A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
Towson is an unincorporated community and a census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland. The population was 55,197 as of the 2010 census, it is the second-most populated unincorporated county seat in the United States. The first inhabitants of the future Towson and central Baltimore County region were the Susquehannock people who hunted in the area, their region included all of Baltimore County, though their primary settlement was farther northeast along the Susquehanna River. Towson was settled in 1752 when Pennsylvania brothers and Thomas Towson, began farming an area of Sater's Hill, northeast of the present-day York and Joppa Roads. William's son, opened the Towson Hotel to serve the growing number of farmers bringing their produce and livestock to the port of Baltimore, he built the hotel near the area's main crossroads. The village became known as "Towsontown"; the property in West Towson came from two land grants: 400 acre Gott's Hope in 1719, Gunner's Range in 1706. In 1790, businessman Capt. Charles Ridgely completed the magnificent Hampton Mansion just north of Towsontown, the largest private house in America at the time.
The Ridgelys lived there for six generations, until 1948. It is now open to the public. Dr. Grafton Marsh, a surgeon during the war of 1812, his brother Dr. Josiah Marsh settled their families in a collection of early houses known as Gott's Hope, part of a group along Joppa Road, they consolidated four of the structures into a larger dwelling that they called "Marshmont". The brothers went into business together as medical practitioners. Neither had any heirs but were joined in practice by their nephew, Dr. Grafton Marsh Bosley, who inherited the medical practice, the Marshmont compound, a 140-acre farm; the farm extended west of York Road, south of Joppa Road, north of the Sheppard Pratt Hospital, east of Woodbine Avenut. In 1869, Bosley and his wife Margaret Nicholson built a new home in an area of the property known as "Highlands" or "Highland Park", which they named "Uplands"; the ratification of the second Maryland Constitution of 1851 provided for the jurisdictional separation of the former Baltimore Town, founded in 1729.
Baltimore Town had served as the county seat since 1767, now the City of Baltimore, since its incorporation in 1796–97 by the General Assembly of Maryland. Several tortured sets of negotiations occurred to divide the various assets of the city and the county, such as the downtown courthouse of 1805, the city/county jail of 1801 along the Jones Falls and the almshouse, jointly owned. After a series of elections and referenda, on February 13, 1854, Towson became, by popular vote, the choice of the remaining, now rural, eastern and western portions of the county as the new county seat of Baltimore County; the Baltimore County Courthouse, still in use by 2015, with its various annexes, was designed by the local city architectural firm of Dixon and Dixon. It was completed within a year, constructed of limestone and marble donated by the well-known Ridgely family of nearby Hampton Mansion, on land donated by Towson doctor Grafton Marsh Bosley; the courthouse was subsequently enlarged in 1910 through additional designs for north and south wings by well-known and regarded city architects, Baldwin & Pennington.
Additional expansions in 1926 and 1958 created an H-shaped plan for the courthouse. An additional modernistic Baltimore County Courts Building, with room for the new charter government since 1956 and administration of a county executive and county council, plus administrative and executive departments, was erected in 1970–71 across a plaza to the west of the older historic courthouse; the old Baltimore County Jail was built in 1855, was replaced in the 1980s by a new modern Baltimore County Detention Center, north of the town on Kenilworth Avenue, with an addition constructed in the 2010s. From 1850 to 1874, another notable land owner, Amos Matthews, had a farm of 150 acres that—with the exception of the 17-acre natural parcel where the Kelso Home for Girls, was erected —was wholly developed into the neighborhoods of West Towson, Southland Hills and other subdivisions, beginning in the middle 1920s. During the Civil War, Towson was the scene of two minor engagements. Many local citizens were sympathetic to the Southern Confederate cause, so much so that Ady's Hotel and the current site of the 1920s-era Towson Theatre, flew the Southern flag.
The Union Army found it necessary to overtake the town by force on June 2, 1861. During the raid, the Union Army seized weapons from citizens at Ady's Hotel. A local paper, in jest, refers to the "strongly fortified and impregnable city of Towsontown" and downplays the need for the attack, stating, "the distinguished Straw, with only two hundred and fifty men, has taken a whole city and nearly frightened two old women out of their wits."The second engagement took place around July 12, 1864, between Union and Confederate forces. On July 10, 1864, a 135-man Confederate cavalry detachment attacked the Northern Central Railway to the north in nearby Cockeysville, under orders from Gen. Bradley T. Johnson, of Frederick, Maryland; the First and Second Maryland Cavalry, led by Baltimore County native and pre-war member of the Towson Horse Guards, Maj. Harry W. Gilmor, of Glen Ellen, attacked strategic targets throughout Ba
Stoneleigh Historic District
Stoneleigh Historic District is a national historic district at Towson, Baltimore County, United States. It is a cohesive residential neighborhood in Central Baltimore County; the first 110-acre section of Stoneleigh was platted in 1922 and enlarged in 1954 with the central 20 acres of land, on which the Italianate-style Stoneleigh Villa once stood. Domestic buildings in Stoneleigh extends from the 1920s to infill housing of the mid 1980s and are suburban examples of the Tudor Revival, Colonial Revival, French Revival, Spanish Mission Revival, Renaissance Revival, Craftsman styles, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. Stoneleigh-Rodgers Forge, Maryland, a former Census-designated place enumerated in 1960. Stoneleigh Community Website, includes history and photos Stoneleigh Historic District, Baltimore County, including photo dated 2001, at Maryland Historical Trust Boundary Map of the Stoneleigh Historic District, Baltimore County, at Maryland Historical Trust
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i
Rodgers Forge, Maryland
Rodgers Forge is a national historic district southwest of the unincorporated Towson area and county seat of Baltimore County, just north of the Baltimore City/County line. It is a residential area, with rowhouses, single-family dwellings, a new complex of luxury garaged townhomes; the area has a small amount of commercial development. It is just south of Towson University. 21212 is the postal code for Rodgers Forge. In 2004, Rodgers Forge gained international attention as the home of Olympic swimming champion Michael Phelps. In 2013, Rodgers Forge was ranked by Baltimore Magazine as one of the top neighborhoods in Baltimore County; the magazine named Rodgers Forge as one of the 10 "best-kept secret neighborhoods" in Baltimore metropolitan area for its "strong public schools, thriving community organizations, easy access to shopping and entertainment in Baltimore and Towson." Rodgers Forge has been ranked as one of the safest Baltimore neighborhoods, according to the website and online database NeighborhoodScout.
Most of the Rodgers Forge community geographic area, as stated in the Rodgers Forge Community Association, Inc. by-laws, was part of Dumbarton Farm, which as late as 1837 was owned by Johns Hopkins. This Johns Hopkins died in August 1837, while the Johns Hopkins known as a benefactor to Johns Hopkins University and Johns Hopkins Hospital was 42 years of age at the time of the older Johns Hopkins' death. There are some unfounded claims. While other accounts do not identify the Johns Hopkins. Rodgers Forge takes its name from the blacksmith shop of George Rodgers, built in 1800, once near the northwest corner of York Road and Stevenson Lane situated halfway to the junction of Osler Drive and Auburn Drive on the campus of Towson University; the assertion that the forge was to the southeast, near the southeast corner of the current survey of York Road and Stevenson Lane, is contraindicated by the following: The existence of forge ruins as described above. In 1800s America, "roads" - more wagon paths - followed flood plain parallel to water courses, as these sites were both flat and more cleared.
The current survey of York Road is "dry", away from wetlands. Common practice was to relocate wagon paths as necessary to accommodate heavier traffic and the need for more stable road foundation. However, it is that a forge for travelers' horses and carriages, would have been situated at an early crossroads, down in the area of the floodplain. Smithing and casting operations required access to a available source of water, both for cooling red hot metal and fire suppression. Now filled in, up until the early 1960s, a steeply eroded but significant water course traversed the flood plain to the right of the current survey of Osler Drive, past a farm pond on the present site of the main entrance and parking lot of St. Joseph's Hospital; the pond was "natural", to the west of the Fitzgerald residence on La Paix Lane. It is unlikely. In the 1950s, the water course "disappeared" under Stevenson Lane, through a conduit, just under the northeast corner of Osler and Stevenson. Construction here destroyed - no doubt, what would now be considered one of America's "legacy" trees - a gigantic sycamore with girth over 20 feet, standing sentinel to the water course.
In 1934, builder James Keelty began work on the Rodgers Forge neighborhood, constructed over 600 red brick rowhouses until World War II stopped development. After the war, work resumed under the direction of Keelty's two son's James Keelty Jr. and Joseph Keelty. 1,777 homes were completed by 1956. In 1939, the price of a new interior row home was five thousand dollars, with end-of-group homes selling for more; the latter phase of construction saw the removal of a large hill just to the north of Dunkirk Road, flattening out to the north much of the original Dumbarton Farm down to subsoil, to accommodate the new row homes and apartments. The lack of topsoil - a frequent complaint of would-be gardeners in the neighborhood - is accounted for by the removal of the hill. During World War II, the neighborhood's "Victory Gardens" had occupied much of what now comprises Murdock Road, to the north of Dunkirk. Despite the population density of Rodgers Forge, until the early 1960s, just to the west, a small working farm of a few acres with livestock remained at the junction of Stevenson Lane and Bellona Avenue.
Just to the north in the same time period, the operating Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad, affectionately known as the "Ma & Pa", crossed under Bellona at Armagh Village, the track bordering Stanmore Road to the north, as the line wended eastwards toward Towson, continuing across the future Osler Drive where the Shepherd Flag Station would have been located. From just south of the old Baltimore County Jail, the Ma & Pa made its way toward York, PA, crossing York Road by trestle, serving both the headquarters of Black & Decker and Bendix Radio on Joppa Road, the latter of which up to the 1960s had as many as 5,000 employees, a surprising number of whom lived in Rodgers Forge, as the development of Dulaney Valley to the north was yet to occur. North of Joppa - north of the Immaculate Conception Catholic Church - there was no development save farmland in the Loch Raven wa