The Five Eyes abbreviated as FVEY, is an anglophone intelligence alliance comprising Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States. These countries are parties to the multilateral UKUSA Agreement, a treaty for joint cooperation in signals intelligence; the origins of the FVEY can be traced back to the post–World War II period, when the Atlantic Charter was issued by the Allies to lay out their goals for a post-war world. During the course of the Cold War, the ECHELON surveillance system was developed by the FVEY to monitor the communications of the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, although it is now used to monitor billions of private communications worldwide. In the late 1990s, the existence of ECHELON was disclosed to the public, triggering a major debate in the European Parliament and, to a lesser extent, the United States Congress; as part of efforts in the ongoing War on Terror since 2001, the FVEY further expanded their surveillance capabilities, with much emphasis placed on monitoring the World Wide Web.
The former NSA contractor Edward Snowden described the Five Eyes as a "supra-national intelligence organisation that does not answer to the known laws of its own countries". Documents leaked by Snowden in 2013 revealed that the FVEY have been spying on one another's citizens and sharing the collected information with each other in order to circumvent restrictive domestic regulations on surveillance of citizens. In spite of continued controversy over its methods, the Five Eyes relationship remains one of the most comprehensive known espionage alliances in history. Since processed intelligence is gathered from multiple sources, the intelligence shared is not restricted to signals intelligence and involves defence intelligence as well as human intelligence and geospatial intelligence; the following table provides an overview of most of the FVEY agencies involved in such forms of data sharing. The origins of the Five Eyes alliance can be traced back to the Atlantic Charter, issued in August 1941 to lay out the Allied goals for the post-war world.
On 17 May 1943, the British–U. S. Communication Intelligence Agreement known as the BRUSA Agreement, was signed by the UK and U. S. governments to facilitate co-operation between the U. S. War Department and the British Government Code and Cypher School. On 5 March 1946, the secret treaty was formalized as the UKUSA Agreement, which forms the basis for all signal intelligence cooperation between the NSA and GCHQ to this day. In 1948, the treaty was extended to include Canada, followed by Norway, West Germany and New Zealand; these countries participated in the alliance as "third parties". By 1955, the formal status of the remaining Five Eyes countries was acknowledged in a newer version of the UKUSA Agreement that contained the following statement: At this time only Canada and New Zealand will be regarded as UKUSA-collaborating Commonwealth countries; the "Five Eyes" term has its origins as a shorthand for a "AUS/CAN/NZ/UK/US EYES ONLY" classification level. During the Cold War, GCHQ and the NSA shared intelligence on the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, several eastern European countries.
Over the course of several decades, the ECHELON surveillance network was developed to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies. During the Vietnam War and New Zealand operators in the Asia-Pacific region worked directly to support the United States, while GCHQ operators stationed in the British colony of Hong Kong were tasked with monitoring North Vietnamese air defence networks. During the Falklands War, the British received intelligence data from its FVEY allies such as Australia, as well as from third parties such as Norway and France. In the aftermath of the Gulf War, a technician of the ASIS was used by SIS to bug Kuwaiti government offices. In the 1950s, SIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the overthrow of Iran's Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh. In the 1960s, SIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the assassination of the Congolese independence leader Patrice Lumumba. In the 1970s, the ASIS and the CIA jointly orchestrated the overthrow of Chile's President Salvador Allende.
During the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, SIS and the CIA took part in Operation Yellowbird to rescue dissidents from the Chinese regime. By the end of the 20th century, the ECHELON surveillance network had evolved into a global system capable of sweeping up massive amounts of private and commercial communications, including telephone calls, fax, e-mail and other data traffic; this was done through the interception of communication bearers such as satellite transmission and public switched telephone networks. The Five Eyes has two types of information collection methods: the PRISM program and the Upstream collection system; the PRISM program gathers user information from technology firms such as Google and Microsoft, while the Upstream system gathers information directly from the communications of civilians via fiber cables and infrastructure as data flows past. In 1988, Duncan Campbell revealed in the New Statesman the existence of ECHELON, an extension of the UKUSA Agreement on global signals intelligence.
The story,'Somebody's listening,' detailed how the eavesdropping operations were not only being employed in the interests of'national security,' but were abused for corporate espionage in the service of US business interests. The piece passed unnoticed outside of journalism circles. In 1996, a detailed description of ECHELON was provided by New Zealand journalist Nicky Hager in a book titled "Secret Power – New Zealand's Role in the In
Duncan Campbell (journalist)
Duncan Campbell is a British freelance investigative journalist and television producer. Since 1975, he has specialised in the subjects of intelligence and security services, policing, civil liberties and, computer forensics, he was a staff writer at the New Statesman from 1978–91 and associate editor from 1988–91. He was prosecuted under the Official Secrets Act in the ABC trial in 1978 and made the controversial series Secret Society for the BBC in 1987. In 1988, he revealed the existence of the ECHELON surveillance program. Born in Glasgow in 1952, Campbell was educated in Dundee, his mother was a mathematician. As a pupil at the High School of Dundee, an independent school, he first trained in computer programming aged 16, taught computer languages, undertook programming in scientific computers languages, he gained three ‘S’ levels in physics and maths, an open scholarship to Brasenose College, graduating in 1973 with a First Class Honours degree in physics. The following year, Campbell completed a one-year MSc in Operational Research at the University of Sussex.
He told The Independent: "It was useful. It was not difficult to make the grades, though they'll hate me for saying so". After leaving Sussex University, Campbell became a journalist on Brighton Voice. Founded in March 1973 by Roy Carr-Hill and George Wilson, the paper's content followed broadly anarcho-socialist principles, with emphasis on reports on housing, the police, gay rights, civil liberties, the environment, anti-racism and women's rights, he was a regular contributor to New Scientist and Time Out magazines, which during the early 1970s had a much more radical editorial remit than they did in years. In 1976, Campbell wrote a seminal story for Time Out, co-authored with Mark Hosenball, called "The Eavesdroppers", it was the first time the British news media printed the acronym GCHQ, which stood for Government Communications Headquarters, a secretive arm of the British secret services, responsible for communications interception. The article led to the forcible deportation of Hosenball.
Campbell, who could not be deported, was instead placed under MI5 surveillance, which included the tapping of his phones. The following year, Campbell agreed to talk with ex-signals intelligence operator, John Berry, at Berry's home, he was accompanied by Crispin Aubrey. After a three-hour conversation, Special Branch arrested the three under the Official Secrets Act 1911, in what became known as the ABC trial. In 1982, Campbell published War Plan UK — the Truth about Civil Defence in Britain, which revealed and discussed — for the first time — the inadequacy and futility of the British government's preparations in the event of nuclear war. In 1980, his article revealing the existence of the secret Standing Committee on Pressure Groups in Hong Kong led to the revelation that most pressure groups and individual members of the Opposition were under surveillance by the colonial government. Campbell's article asserts that Hong Kong under governor Sir Murray MacLehose had become a dictatorship. In his words: "Hong Kong is a dictatorship.
The Secret Society series caused a political furore, known as the Zircon affair, in 1987. The production team behind the series was threatened with prosecution under the Official Secrets Act. Campbell's front door was kicked down and his home searched, Strathclyde Police raided the corporation's Scottish headquarters in Glasgow and seized the tapes from the offices of BBC Scotland, where the series had been made; the tapes were returned and the series broadcast on the BBC except for episode one. The BBC decided that the first episode, about secret cabinet committees, was too sensitive to show before the 1987 general election; the Thatcher government leaned on the BBC to prevent its damaging allegations from being made public. The Secret Constitution: Secret Cabinet Committees - about small and influential Cabinet committees. In Time Of Crisis: Government Emergency Powers - Since 1982, governments in every other NATO country have been preparing for the eventuality of war. In Britain, these preparations are kept secret.
So what will happen when the balloon goes up? A Gap In Our Defences - Bungling defence manufacturers and incompetent military planners have botched every new radar system that Britain has installed since World War Two. Why? And can we stop it happening again? We're All Data Now: Secret Data Banks - The Data Protection Act is supposed to protect us from abuse, but it's out of date and full of loopholes. So what kind of abuses should we worry about? The Association of Chief Police Officers - ACPO Making up their own law and policy. About the Association of Chief Police Officers and how Government policy and actions are determined in the fields of law and order. Communications Zircon - About GCHQ with particular reference to a secret £500 million satellite. Reference to Zircon spy satellites which the public accounts committee were not told about. Campbell revealed in 1988, in an article titled "Somebody's listening" and published in New Statesman, the existence of the ECHELON surveillance program.
In 1999, he wrote a report on communications intelligence entitled Interception Capabilities 2000 for the European Parliament. In 2005 and 2007, Campbell investigated and wrote criticisms of the Operation Ore child pornography prosecutions in the UK, which exposed police errors. Additionally, he "revealed how computer evidence
Michael S. Rogers
Michael S. Rogers is a former United States Navy admiral who served as the second commander of the U. S. Cyber Command, he concurrently served as the 17th director of the National Security Agency and as chief of the Central Security Service from April 3, 2014. Prior to that, Rogers served as the Commander of the Tenth Fleet and Commander of the U. S. Fleet Cyber Command. During his tenure, he helped transform and elevate U. S. Cyber Command into a unified combatant command, he relinquished command on May 2018 to his successor, Paul Nakasone. He retired from active duty in the United States Navy on June 1, 2018. Rogers is a native of Chicago, Illinois, he graduated from New Trier High School in 1977. He is a graduate of the Naval War College. Rogers received his commission through the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps program and has served in the United States Navy since graduating from Auburn University in 1981, he started his career as a Surface Warfare Officer working in naval gunfire support operations off Grenada and maritime surveillance operations off El Salvador on board the USS Caron.
In 1986, he was selected for transfer from Unrestricted Line Officer to Restricted Line Officer and re-designation as a cryptology officer. During the 2003 U. S. invasion of Iraq, Rogers joined the military's Joint Staff, which works for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, where he specialized in computer network attacks. From 2007 onward he served as director of intelligence for the military's Pacific Command. In 2009, he became director of intelligence for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, was subsequently named commander of U. S. Fleet Cyber Command and commander of the U. S. 10th Fleet, with responsibility for all of the Navy's cyberwarfare efforts. As such, Rogers was the first restricted line officer to serve as a numbered fleet commander and the first Information Warfare Community officer to achieve the rank of vice admiral. In January 2014, the Obama Administration announced Rogers' nomination as director of the National Security Agency and the commander of the United States offensive cyberoperations unit in the Department of Defense.
Rogers succeeded General Keith B. Alexander, who served as the NSA director for nine years, became the first IWC officer to achieve the rank of admiral. Although the NSA directorship does not require Senate approval, Rogers had to be confirmed by the Senate to head United States Cyber Command, for which the Senate unanimously confirmed him. In his first public remarks as NSA director, Rogers stated that he believed that NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden was "probably not" working for a foreign intelligence agency, despite frequent speculation and assertion by the NSA's allies to the contrary. Rogers added: "He believes in what he's doing. I question that. I fundamentally disagree with. I believe. Carter recommended he be terminated due to poor performance, whereas Clapper considered it wise that the position be held by a civilian. Both Clapper and Carter had put Rogers on notice for poor performance in internal security and leadership style. Others have contended that the real reason Clapper and Carter wanted Rogers fired is because he was a whistleblower, having initiated an Inspector General investigation and subsequent report to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Court about a sustained pattern during the Obama Administration of illegally performed searches on U.
S. Persons by improperly using FISA Section 702 authorities; this belief is buttressed by the IG report and by the April 26, 2017 U. S. FISA Court "Memorandum Opinion and Order." The declassified version of that document states "The October 26, 2016 Notice disclosed that an NSA Inspector General review and report and NSA Office of Comliance for Operations verification activities indicated that, with greater frequency than disclosed to the Court, NSA analysts had used U. S.-person identifiers to query the results of Internet'upstream' collection though NSA's Section 702 minimization procedures prohibited such queries. To understand why such queries were prohibited, why this disclosure gave the Court substantial concern, some historical background is necessary." The report goes on to state "At the October 26, 2016 hearing, the Court ascribed the government's failure to disclose those IG and OCO reviews at the October 4, 2016 hearing to an institutional'lack of candor' on NSA's part and emphasized that'this is a serious Fourth Amendment issue'".
As a result of these transgressions, there were "changes in the scope of NSA collection under Section 702, as reflected in the March 30, 2017 Amendments". These changes were designed to prevent recurrence of the illegal collection discussed in the Court filing. Other sources contend that Admiral Rogers' termination was delayed due to stalled changes to the bureaucratic structure of the intelligence community. Before the recommendation of firing was made, Rogers met with President-elect Donald Trump without notifying his superiors; some sources contend that the reason he did not notify Mr. Clapper was the fact he was alerting President Elect Trump about Mr. Clapper's illegal actions with respect to FISA Section 702. Trump was considering replacing Clapper with Rogers as DNI, however that position went to former Senator Dan Coats, with Rogers remainin
Federal Security Service
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security. Its main responsibilities are within the country and include counter-intelligence and border security, counter-terrorism, surveillance as well as investigating some other types of grave crimes and federal law violations, it is headquartered in Lubyanka Square, Moscow's centre, in the main building of the former KGB. According to the 1995 Federal Law "On the Federal Security Service", direction of the FSB is executed by the president of Russia, who appoints the Director of FSB; the immediate predecessor of the FSB was the Federal Counterintelligence Service of Russia, itself a successor to the KGB: on 12 April 1995, Russian president Boris Yeltsin signed a law mandating a reorganization of the FSK, which resulted in the creation of the FSB. In 2003, the FSB's responsibilities were widened by incorporating the independent Border Guard Service and a major part of the abolished Federal Agency of Government Communication and Information.
The three major structural successor components of the former KGB that remain administratively independent of the FSB are the Foreign Intelligence Service, the State Guards, the Main Directorate of Special Programs of the President of the Russian Federation. Under Russian federal law, the FSB is a military service just like the armed forces, the MVD, the FSO, the SVR, the FSKN, Main Directorate for Drugs Control and EMERCOM's civil defence, but its commissioned officers do not wear military uniforms; the FSB is responsible for internal security of the Russian state, counterintelligence, the fight against organized crime and drug smuggling, whereas overseas espionage is the primary responsibility of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service, successor to the KGB's First Directorate, as well as the GRU, a body within the Russian Ministry of Defence. However, the FSB's FAPSI conducts electronic surveillance abroad. All law enforcement and intelligence agencies in Russia work under the guidance of the FSB, if necessary.
The FSB employs about 66,200 uniformed staff, including about 4,000 special forces troops. It employs about Border Service of the 160,000–200,000 border guards. Under Article 32 of the Federal Constitutional Law On the Government of the Russian Federation, The FSB answers directly to the RF president and the Director of FSB, while a member of the RF government, headed by the Chairman of Government, reports to the president only; the Federal Security Service is one of the successor organisations of the Soviet Committee of State Security. Following the attempted coup of 1991—in which some KGB units as well as the KGB head Vladimir Kryuchkov played a major part—the KGB was dismantled and ceased to exist from November 1991. In December 1991, two government agencies answerable to the Russian president were created by President Yeltsin's decrees on the basis of the relevant main directorates of the defunct KGB: Foreign Intelligence Service and the Federal Agency of Government Communications and Information.
In January 1992, another new institution, the Ministry of Security took over domestic and border security responsibilities. Following the 1993 constitutional crisis, the Ministry of Security was reorganized on 21 December 1993 into the Federal Counter-Intelligence Service; the FSK was headed by Sergei Stepashin. Before the start of the main military activities of the First Chechen War the FSK was responsible for the covert operations against the separatists led by Dzhokhar Dudayev. In 1995, the FSK was renamed and reorganized into the Federal Security Service by the Federal Law "On the Federal Security Service" signed by the president on 3 April 1995; the FSB reforms were rounded out by decree No. 633, signed by Boris Yeltsin on 23 June 1995. The decree made the tasks of the FSB more specific, giving the FSB substantial rights to conduct cryptographic work, described the powers of the FSB director; the number of deputy directors was increased to 8: 2 first deputies, 5 deputies responsible for departments and directorates and 1 deputy director heading the Moscow City and Moscow regional directorate.
Yeltsin appointed Colonel-General Mikhail Ivanovich Barsukov as the new director of the FSB. In 1998 Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin, a KGB veteran who would succeed Yeltsin as federal president, as director of the FSB. Putin was reluctant to take over the directorship, but once appointed conducted a thorough reorganization, which included the dismissal of most of the FSB's top personnel. Putin appointed Nikolai Patrushev as the head of FSB in 1999. After the main military offensive of the Second Chechen War ended and the separatists changed tactics to guerilla warfare, overall command of the federal forces in Chechnya was transferred from the military to the FSB in January 2001. While the army lacked technical means of tracking the guerrilla groups, the FSB suffered from insufficient human intelligence due to its inability to build networks of agents and informants. In the autumn of 2002, the separatists launched a massive campaign of terrorism against the Russian civilians, including t
Edward Joseph Snowden is an American whistle-blower and fugitive. A former Central Intelligence Agency employee and contractor for the United States government, he copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency in 2013, his disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments, prompted a cultural discussion about national security and individual privacy. In 2013, Snowden was hired by an NSA contractor, Booz Allen Hamilton, after previous employment with Dell and the CIA. Snowden says he became disillusioned with the programs with which he was involved and that he tried to raise his ethical concerns through internal channels but was ignored. On May 20, 2013, Snowden flew to Hong Kong after leaving his job at an NSA facility in Hawaii, in early June he revealed thousands of classified NSA documents to journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, Ewen MacAskill.
Snowden came to international attention after stories based on the material appeared in The Guardian and The Washington Post. Further disclosures were made by other publications including The New York Times. On June 21, 2013, the U. S. Department of Justice unsealed charges against Snowden of two counts of violating the Espionage Act of 1917 and theft of government property, following which the Department of State revoked his passport. Two days he flew into Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport, but Russian authorities noted that his U. S. passport had been cancelled, he was restricted to the airport terminal for over one month. Russia recognized his right of asylum, with a visa for residence for one year. Repeated extensions have permitted him to stay at least until 2020. In early 2016, he became the president of the Freedom of the Press Foundation, an organization that aims to protect journalists from hacking and government surveillance; as of 2017, he was living in an undisclosed location in Moscow.
Edward Joseph Snowden was born on June 1983, in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. His maternal grandfather, Edward J. Barrett, a rear admiral in the U. S. Coast Guard, became a senior official with the FBI and was at the Pentagon in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. Snowden's father, was an officer in the Coast Guard, his mother, Elizabeth, is a clerk at the U. S. District Court for the District of Maryland, his older sister, was a lawyer at the Federal Judicial Center in Washington, D. C. Edward Snowden said that he had expected to work for the federal government, as had the rest of his family, his parents divorced in 2001, his father remarried. Snowden scored above 145 on two separate IQ tests. In the early 1990s, while still in grade school, Snowden moved with his family to the area of Fort Meade, Maryland. Mononucleosis caused him to miss high school for nine months. Rather than returning to school, he passed the GED test and took classes at Anne Arundel Community College. Although Snowden had no undergraduate college degree, he worked online toward a master's degree at the University of Liverpool, England, in 2011.
He was interested in Japanese popular culture, had studied the Japanese language, worked for an anime company that had a resident office in the U. S, he said he had a basic understanding of Mandarin Chinese and was interested in martial arts. At age 20, he listed Buddhism as his religion on a military recruitment form, noting that the choice of agnostic was "strangely absent." Snowden has said that, in the 2008 presidential election, he voted for a third-party candidate, though he "believed in Obama's promises." Following the election, he believed President Barack Obama was continuing policies espoused by George W. Bush. In accounts published in June 2013, interviewers noted that Snowden's laptop displayed stickers supporting Internet freedom organizations including the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Tor Project. A week after publication of his leaks began, Ars Technica confirmed that Snowden had been an active participant at the site's online forum from 2001 through May 2012, discussing a variety of topics under the pseudonym "TheTrueHOOHA."
In a January 2009 entry, TheTrueHOOHA exhibited strong support for the U. S. security state apparatus and said leakers of classified information "should be shot in the balls." However, Snowden disliked Obama's CIA director appointment of Leon Panetta, saying "Obama just named a fucking politician to run the CIA." Snowden was offended by a possible ban on assault weapons, writing "Me and all my lunatic, gun-toting NRA compatriots would be on the steps of Congress before the C-Span feed finished." Snowden disliked Obama's economic policies, was against Social Security, favored Ron Paul's call for a return to the gold standard. In 2014, Snowden supported a basic income. Feeling a duty to fight in the Iraq War to help free oppressed people, Snowden enlisted in the United States Army Reserve on May 7, 2004, became a Special Forces candidate through its 18X enlistment option, he did not complete the training. After breaking both legs in a training accident, he was discharged on September 28, 2004. Snowden was employed for less than a year in 2005 as a security guard at the University of Maryland's Center for Advanced Study of Language, a research center sponsored by the National Security Agency.
According to the University, this is not a classified facility, though it is guarded. In June 2014, Snowden told Wired that his job as a security guard required a high-level security clearance, for which he passed a polygraph exam and underwent a stringent background check. After attending a 2006 job-fair focused on intelligence agencies, Sno
National Security Agency
The National Security Agency is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring and processing of information and data for foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence; the NSA is tasked with the protection of U. S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine. Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since it has become the largest of the U. S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget. The NSA conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end; the NSA has been alleged to have been behind such attack software as Stuxnet, which damaged Iran's nuclear program.
The NSA, alongside the Central Intelligence Agency, maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe. SCS collection tactics encompass "close surveillance, wiretapping and entering". Unlike the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency, both of which specialize in foreign human espionage, the NSA does not publicly conduct human-source intelligence gathering; the NSA is entrusted with providing assistance to, the coordination of, SIGINT elements for other government organizations – which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities on their own. As part of these responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service, which facilitates cooperation between the NSA and other U. S. defense cryptanalysis components. To further ensure streamlined communication between the signals intelligence community divisions, the NSA Director serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service; the NSA's actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders and the agency's participation in economic espionage.
In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens; the documents revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing"; the origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U. S. Congress declared war on Germany in World War I. A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section, known as the Cipher Bureau, it was headquartered in Washington, D. C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times.
On July 5, 1917, Herbert O. Yardley was assigned to head the unit. At that point, the unit consisted of two civilian clerks, it absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July 1918. World War I ended on November 11, 1918, the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley. After the disbandment of the U. S. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in 1919, the U. S. government created the Cipher Bureau known as Black Chamber. The Black Chamber was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization. Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company, its true mission, was to break the communications of other nations. Its most notable known success was at the Washington Naval Conference, during which it aided American negotiators by providing them with the decrypted traffic of many of the conference delegations, most notably the Japanese.
The Black Chamber persuaded Western Union, the largest U. S. telegram company at the time, as well as several other communications companies to illegally give the Black Chamber access to cable traffic of foreign embassies and consulates. Soon, these companies publicly discontinued their collaboration. Despite the Chamber's initial successes, it was shut down in 1929 by U. S. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson, who defended his decision by stating, "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail". During World War II, the Signal Intelligence Service was created to intercept and decipher the communications of the Axis powers; when the war ended, the SIS was reorganized as the Army Security Agency, it was placed under the leadership of the Director of Military Intelligence. On May 20, 1949, all cryptologic activities were centralized under a national organization called the Armed Forces Security Agency; this organization was established within the U. S. Department of Defense under the command of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Dishfire is a covert global surveillance collection system and database run by the United States of America's National Security Agency and the United Kingdom's Government Communications Headquarters that collects hundreds of millions of text messages on a daily basis from around the world. A related analytic tool is known as Prefer; the database is operated by the following agencies: United States of America - National Security Agency United Kingdom - Government Communications Headquarters The existence of the database was revealed in 2014 based on documents disclosed by whistleblower Edward Snowden. According to Snowden's documents, Britain's Government Communications Headquarters has been given full access to the Dishfire database, which the agency uses to obtain personal information of Britons by exploiting a legal loophole; each day, Dishfire collects the following amounts of data: Geolocation data of more than 76,000 text messages and other travel information Over 110,000 names, gathered from electronic business cards Over 800,000 financial transactions that are either gathered from text-to-text payments or from linking credit cards to phone users Details of 1.6 million border crossings based on the interception of network roaming alerts Over 5 million missed call alerts About 200 million text messages from around the worldThe press highlighted some quotes from the internal presentations highlighting the intent of this operation: one leaked GCHQ document said that DISHFIRE “collects pretty much everything it can, so you can see SMS from a selector, not targeted.”
The bulk collection was therefore suggested in this document as “particularly useful for the development of new targets, since it is possible to examine the content of messages sent months or years before the target was known to be of interest.” In response, a spokeswoman of the NSA describes the database as follows: "Dishfire is a system that processes and stores lawfully collected SMS data. Because some SMS data of US persons may at times be incidentally collected in NSA’s lawful foreign intelligence mission, privacy protections for US persons exist across the entire process concerning the use, handling and dissemination of SMS data in Dishfire." Dishfire is exploited with an analytical tool known as the Prefer program, which processes SMS messages to extract information including contacts from missed call alerts, location from roaming and travel alerts, financial information from bank alerts and payments, names from electronic business cards. A Vodafone representative declared in the breaking news story on Channel 4 that “It’s the first we’ve heard about it and we’re shocked and surprised.”
He went on to say that Dishfire was circumventing UK law. According to Channel 4's Geoff White, "the Dishfire system gives GCHQ a legal loophole to get such information without needing a RIPA request. That's because the text messages are gathered and stored by the NSA - and GCHQ's access to foreign intelligence agencies' stash of data is not covered by any UK law." Former UK Interception Commissioner Sir Swinton Thomas drew an analogy between this method of circumventing the UK interception laws and torture in a foreign country, adding that it was a “different area of course, but the concept is similar”. FASCIA Five Eyes Mass surveillance Mass surveillance in the United Kingdom Mass surveillance in the United States MUSCULAR, another NSA–GCHQ collaboration targeting Google and Yahoo private cloud traffic Stateroom