Beelu National Park
Beelu National Park is a national park east of Perth, Western Australia. Lying south of Mundaring, Western Australia, west of the Mundaring Weir Road, it is part of the group of parks known as the Parks of the Darling Range; the park was named Mundaring National Park. Mundaring National Park was established and gazetted in 1995 as part of the Protecting Out Old Growth Forests policy of the State Government; the park was renamed in 2008 as an acknowledgement of the traditional owners of the area. The word Beelu is derived from the Noongar word for stream; the Beelu people were the original peoples of the area whose district was bounded by the Helena and Canning Rivers. The park contains an abundance of native flora including Jarrah, Zamia, Bull Banksia and Grass tree; the park contains toilets, wood barbecues, picnic tables and a variety of hiking and mountain biking trails. An information centre, the Perth Hills National Parks Centre is located within the park and is open between 10.00am and 4.00pm to offer advice and refreshments to visitors.
A lookout is located South Ledge with a view over Lake CY O'Connor. The largest Oak Tree in Western Australia is found in Fred Jacby Park. Two campsites are available to use within the park. Protected areas of Western Australia Mitchell, Samille What's in a name? Parks of the Darling Range Landscope Volume 24 number 2, pp. 40–46
Millstream Chichester National Park
Millstream Chichester National Park is a national park in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, is located 1,190 kilometres north of the state capital, Perth. The park is made up of the old Millstream Station, on the Millstream Creek, just before it joins Fortescue River, one of the few permanent watercourses in the area and the Chichester Range; the area is homeland of the Yinjibarndi people. Millstream Creek was named by the explorer Francis Thomas Gregory in 1861, he reported the favourable grazing prospects. The first pastoral lease was taken up on 1865. By 1907 the property occupied an area of 1,000 square miles, it was stocked with 20,500 sheep, 1,900 cattle and 150 horses and was passed in at auction at £26,000. The present Millstream Homestead was built in 1920; the homestead was a tavern between 1975 and 1986. In 1970, the Chichester Range National Park was set aside and named. In 1975, the Conservation through Reserves Committee made recommendations for reserves in the Pilbara region, subsequently, the Millstream region was integrated into the park in 1982.
The Yindjibarndi people work as contractors in the Park. The Millstream Homestead Visitor Centre is in the old Homestead, which feature rooms dedicated to the Yinjibarndi people, the early settlers and the natural environment. Other displays provide information about the park's attractions and management challenges; the Pilbara is located within the arid tropics. During summer, between October and April, temperatures rise above 40 degrees and cyclones and local thunderstorms can flood roads and watercourses; the cool season, between May and August, experiences little rain, with daytime temperatures around 26 degrees. Nights at this time of year can be cool, so warm clothes may be necessary. Camping is available at Stargazers campgrounds. Miliyanha toilets and is generator friendly, it has some shade in afternoon. Stargazers is a more open site and generators are not permitted. A gas BBQ and toilets are provided. Both campgrounds are suitable for tent camping up to large caravans and motorhomes, can be accessed by 2WD in good weather, road conditions should be checked before embarking in 2WD, for information concerning road conditions contact The Shire of Ashburton.
Snake Creek Campground has been closed to campers since 2011, Crossing Pool has been closed to campers since 2013 due to safety issues concerning a drop in water levels and tree death. The Millstream Chichester area is significant Indigenous cultural site in northern Australia, its cultural and mythological importance stems from thousands of years occupation, with Millstream being the home of the mythical serpent or warlu, whose presence is still felt at Nhanggangunha. All the pools are significant in this regard and warrant a high level of respect because of their spiritual and mythological importance; the broad area of land straddling the Fortescue River from the Hamersley Range through to the Chichester escarpment is the homeland of the Yindjibarndi people. Ngarluma people's lands run from the Chichester escarpment northward to the sea. Aside from its important spiritual significance, Millstream was an important campsite for intertribal meetings; the Fortescue River provided food and water during drier months.
Along the river, Indigenous people had a varied diet of red meat, reptiles, eggs, honey fruits and root vegetables. Extensive areas were burnt to attract kangaroos; the dry climate meant. The Indigenous people were skilled in land management and were nomadic within their traditional boundaries. Yindjibarndi and Ngarluma people continue to come to the park to spend time on country and to carry out customery activities, they are represented on the Jirndawurrunhs Park Council which, in association with the Department of Parks and Wildlife, manages the strategic direction of the park. Protected areas of Western Australia Juluwarlu Group Aboriginal Corporation
Shrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterised by vegetation dominated by shrubs also including grasses and geophytes. Shrubland may either occur or be the result of human activity, it may be the mature vegetation type in a particular region and remain stable over time, or a transitional community that occurs temporarily as the result of a disturbance, such as fire. A stable state may be maintained by regular natural disturbance such as browsing. Shrubland may be unsuitable for human habitation because of the danger of fire; the term "shrubland" was coined in 1903. Shrubland species show a wide range of adaptations to fire, such as heavy seed production and fire-induced germination. In botany and ecology a shrub is defined as a much-branched woody plant less than 8 m high and with many stems. Tall shrubs are 2–8 m high, small shrubs 1–2 m high and subshrubs less than 1 m high. A descriptive system adopted in Australia to describe different types of vegetation is based on structural characteristics based on plant life-form, plus the height and foliage cover of the tallest stratum or dominant species.
For shrubs 2–8 m high the following structural forms result: dense foliage cover — closed-scrub mid-dense foliage cover — open- sparse foliage cover — tall open shrublandFor shrubs <2 m high the following structural forms result: dense foliage cover — closed-heath mid-dense foliage cover — open-heath sparse foliage cover — low shrubland sparse foliage cover — low open shrubland Similarly, shrubland is a category used to describe a type of biome plant group. In this context, shrublands are dense thickets of evergreen sclerophyll shrubs and small trees, called: Chaparral in California Matorral in Chile and Spain Maquis in France and elsewhere around the Mediterranean Macchia in Italy Fynbos in South Africa Kwongan in Southwest Australia Cedar scrub in Texas Hill CountryIn some places shrubland is the mature vegetation type, in other places the result of degradation of former forest or woodland by logging or overgrazing, or disturbance by major fires. A number of World Wildlife Fund biomes are characterized as shrublands, including: Desert scrublands Xeric or desert scrublands occur in the world's deserts and xeric shrublands ecoregions, or in areas of fast-draining sandy soils in more humid regions.
These scrublands are characterized by plants with adaptations to the dry climate, which include small leaves to limit water loss, thorns to protect them from grazing animals, succulent leaves or stems, storage organs to store water, long taproots to reach groundwater. Mediterranean scrublandsMediterranean scrublands occur in the Mediterranean forests and scrub biomes, located in the five Mediterranean climate regions of the world. Scrublands are most common near the seacoast, have adapted to the wind and salt air of the ocean. Low, soft-leaved scrublands around the Mediterranean Basin are known as garrigue in France, phrygana in Greece, tomillares in Spain, batha in Israel. Northern coastal scrub and coastal sage scrub occur along the California coast, strandveld in the Western Cape of South Africa, coastal matorral in central Chile, sand-heath and kwongan in Southwest Australia. Interior scrublandsInterior scrublands occur in semi-arid areas where soils are nutrient-poor, such as on the matas of Portugal which are underlain by Cambrian and Silurian schists.
Florida scrub is another example of interior scrublands. Dwarf shrubs Some vegetation types are formed of dwarf-shrubs: creeping shrubs; these include the maquis and garrigues of Mediterranean climates, the acid-loving dwarf shrubs of heathland and moorland. Fynbos Maquis Prostrate shrub Semi-desert Shrub-steppe Shrub swamp Moorland
Greater Beedelup National Park
Greater Beedelup National Park is a national park in Western Australia, 277 km south of Perth. It is situated on the Vasse Highway some 10 km west of Pemberton; the park is lush and damp due to an abundance of water. Gazetted in 1910, the park was declared an A Class Reserve in 1915; the Pemberton National Parks Board has been responsible for management of the park since 1957. Controlled burns occur within the park and some clear felling operations have been conducted in selected areas that used to be State Forests but have been regenerated since; the park is karri forest, with mixed areas of jarrah and marri. The loamy soil supports large colonies of moss and plants such as the swamp peppermint, karri hazel, myrtle wattle and lemonscented Darwinia all of which thrive in the damp conditions; some of the forest is an excellent example of uncut old-growth forest. Some of the upland areas are sandy and support communities of heath vegetation. Other plants of interest in the area include Crowea dentata, Crowea augustifolia and Choretrum lateriflorum.
Some rare fauna are thought to inhabit the area including the Woylie and the Tammar. Its major attraction is the Beedelup Falls, which are in full flow during spring. A suspension bridge, built in 1995, offers passage across Beedelup Brook and good views of the falls. Another feature of the park is the walk through karri tree, a 400-year-old tree with a large man-made hole cut through at the base large enough for a person to stand in; the park is named after Beedelup brook, named in 1875. It is thought the name Beedelup is derived from the Noongar word Beejalup meaning place of rest or place of sleep. An admission fee applies for this camping is not permitted. A signed walking trail around Beedelup falls, a rest area, picnic area and toilets are available for use by visitors. Protected areas of Western Australia
Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park
Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park is a national park in the South West region of Western Australia, 267 km south of Perth. It is named after the two locations at either end of the park which have lighthouses, Cape Leeuwin and Cape Naturaliste, it is located in the Augusta-Margaret River and Busselton council areas, is claimed to have the highest visiting numbers of any national park in Western Australia. The park received 2.33 million visitors through 2008-2009. It has significant stands of karri and jarrah forest, as well as an extensive network of caves – some of which are accessible by the public; the rugged coastline stretches 120 km from the northern end at Bunker Bay to Augusta at the southern end and has many features of interest including the granite formations, Sugarloaf Rock and Canal Rocks. The coastal area contains many beaches with well-known surf breaks, such as Supertubes, Yallingup beach and Smiths Beach; the vegetation found in the park varies from the coastal scrub-heath along the coastline that opens up into large areas of peppermint trees and karri forest.
A large variety of bird species inhabit the park including many sea birds, red-eared firetail, white-breasted robin, rock parrot and emu. Native mammals that can be found within the park include southern brown bandicoots, western grey kangaroos, western ringtail possums and brush wallabies; the national park was created from crown lands along the Leeuwin – Naturaliste ridge at a time after the main primary industries in the region had been dairying and forestry, when increased land use conflict was arising from the spread of wineries, increased population on hobby farms and other agricultural activities. Since many competing land uses have created a complex land management scenario for state and local government authorities trying to mediate quite conflicting issues; the national park is located on some of the most vulnerable land in the region. The ridge's geology and the variations in vegetation are confined to a number of narrow bands that follow the north–south orientation of the ridge.
The ridge has a whole series of caves. It has the cave known as Devil's Lair which has important archaeological significance. In 2001, the Department of Environment and Conservation opened the Cape to Cape Track, a 135 kilometre walking track along the Leeuwin-Naturaliste ridge. List of caves in Western Australia Protected areas of Western Australia Bastian, L. V. Minerals and their relationships in the Leeuwin block Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park Perth: Government Chemical Laboratories, Cape to Cape Walk Track – Hamelin Bay to Cape Leeuwin 29 km" Department of Conservation and Environment, Busselton. N.d. pamphlet Shaping the Capes: Rocks and landforms of the Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge an explanation of the Leeuwin Naturaliste Ridge. Orr, Kate. and Frewer, Paul Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park Management plan: summary of public submissions, November 1988 Como, W. A: Dept. of Conservation and Land Management. Taylor, Neil. Scott, Jane. Thomson-Dans and Banks, Roger. Feast for the Soul pp. 15–20 of The Best of the South West – Landscope special edition, Kensington, W.
A.: Dept. of Conservation and Land Management ISBN 0-7307-5552-5 Western Australian Planning Commission. Statement of planning policy. No. 7, Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge Policy. Perth, W. A.: Govt. Printer – in – Western Australian government gazette, Friday 18 September 1998, No. 189. Special. 5191–5215 p.. Western Australian Planning Commission. Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge planning review: issues and directions: discussion paper for public comment / Western Australian Planning Commission, Shires of Augusta–Margaret River and Busselton.: The Commission, 1995
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic; the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.
He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, on 21 January 1827 formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north.
The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km including 7,892 km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. The bulk of Western Australia consists of the old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres AHD. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres low relief, no surface runoff.
This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, copper and sometimes potassium and calcium; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".
Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer.
An exception to this is
D'Entrecasteaux National Park
D'Entrecasteaux National Park is a national park in Western Australia, 315 kilometres south of Perth. The park is named after the French Admiral Bruni D'Entrecasteaux, the first European to sight the area and name Point D'Entrecasteaux in 1792; the park received 168,497 visitors through 2008-2009. The park stretches 130 km from Black Point in the west to Long Point in the east and extends inland as far as 20 km. Black Point is made of basalt columns from a lava flow. An interesting feature in the park is Yeagarup dune, a mobile 10-kilometre long sand dune found to the west of Lake Jasper; the park contains a great variety of scenery including beaches, sand-dunes, coastal cliffs, coastal heath and pockets of Karri forest. Rivers such as the Warren, the Donnelly and the Shannon flow through the park and discharge into the waters off-shore. Important large scale wetlands, known as the Blackwater, lakes such as Lake Jasper and Lake Yeagarup are found within the park boundaries. Broke Inlet is contained within the park boundaries at the eastern end.
The gneiss basement rocks project through the shallow waters to form small islands in the Inlet. Sandy Island in Windy Harbour is part of the park; the park has an entry fee. Facilities available to visitors include barbecues, toilets, 4WD tracks, camp sites, disabled access and picnic areas. Canoeing facilities exist within the park on the Deep River. Rangers patrol the area; the Bibbulmun Track passes through the park area. The outdoor education organisation, Outward Bound, operate within the park taking school groups on hiking expeditions. Protected areas of Western Australia Quagering Island