maintaining a successful practice, Upham guided the efforts of several prospective lawyers who studied in his office, including Peter T. Washburn. Upham was a member of the Vermont House of Representatives from 1827 to 1828 and was State's attorney for Washington County in 1829. In 1830 he again served in the Vermont House of Representatives. In 1842 Samuel Prentiss resigned his seat in the U. S. Senate in order to accept appointment as United States District Court for the District of Vermont. Crafts was appointed to fill the vacancy, served until the end of the term to which Prentiss had been elected, April 23, 1842 to March 3, 1843.
Crafts was not a candidate for a full term, Upham was the successful Whig candidate for the seat. He was served from March 4, 1843 until his death. While in the Senate, he was chairman of the Committee on Pensions. Upham died of smallpox in Washington, D. C.. He was buried at Congressional Cemetery. "... Slavery is a crime against humanity and a sore evil in the body politic." Upham was the son of Patty Livermore Upham. In 1814, he married Sarah Keyes. Upham was a descendant of Edmund Rice, an English immigrant to Massachusetts Bay Colony, as follows: William Upham, son ofMartha Livermore, daughter of James Livermore, Jr. son of Elizabeth Rice, daughter ofElisha Rice, son of Thomas Rice, son ofEdmund Rice List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "William Upham". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William Upham at Find a Grave
An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation, the passing of comprehensive examinations. It is known by the Latin phrases honoris causa or ad honorem; the degree is a doctorate or, less a master's degree, may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration; the degree is conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in one's curriculum vitae as an award, not in the education section. With regard to the use of this honorific, the policies of institutions of higher education ask that recipients "refrain from adopting the misleading title" and that a recipient of an honorary doctorate should restrict the use of the title "Dr" before their name to any engagement with the institution of higher education in question and not within the broader community.
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime; the practice dates back to the Middle Ages, when for various reasons a university might be persuaded, or otherwise see fit, to grant exemption from some or all of the usual statutory requirements for the awarding of a degree. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford, he became Bishop of Salisbury. In the latter part of the 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common on the occasion of royal visits to Oxford or Cambridge. On the visit of James I to Oxford in 1605, for example, forty-three members of his retinue received the degree of Master of Arts, the Register of Convocation explicitly states that these were full degrees, carrying the usual privileges. Honorary degrees are awarded at regular graduation ceremonies, at which the recipients are invited to make a speech of acceptance before the assembled faculty and graduates – an event which forms the highlight of the ceremony.
Universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees. Those who are nominated are not told until a formal approval and invitation are made; the term honorary degree is a slight misnomer: honoris causa degrees are not considered of the same standing as substantive degrees earned by the standard academic processes of courses and original research, except where the recipient has demonstrated an appropriate level of academic scholarship that would ordinarily qualify him or her for the award of a substantive degree. Recipients of honorary degrees wear the same academic dress as recipients of substantive degrees, although there are a few exceptions: honorary graduands at the University of Cambridge wear the appropriate full-dress gown but not the hood, those at the University of St Andrews wear a black cassock instead of the usual full-dress gown. An ad eundem or jure officii degree is sometimes considered honorary, although they are only conferred on an individual who has achieved a comparable qualification at another university or by attaining an office requiring the appropriate level of scholarship.
Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation. The "dissertation et jure dignitatis" is considered to be a full academic degree. See below. Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc. are awarded honoris causa, in many countries it is possible formally to earn such a degree. This involves the submission of a portfolio of peer-refereed research undertaken over a number of years, which has made a substantial contribution to the academic field in question; the university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. The applicant must have some strong formal connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff, or graduates of several years' standing; some universities, seeking to differentiate between substantive and honorary doctorates, have a degree, used for these purposes, with the other higher doctorates reserved for formally examined academic scholarship.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees. These "Lambeth degrees" are sometimes, thought to be honorary. Between the two extremes of honoring celebrities and formally assessing a portfolio of research, some universities use honorary degrees to recognize achievements of intellectual rigor; some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy — see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the same way as
Montpelier is the capital city of the U. S. state of Vermont and the seat of Washington County. As the site of Vermont's state government, it is the least populous state capital in the United States; the population was 7,855 at the 2010 Census. However, the daytime population grows to about 21,000, due to the large number of jobs within city limits; the Vermont College of Fine Arts and New England Culinary Institute are located in the municipality. It was named after a city in the south of France. Between 1600 and 1800, European settlers began to arrive in the region. Soon after and dispersal destroyed the Native American settlements. However, evidence suggests. Charted on August 14, 1781, the Town of Montpelier was granted municipal powers by the "Governor and General Assembly of the Freemen of the State of Vermont"; the first permanent settlement began in May 1787, when Colonel Jacob Davis and General Parley Davis arrived from Charlton, Massachusetts. General Davis surveyed the land, while Colonel Davis cleared forest and erected a large log house on the west side of the North Branch of the Winooski River.
His family moved in the following winter. Colonel Davis selected the name "Montpelier" after the French city of Montpellier. There was a general enthusiasm for things French as a result of the country's aid to the American colonies during the Revolutionary War; the settlement grew and by 1791 the population reached 117. The configuration of the early village was influenced by geography; as early as 1799 a bridge was constructed across the Winooski River to Berlin. The Town's Charter was reissued on February 6, 1804, to include a boundary description of the lands granted to the Town's inhabitants and proprietors; the confluence of the Winooski, North Branch and Dog Rivers provided a central point for the local population and commerce. By 1805 the town had a population of 1,200. In that year the State Legislature sought a permanent home. Montpelier was selected because of its central location and accessibility, because local residents provided land and money. A humble State House was soon constructed on State Street.
In 1825, the Marquis de Lafayette visited Montpelier on a triumphal tour of the United States, 50 years after the Revolutionary War. The town developed into a center for manufacturing after the Central Vermont Railway opened in Montpelier on June 20, 1849. In response to Montpelier's growth and changing demographics, on November 9, 1848, the General Assembly divided the original Town into two district municipal corporations; the towns of East Montpelier and Montpelier were created. On, in an attempt to modernize its form of government, the town was reconstituted as the Village of Montpelier. By 1858, the layout of the main streets paralleling the rivers was in place; the downtown street pattern has changed little since that time. Ten thousand people turned out to greet Major General Philip Sheridan when he visited to address the fourth annual meeting of Vermont former Union officers, he thanked Vermont veterans of the Civil War for their performance at the Battle of Cedar Creek. In 1875, a large fire destroyed many downtown buildings.
The village had the first municipal water driven hydro system in Vermont in 1884. Water pressure generated sufficient electricity for streetlights; the first charter of the City of Montpelier was granted in 1894, was amended shortly thereafter in 1898, again in 1900 and 1912. The first amendment permitted the City to annex a part of the Town of Berlin; the state proclaimed October 12, 1899, as "Dewey Day" to honor native son George Dewey, the hero of Battle of Manila Bay in the Spanish–American War. Thousands turned out from the state to his hometown of Montpelier for the celebration. In 1899, Hubbard Park was established with a donation of land, known as "Hubbard Hill", bequeathed to the City of Montpelier by John Erastus Hubbard with the intent to "preserve wilderness" for future generations. In 1911, additional land was donated and from 1915 to 1930 an observation tower was constructed on this donated land. In 1927, after a wet summer and fall, heavy rains began on the evening of November 2 that continued until the morning of November 4.
The heaviest rain fell on November 3. The prolonged heavy rains on top of the saturated soil from the summer and fall proved to be more than the watercourses could handle. Brooks and rivers logs in their wake. Dams and embankments were destroyed. Buildings were submerged, farm animals drowned, homes and barns were swept away. Rivers reached 13 feet or more above their normal depths. Flood waters receded, leaving behind silt and debris. At least a foot of mud was left on the floors of downtown stores. At the time only two stores in Montpelier carried flood insurance; the staggering loss represented an average of $400 for every man and child in town – equivalent to $5,760 in 2018 dollars. In the days following the flood, Vermont was praised for its recovery efforts. President Calvin Coolidge, in particular, hailed the “indomitable spirit” of Vermonters, of whom he was one. In response to the damage suffered by Montpelier and surrounding communities in the Great Flood of 1927, the Civilian Conservation Corps built the Wrightsville Dam during a period from 1933 to 1935.
The resulting reservoir, Wrightsville Reservoir, required the disbandment and flooding of the village of W
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history; the university secularized, by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education. Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies.
The university has affiliations with the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy, the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.9% for the Class of 2023. Situated on a terrace above the Connecticut River, Dartmouth's 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England; the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus, strong Greek culture, wide array of enduring campus traditions, its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I. Dartmouth is included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings, has been cited as a leading university for undergraduate teaching and research by U. S. News & World Report.
In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate," "arts-and-sciences focused," "doctoral university" in the country that has "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity." In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world. The university has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate and the U. S. House of Representatives, 24 U. S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, a U. S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, who had sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as Christian missionaries.
Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks. Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755; the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school's operations, Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. The first major donation to the school was given by Dr. John Phillips in 1762, who would go on to found Phillips Exeter Academy. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock; the head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth. Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution because its location was far from tribal territories.
In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter; the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued a royal charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and of English Youth and any others." The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule.
The College granted its first degrees in 1771. Given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his ne