Knockbridge is a small village within the townland of Ballinlough in County Louth, Ireland. The village is centred on a crossroads, where there is a shop. There are a Roman Catholic church and a large primary school in the village. Stephenstown House, a large ruined Georgian house, once owned by a branch of the Fortescue family, stands beside the River Fane about a mile outside the village. Stephenstown Pond, about a hundred metres from the house, was redeveloped in the mid-1990s and is a public amenity. Stephenstown Pond has an 8,000 sq ft community enterprise space, it is a habitat for a large number of animals. Fishing permits for the pond can be obtained in the village from Brodigan's Shop. Knockbridge Church has a number of Harry Clarke designed stained-glass windows; the village takes its name from "Cnoic Bhríde" - Bridget's Hill - reputed to be a site connected with local Saint Bridget. Nearby is Clochafarmore, where the legendary hero Cú Chulainn is reputed to have died; the village's Gaelic football team was founded by Seamus Quinn, the parish priest in 1927.
The club plays in "Páirc an Chuinnigh", bought as a memorial to Quinn who died in 1952. The grounds were opened on 1 May 1955; the club competes in the Louth Senior Division. The village is situated 6.5 km south-west of the county town. The village is 75 km north of Dublin Airport. Bus Éireann provides bus routes to and from Knockbridge. List of towns and villages in Ireland Census 2006 Knockbridge National School, Co. Louth Knockbridge Vintage Club Knockbridge Home Page St. Brides GFC
Dromiskin is a village and townland in County Louth, Ireland. It is situated 10 km south of Dundalk, about 1 km inland from the Irish Sea coast, is located in one of Louth's most historical areas; the village was home to a monastery for hundreds of years, once visited by Saint Patrick. The first bishop of Dromiskin was Lughaidh, son of Aengus mac Nadfraoch the first Christian king of Munster. St. Patrick reputedly pierced Aengus's foot with his pastoral staff during the baptism.Áed Findliath monarch of Ireland, son of Niall Caille, retired to and died at Dromiskin. The Chronicon Scotorum records his death at 879. O'Donovan records his death as 876 and the Annals of Ulster place it at 878; the next few hundred years would be turbulent times for Dromiskin. The constant plundering by both Viking and Irish would disperse the monks. Annudh macRuaire rampaged through the territory in 1043 and Dromiskin was destroyed; the ecclesiastical site was abandoned and the monks took refuge in the neighbouring Abbey of St.
Mochta's, the possessions of this ancient church being placed in the hands of the Prior of Louth Abbey. Dromiskin served as the home to the Archbishops of Armagh for a time; the Archbishops of Armagh lived at Dromiskin House. Archbishop Milo Sweetman is buried here; the old ninth century round tower and parts of the Abbey still remain. From the tower there is a view of all of the surrounding countryside; the village is part of the Darver and Dromiskin parish, Darver being a neighbouring village. The parish is bounded by the Fane River by the Glyde River on the south. Since the mid-1990s, like many areas in County Louth, has seen a marked increase in population. In 2006, 992 people were living in Dromiskin with 1,932 living in the electoral division; the local Gaelic Football club, St. Joseph's, covering the entire parish of Darver & Dromiskin, won the Senior county championship in 1996 and 2006; the club is now playing Intermediate level championship as well as Division 2 league football in 2011, having been relegated from League Division 1 in 2010.
The club's Minor team won the county championship for the first time in 2009 and retained the championship in 2010. There is an athletics club based on the outskirts of the village. Bus Éireann route 168, Annagassan to Dundalk serves Dromiskin Mondays to Fridays inclusive providing one journey in each direction. List of abbeys and priories in Ireland List of towns and villages in Ireland St. Peter's National School Website St Joseph's Gaelic Football Club St Peter's AC
George Elmer Pataki is an American lawyer and Republican politician who served as the 53rd Governor of New York. An attorney by profession, Pataki was elected mayor of his hometown of Peekskill, New York and went on to be elected to the State Assembly and the State Senate. In 1994, Pataki ran for Governor of New York against three-term incumbent Mario Cuomo, defeating him by a margin of more than three points as part of the Republican Revolution of 1994. Pataki would himself be elected to three consecutive terms, was the third Republican Governor of New York elected since 1923; as of 2018, Pataki is the most recent Republican to hold any statewide office in New York. In early 2015, Pataki began exploring a candidacy for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in 2016. On December 29, 2015, Pataki ended his campaign before the Republican presidential primaries had begun. Pataki was born in New York. Pataki's paternal grandfather was Pataki János of Austria-Hungary; the family name's Hungarian pronunciation means creek.
János came to the United States in 1908, worked in a hat factory and had married Erzsébet Hungarian-born, around 1904. Their son, Pataki's father, was Louis P. Pataki, a mailman and volunteer fire chief, who ran the Pataki Farm. Pataki's maternal grandfather was Matteo Laganà, who married Agnes Lynch of County Louth, Ireland around 1914, their daughter, Margaret Lagana, is Pataki's mother. Pataki has Louis. George Pataki speaks some Hungarian today, as well as Spanish and German. After graduating from Peekskill High School, Pataki entered Yale University with George W. Bush in 1964 on an academic scholarship, graduated in three years, in 1967. While there Pataki served as Chairman of the Conservative Party of the Yale Political Union, where he participated in debates, he received his J. D. from Columbia Law School in 1970. While practicing law at Plunkett and Jaffe, P. C. in Peekskill, Pataki became friends with Michael C. Finnegan, who would go on to be the architect of Pataki's ascendancy to power.
Finnegan would go on to manage Pataki's campaigns for Mayor, State Assembly, State Senate, the governorship. Finnegan was appointed chief counsel to the governor in 1995, played the key role in developing and negotiating nearly all of Pataki's early legislative success. Pataki first won elected office in November 1981, he was elected Mayor of the City of Peekskill, located in the Northwestern part of Westchester County. Pataki defeated the Democratic incumbent Fred Bianco Jr. winning 70% of the vote. In November 1983, he was re-elected winning 74 % of the vote. In November 1984, George Pataki was elected to the New York State Assembly, by defeating the one-term Democratic incumbent William J. Ryan, winning 53% of the vote. In November 1986, Pataki defeated Ryan in a rematch. Pataki won a third term in November 1988, winning 74% of the vote against Democratic candidate Mark Zinna. Pataki won a fourth and final term in November 1990, winning over 90% of the vote, as he only faced a minor party candidate.
He was an assemblyman in the 187th, 188th and 189th New York State Legislatures. From 1983 to 1992, the 91st Assembly district included parts of Westchester, Orange and Putnam Counties. However, in 1992, Assembly Democrats redrew the district boundaries, placing the newly renamed 90th Assembly district within Westchester County. Instead of running in the newly redrawn district, Pataki decided to challenge seven-term incumbent Republican State Senator Mary B. Goodhue in the Republican primary by criticizing her for taking her grandchildren to Disney World and missing a vote in Albany. Pataki won the primary by a 52% to 48% margin. However, Goodhue was still going to appear on the November ballot on a minor party line. In November 1992, George Pataki won election to the New York State Senate in a 4-way race. Pataki served in the Senate of the 190th New York State Legislature, ran for governor at the next election. Pataki was a first term state senator from Westchester County when he launched his bid for the Republican nomination for governor in 1994.
He said he launched the campaign because of his frustration in the Senate regarding how Albany worked and on tax issues. He was little known statewide and his campaign received a boost when he was endorsed by U. S. Sen. Al D'Amato, he received the party's endorsement at the spring state convention and defeated former State Republican Chairman Richard Rosenbaum in the September primary. Pataki was considered an underdog from the start since he was running against three term Gov. Mario Cuomo and because Pataki had little name recognition statewide. D'Amato backed Pataki because of a poll that showed a pro-choice, fiscal conservative from the New York City suburbs could win statewide for governor; the poll showed a female running mate for lieutenant governor would help the ticket, thus leading to the selection of academic Betsy McCaughey as Pataki's running mate. The polls had Governor Cuomo up by as much as ten points going into the final two weeks, but they narrowed at the end, he made an issue of Cuomo seeking a fourth term as governor and pledged to serve only two terms in office.
Cuomo was helped late in the race by the endorsement of New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani. In the end, Pataki narrowly defeated Cuomo in the general election. Many, including George Pataki himself, believe Howard Stern's endorsement of
Dáil Éireann is the lower house, principal chamber, of the Oireachtas, which includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann. It consists of 158 members, known as Teachta Dála. TDs represent 40 constituencies, are directly elected at least once every five years under the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote, its powers are similar to those of lower houses under many other bicameral parliamentary systems and it is by far the dominant branch of the Oireachtas. Subject to the limits imposed by the Constitution of Ireland, it has power to pass any law it wishes, to nominate and remove the Taoiseach. Since 1922, it has met in Leinster House in Dublin; the name Dáil Éireann is taken from the Irish language but is the official title of the body in both English and Irish, including both language versions of the Irish constitution. Since the Dáil was first established in 1919, it has been described variously as a "National Assembly", a "Chamber of Deputies" and a "House of Representatives".
A dáil means an assembly or parliament, so a literal translation of Dáil Éireann is "Assembly of Ireland". Article 15 of Ireland's constitution describes the body as "a House of Representatives to be called Dáil Éireann". In common usage, the word Dáil is accompanied by the definite article. So one speaks of "the Dáil" but not "the Dáil Éireann"; the plural Dálaí is used. Dáil Éireann has 158 members. Under current legislation, members are directly elected at least once in every five years by the people of Ireland under a system of proportional representation known as the single transferable vote. Membership of the Dáil is open to Irish citizens. A member of the Dáil is known as a Teachta TD or Deputy; the Dáil electorate consists of Irish and British citizens over 18 years of age who are registered to vote in Ireland. Under the Constitution a general election for Dáil Éireann must occur once in every seven years, an earlier maximum of five years is set by the Electoral Act, 1992; the Taoiseach can, by making a request to the president dissolve the Dáil at any time, in which case a general election must occur within thirty days.
The President may refuse to dissolve the Dáil, ask the Dáil to form an alternative government without a general election taking place. The STV electoral system broadly produces proportional representation in the Dáil; the small size of the constituencies used, however gives a small advantage to the larger parties and under-represents smaller parties. Since the 1990s the norm in the state has been coalition governments. Prior to 1989, one-party government by the Fianna Fáil party was common; the multi-seat constituencies required by STV mean that candidates must compete for election with others from the same party. This is accused by some of producing TDs who are excessively parochial. Two failed attempts – 1959 and 1968 – have been made to change to the United Kingdom's plurality voting system electoral system. Both were rejected in referendums. By-elections occur under the alternative vote system; every constituency elects between three and five TDs. The constitution specifies that no constituency may return fewer than three TDs but does not specify any upper limit to constituency magnitude.
However, statute specifies a maximum of five seats per constituency. The constitution requires that constituency boundaries be reviewed at least once in every twelve years, so that boundaries may be redrawn to accommodate changes in population. Boundary changes are drafted by an independent commission, its recommendations are followed. Malapportionment is forbidden by the constitution. Under the Constitution, the commission is required to refer to the most recent Census of Ireland when considering boundary changes. Under the Constitution of Ireland there must never be fewer than one TD for every thirty thousand of the population, nor more than one for every twenty thousand. In the 29th Dáil there was one TD for every 25,000 citizens, in line with many other European Union member state national parliament ratios with Malta having one MP for every 6,000 citizens and Spain having one MP for every 130,000 citizens. Ireland has a similar MP to Citizen ratio to Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Latvia and Sweden.
With the adoption of the current constitution in 1937 the membership of the Dáil was reduced from 153 to 138, but in the 1960s the number was increased to 144 for the 1977 election to 148, only to be increased more in 1981 to the figure of 166. The Electoral Act 2011 provides that the number of members "shall be not less than 153 and not more than 160"; this came into effect at the 2016 general election. The Dáil chamber has confrontational benches but the end segment is curved to create a partial hemicycle; the government TDs sit with the main opposition party on his right. The Chamber was adapted for use as a Parliament from its former use as a lecture theatre; the First Dáil Éireann was established on 21 January 1919 as the single chamber parliament of th
Time in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland uses Irish Standard Time in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time in the winter period. In Ireland, the Standard Time Act 1968 established that the time for general purposes in the State shall be one hour in advance of Greenwich mean time throughout the year; this act was amended by the Standard Time Act 1971, which established Greenwich Mean Time as a winter time period. Ireland therefore operates one hour behind standard time during the winter period, reverts to standard time in the summer months; this is defined in contrast to the other states in the European Union, which operate one hour ahead of standard time during the summer period, but produces the same end result. The instant of transition to and from daylight saving time is synchronised across Europe. In Ireland, winter time begins at 02:00 IST on the last Sunday in October, ends at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in March; the following table lists recent past and near-future starting and ending dates of Irish Standard Time or Irish Summer Time: Before 1880, the legal time at any place in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was defined as local mean time, as held by the appeal in the 1858 court case Curtis v. March.
The Statutes Act, 1880 defined Dublin Mean Time as the legal time for Ireland. This was the local mean time at Dunsink Observatory outside Dublin, was about 25 minutes 21 seconds behind Greenwich Mean Time, defined by the same act to be the legal time for Great Britain. After the Easter Rising, the time difference between Ireland and Britain was found inconvenient for telegraphic communication and the Time Act, 1916 provided that Irish time would be the same as British time, from 2:00 am Dublin Mean Time on Sunday 1 October 1916. Summer time had been introduced in May 1916 across the United Kingdom as a temporary efficiency measure for the First World War, the changeover from Dublin time to Greenwich time was simultaneous with the changeover from summer time to winter time. John Dillon opposed the first reading of the Time Bill for having been introduced without consultation of the Irish Parliamentary Party. T. M. Healy opposed the second reading on the basis that "while the Daylight Saving Bill added to the length of your daylight, this Bill adds to the length of your darkness".
After the Irish Free State became independent in 1922, subsequent developments tended to mirror those in the United Kingdom. This avoided having different times on either side of the border with Northern Ireland. Summer time was provided on a one-off basis by acts in 1923 and 1924, on an ongoing basis by the Summer Time Act, 1925; the 1925 act provided a default summer time period. Double summer time was considered but not introduced during the Emergency of World War II. From 1968 standard time was observed all year round, with no winter time change; this was an experiment in the run-up to Ireland's 1973 accession to the EEC, was undone in 1971. In those years, time in Ireland was the same as in the six EEC countries, except in the summer in Italy, which switched to Central European Summer Time. One artefact of the 1968 legislation is that "standard time" refers to summer time. From the 1980s, the dates of switch between winter and summer time have been synchronised across the European Union; the statutory instruments that have been issued under the Standard Time Acts are listed below, in format year/SI-number, linking to the Irish Statute Database text of the SI.
Except where stated, those issued up to 1967 were called "Summer Time Order <year>", while those issued from 1981 are "Winter Time Order <year>". 1926/, 1947/71, 1948/128, 1949/23, 1950/41, 1951/27, 1952/73, 1961/11, 1961/232, 1962/182, 1963/167, 1964/257, 1967/198, 1981/67, 1982/212, 1986/45, 1988/264, 1990/52, 1992/371, 1994/395, 1997/484, 2001/506 Possible adjustments to the Irish practice were discussed by the Oireachtas joint committee on Justice and Equality in November 2011, but the government stated it had no plans to change. In November 2012, Tommy Broughan introduced a private member's bill to permit a three-year trial of advancing time by one hour, to CET in winter and CEST in summer. Debate on the bill's second stage was adjourned on 5 July 2013, when Alan Shatter, the Minister for Justice and Equality, agreed to refer the matter to the joint committee for review, suggested that it consult with the British parliament and devolved assemblies. In July 2014, the joint committee issued an invitation for submissions on the bill.
On 8 February 2018, the European Parliament voted to ask the European Commission to re-evaluate the principle of Summer Time in Europe. After a web survey showing high support for not switching clocks twice annually, on 12 September 2018 the European Commission decided to propose that an end be put to seasonal clock changes In order for this to be valid, the European Union legislative procedure must be followed that the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament must both approve the proposal; the United Kingdom is due to have left the EU by and, if the UK does not follow the reform and contin
Collon is a village and townland in the south west corner of County Louth, Ireland, on the N2 national primary road. The village is home to the Cistercian Abbey of New Mellifont, to Collon House, ancestral home of the Foster family; the Church of Ireland parish church at the lower end was built in 1810 to a design by Daniel Augustus Beaufort, the rector between 1789 and 1821. There is a memorial in the graveyard at the front of the church to men of the parish who died during the 1914–18 Great War, inscribed on the front is the name of Lt. James Emerson V. C., born in the village. The church has been described as "dramatic and atmospheric" and hosted the 2008 Ardee Baroque Festival; the Foster family, who came to Ireland from Cumberland in the seventeenth century, were for several generations the dominant influence in Dunleer, which they represented in the Irish House of Commons. Collon House, the family seat was built about 1740 by Antony Foster, Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer, extended in the 1770s by his son John Foster, 1st Baron Oriel, the celebrated "Speaker Foster".
At one point there was a Russian language school in the village, founded by White Russian emigres. It is rumoured that the British spies Philby and Maclean visited the school as part of their Russian language training. Collon is home to an animal sanctuary; the village is home to three longstanding public houses. The recent No. Three Old Bar & Restaurant opened in 2016 and is both recommended by Georgina Campbell & has won Best New Restaurant in Leinster at the 2017 Irish Restaurant Awards. Mattock Rangers, Louth Senior Football Champions 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2010, they got to the 1973, 1976, 1962, 2001 and 2008 losing all of them. Louth_Senior_Football_Championship#cite_note-3 Mattock Rangers, Louth Junior Hurling Championship Winners. In 2015 Mattock, amalgamated with Hunterstown Rovers and Glen Emmets won the under 21 county championship, defeating Noaimh Finbarrs/ O'Connells on a scoreline of 0-15 to 0-06. Mellifont Abbey List of towns and villages in Ireland Market Houses in Ireland http://www.collon.ie
Táin Bó Cúailnge
Táin Bó Cúailnge is a legendary tale from early Irish literature, considered an epic, although it is written in prose rather than verse. It tells of a war against Ulster by Connacht queen Medb and her husband Ailill, who intend to steal the stud bull Donn Cuailnge and are opposed only by teenage Ulster hero Cú Chulainn; the Táin is traditionally set in the 1st century in an pre-Christian heroic age, is the central text of a group of tales known as the Ulster Cycle. It survives in three written versions or "recensions" in manuscripts of the 12th century and the first a compilation written in Old Irish, the second a more consistent work in Middle Irish, the third an Early Modern Irish version; the Táin is preceded by a number of remscéla, or pre-tales, which provide background on the main characters and explain the presence of certain characters from Ulster in the Connacht camp, the curse that causes the temporary inability of the remaining Ulstermen to fight and the magic origins of the bulls Donn Cuailnge and Finnbhennach.
The eight remscéla chosen by Thomas Kinsella for his 1969 translation are sometimes taken to be part of the Táin itself, but come from a variety of manuscripts of different dates. Several other tales exist which are described as remscéla to the Táin, some of which have only a tangential relation to it; the first recension begins with Ailill and Medb assembling their army in Cruachan, the purpose of this military build-up taken for granted. The second recension adds a prologue in which Ailill and Medb compare their respective wealths and find that the only thing that distinguishes them is Ailill's possession of the phenomenally fertile bull Finnbhennach, born into Medb's herd but scorned being owned by a woman so decided to transfer himself to Ailill's. Medb determines to get the potent Donn Cuailnge from Cooley to equal her wealth with her husband, she negotiates with the bull's owner, Dáire mac Fiachna, to rent the animal for a year until her messengers, reveal that they would have taken the bull by force if they had not been allowed to borrow it.
The deal breaks down, Medb raises an army, including Ulster exiles led by Fergus mac Róich and other allies, sets out to capture Donn Cuailnge. The men of Ulster are disabled by the ces noínden. A separate tale explains this as the curse of the goddess Macha, who imposed it after being forced by the king of Ulster to race against a chariot while pregnant; the only person fit to defend Ulster is seventeen-year-old Cú Chulainn, he lets the army take Ulster by surprise because he's off on a tryst when he should be watching the border. Cú Chulainn, assisted by his charioteer Láeg, wages a guerrilla campaign against the advancing army halts it by invoking the right of single combat at fords, defeating champion after champion in a stand-off lasting months. However, he is unable to prevent Medb from capturing the bull. Cú Chulainn is both hindered by supernatural figures. Before one combat the Morrígan visits him in the form of a beautiful young woman and offers him her love, but he spurns her, she reveals herself and threatens to interfere in his next fight.
She does so, first in the form of an eel who trips him in the ford as a wolf who stampedes cattle across the ford, as a heifer at the head of the stampede, but in each form Cú Chulainn wounds her. After he defeats his opponent, the Morrígan appears to him in the form of an old woman milking a cow, with wounds corresponding to the ones Cú Chulainn gave her in her animal forms, she offers him three drinks of milk. With each drink he blesses her, the blessings heal her wounds. After a arduous combat he is visited by another supernatural figure, who reveals himself to be Cú Chulainn's father. Lugh puts Cú Chulainn to sleep for three days. While Cú Chulainn sleeps the youth corps of Ulster come to his aid but are all slaughtered; when Cú Chulainn wakes he undergoes a spectacular ríastrad or "distortion", in which his body twists in its skin and he becomes an unrecognisable monster who knows neither friend nor foe. He avenges the youth corps sixfold. After this extraordinary incident, the sequence of single combats resumes, although on several occasions Medb breaks the agreement by sending several men against him at once.
When Fergus, his foster-father, is sent to fight him, Cú Chulainn agrees to yield to him on the condition that Fergus yields the next time they meet. There is a physically and gruelling three-day duel between the hero and his foster-brother and best friend, Ferdiad. Cú Chulainn wins, killing Ferdiad with the Gáe Bolga; the debilitated Ulstermen start to rouse, one by one at first en masse, the final battle begins. To begin with Cú Chulainn sits it out, recovering from his wounds. Fergus has Conchobar at his mercy, but is prevented from killing him by Cormac Cond Longas, Conchobar's son and Fergus' foster-son, in his rage cuts the tops off three hills with his sword. Cú Chulainn enters the fray and confronts Fergus, who makes good on his promise and yields to him, pulling his forces off the field. Connacht's other allies panic and Medb is forced to retreat, she does, manage to bring Donn Cuailnge back to Connacht, where the bull fights Finnbhennach, kills him, but is mortally wounded, wanders around Ireland creating placenames before returning home to die of exhaustion.