Barnard Elliott Bee Jr.
Barnard Elliott Bee Jr. was a career United States Army officer and a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War. He was mortally wounded at the First Battle of Bull Run, during that battle, he was responsible for inspiring the famous nickname for Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson. Bee was born in Charleston, South Carolina on February 8,1824 and he was the son of Barnard Elliott Bee, Sr. and Ann Wragg Fayssoux, both of whom came from prominent Charleston families of English descent. His mothers paternal line included French Huguenots, in 1833, the Bee family moved to Pendleton, South Carolina, where the junior Bee attended the Pendleton Academy. In 1836, Bees parents moved to Texas, which had achieved independence as the Republic of Texas, Bee remained in Pendleton living with his mothers three sisters to pursue his education. Bee graduated from the United States Military Academy on July 1,1845, thirty-third in his class of forty-one and he accumulated many demerits while at West Point, including several for chewing tobacco while on duty.
Bees first posting was to serve in the United States military occupation of Texas during the Mexican-American War and he was twice brevetted for gallantry in the War, first at Cerro Gordo to first lieutenant, where he was wounded, and to captain at Chapultepec. Bee was posted after the war to garrison duty at Pascagoula, from 1849 to 1855, he was on frontier duty in New Mexico. He was stationed primarily at Fort Fillmore near Las Cruces, New Mexico, in 1855, Bee was promoted to captain of Company D of the Tenth Infantry and posted to Fort Snelling, Minnesota. While at Fort Snelling, he met and married Sophia Elizabeth Hill, in 1857 Bees company took part in the Utah War, which involved confrontation with members of the Church of Latter Day Saints, known as Mormons. He was placed in command of the Utah Volunteer Battalion and brevetted to the rank of lieutenant colonel, in 1860, Bee was posted to Fort Laramie, where he briefly served as the forts commanding officer. At the wedding of Nathan George Evans, Bees Westpoint classmate, upon the start of the Civil War, like many Army officers from the South, was torn between loyalty to his home state or to the federation of the United States.
He struggled with the decision, but opted to stay with the South, on March 3,1861, Bee resigned from the United States Army and returned to Charleston where he was elected lieutenant colonel of the 1st South Carolina Regulars. On June 17,1861, Bee was appointed general of a brigade mobilized at Manassas Junction. He was given command of the brigade of the Army of the Shenandoah. Bee was mortally wounded as the Confederates began to gain the hand in the battle. He died the day and is buried at St. Pauls Episcopal Church Cemetery in Pendleton. As a result, it could not be determined whether his naming of Stonewall Jackson was intended as praise, Bee was the younger brother of Hamilton P. Bee, who was a Confederate Army brigadier general, and the brother-in-law of Confederate brigadier general Clement H. Stevens
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Although it fought entirely in the Eastern Theater, it was composed of regiments from three Western states that are now presently within the region of the Midwest. Noted for its discipline, its unique uniform appearance, and its tenacious fighting ability. The nickname Iron Brigade, with its connotation of fighting men with iron dispositions, was applied formally or informally to a number of units in the Civil War, the Iron Brigade of the West was the unit that received the most lasting publicity in its use of the nickname. The Iron Brigade initially consisted of the 2nd, 6th, and 7th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiments, light Artillery, and was joined by the 24th Michigan. This particular composition of men, from the three Western states, led it to be referred to as the Iron Brigade of the West. They were known, throughout the war, as the Black Hats, because of the black,1858 model Hardee hats issued to Army regulars, rather than the blue kepis worn by most other Union Army units. On August 28,1862, during the phases of the Second Battle of Bull Run.
Gen Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson on the Brawner farm, the designation Iron Brigade is said to have originated during the brigades action at Turners Gap, during the Battle of South Mountain, a prelude to the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, commanding I Corps, approached Army of the Potomac commander Maj. Gen. George B. As the Western men advanced up the National Road, forcing the Confederate line all the way back to the gap, McClellan asked, Hooker replied, General Gibbons brigade of Western men. McClellan stated, They must be made of iron, Hooker said that the brigade had performed even more superbly at Second Bull Run, to this, McClellan said that the brigade consisted of the best troops in the world. Hooker supposedly was elated and rode off without his orders, there are a few stories related to the origin, but the men immediately adopted the name, which was quickly used in print after South Mountain. The unit that became known as the Iron Brigade was activated on October 1,1861, upon the arrival in Washington.
It was combined into a brigade with the 2nd and 6th Wisconsin, and this brigade was initially designated the 3rd Brigade of Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowells division of the Army of the Potomac, and the 3rd Brigade, I Corps. McDowells I Corps did not join the bulk of the Army of the Potomac in the Peninsula Campaign, in June 1862 it was redesignated the III Corps of Maj. Gen. John Popes Army of Virginia. The 24th Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment joined the brigade on October 8,1862, on February 27,1863, the brigade, now under the command of Brig. Gen. Solomon Meredith, was redesignated the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, I Corps. The brigade fought in the Second Bull Run, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Mine Run, Richmond-Petersburg, and Appomattox campaigns. The brigade took pride in its designation, 1st Brigade, 1st Division, I Corps, under which it played a prominent role in the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1,1863
Seven Days Battles
The Seven Days Battles were a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1,1862, near Richmond, during the American Civil War. Confederate General Robert E. Lee drove the invading Union Army of the Potomac, McClellan, away from Richmond and into a retreat down the Virginia Peninsula. The series of battles is sometimes known erroneously as the Seven Days Campaign, McClellans Army of the Potomac continued its retreat toward the safety of Harrisons Landing on the James River. Lees final opportunity to intercept the Union Army was at the Battle of Glendale on June 30, at the Battle of Malvern Hill on July 1, Lee launched futile frontal assaults and suffered heavy casualties in the face of strong infantry and artillery defenses. The Seven Days ended with McClellans army in relative safety next to the James River, Lees army, which had been on the offensive during the Seven Days, lost over 20,000. As Lee became convinced that McClellan would not resume his threat against Richmond, he moved north for the Northern Virginia Campaign, the Peninsula Campaign was the unsuccessful attempt by McClellan to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond and end the war.
It started in March 1862, when McClellan landed his army at Fort Monroe and moved northwest, Magruders defensive position on the Warwick Line caught McClellan by surprise. His hopes for a quick advance foiled, McClellan ordered his army to prepare for a siege of Yorktown, just before the siege preparations were completed, the Confederates, now under the direct command of Johnston, began a withdrawal toward Richmond. The first heavy fighting of the campaign occurred in the Battle of Williamsburg, in which the Union troops managed some tactical victories, an amphibious flanking movement to Elthams Landing was ineffective in cutting off the Confederate retreat. In the Battle of Drewrys Bluff, an attempt by the United States Navy to reach Richmond by way of the James River was repulsed, the battle was inconclusive, with heavy casualties, but it had lasting effects on the campaign. Johnston was wounded and replaced on June 1 by the more aggressive Robert E. Lee and it was developed at a meeting on June 23.
The Union Army straddled the rain-swollen Chickahominy River, with the bulk of the army, four corps, arrayed in a semicircular line south of the river. Lees plan was to cross the Chickahominy with the bulk of his army to attack the Union north flank, leaving only two divisions to hold a line of entrenchments against McClellans superior strength. This would concentrate about 65,500 troops to oppose 30,000, leaving only 25,000 to protect Richmond, the Confederate cavalry under Brig. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart had reconnoitered Porters right flank—as part of a daring but militarily dubious circumnavigation of the entire Union Army from June 12 to 15—and found it vulnerable, following this, Longstreet and D. H. Hill would pass through Mechanicsville and join the battle. Huger and Magruder would provide diversions on their fronts to distract McClellan as to Lees real intentions and he had received intelligence that Lee was prepared to move and that the arrival of Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons force from the Shenandoah Valley was imminent.
He decided to resume the offensive before Lee could, anticipating Jacksons reinforcements marching from the north, he increased cavalry patrols on likely avenues of approach. He wanted to advance his siege artillery about a mile and a closer to the city by taking the high ground on Nine Mile Road around Old Tavern
Army of Northern Virginia
It was most often arrayed against the Union Army of the Potomac. The name Army of Northern Virginia referred to its area of operation. The Army originated as the Army of the Potomac, which was organized on June 20,1861, on July 20 and July 21, the Army of the Shenandoah and forces from the District of Harpers Ferry were added. Units from the Army of the Northwest were merged into the Army of the Potomac between March 14 and May 17,1862, the Army of the Potomac was renamed Army of Northern Virginia on March 14. The Army of the Peninsula was merged into it on April 12,1862, Robert E. Lees biographer, Douglas S. Freeman, asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1,1862. However, Freeman does admit that Lee corresponded with Joseph E. Johnston, his predecessor in command, prior to that date. In addition to Virginians, it included regiments from all over the Confederacy, some from as far away as Georgia, the first commander of the Army of Northern Virginia was General P. G. T.
Beauregard from June 20 to July 20,1861 and his forces consisted of six brigades, with various militia and artillery from the former Department of Alexandria. During his command, Gen. Beauregard is noted for creating the flag of the army. The flag was designed due to confusion during battle between the Confederate Stars and Bars flag and the flag of the United States, the following day this army fought its first major engagement in the First Battle of Manassas. With the merging of the Army of the Shenandoah, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston took command from July 20,1861, First Corps – commanded by General P. G. T. Magruder Reserve – commanded by Maj. Gen. G. W. Smith Under the command of Johnston, on October 22,1861, the Department of Northern Virginia was officially created, officially ending the Army of the Potomac. The Department comprised three districts, Aquia District, Potomac District, and the Valley District, in April 1862 the Department was expanded to include the Departments of Norfolk and the Peninsula.
Gen. Maj. Gen. Gustavus Woodson Smith commanded the ANV on May 31,1862, with Smith seemingly having a nervous breakdown, President Jefferson Davis drafted orders to place Gen. Robert E. Lee in command the following day. In the first year of his command, Lee had two principal subordinate commanders, the right wing of the army was under the command of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet and the left wing under Lt. Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson. These wings were redesignated as the First Corps and Second Corps on November 6,1862. Following Jacksons death after the Battle of Chancellorsville, Lee reorganized the army into three corps on May 30,1863, under Longstreet, Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, and Lt. Gen. A. P. Hill. A Fourth Corps, under Lt. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, was organized on October 19,1864, on April 8,1865, the commanders of the first three corps changed frequently in 1864 and 1865
Battle of Antietam
After pursuing the Confederate general Robert E. Lee into Maryland, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan of the Union Army launched attacks against Lees army, in defensive positions behind Antietam Creek. At dawn on September 17, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hookers corps mounted an assault on Lees left flank. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Millers Cornfield, and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church, Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. In the afternoon, Union Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnsides corps entered the action, capturing a bridge over Antietam Creek. At a crucial moment, Confederate Maj. Gen. A. P. Hills division arrived from Harpers Ferry and launched a counterattack, driving back Burnside. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, during the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout September 18, despite having superiority of numbers, McClellans attacks failed to achieve force concentration, which allowed Lee to counter by shifting forces and moving interior lines to meet each challenge.
Therefore, despite ample reserve forces that could have been deployed to exploit localized successes, McClellan had halted Lees invasion of Maryland, but Lee was able to withdraw his army back to Virginia without interference from the cautious McClellan. McClellans refusal to pursue Lees army led to his removal from command by President Abraham Lincoln in November, although the battle was tactically inconclusive, the Confederate troops had withdrawn first from the battlefield, making it, in military terms, a Union victory. Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia—about 55,000 men—entered the state of Maryland on September 3,1862, emboldened by success, the Confederate leadership intended to take the war into enemy territory. Lees invasion of Maryland was intended to run simultaneously with an invasion of Kentucky by the armies of Braxton Bragg and it was necessary for logistical reasons, as northern Virginias farms had been stripped bare of food. They sang the tune Maryland, My Maryland, as they marched, but by the fall of 1862 pro-Union sentiment was winning out, especially in the western parts of the state.
Civilians generally hid inside their houses as Lees army passed through their towns, or watched in cold silence, while the Army of the Potomac was cheered and encouraged. While McClellans 87, 000-man Army of the Potomac was moving to intercept Lee, the order indicated that Lee had divided his army and dispersed portions geographically, thus making each subject to isolation and defeat if McClellan could move quickly enough. McClellan waited about 18 hours before deciding to take advantage of this intelligence and reposition his forces, McClellans Army of the Potomac, bolstered by units absorbed from John Popes Army of Virginia, included six infantry corps. The I Corps, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of the divisions of, the II Corps, under Maj. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, consisted of the divisions of, Maj. Gen. Israel B. The V Corps, under Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, consisted of the divisions of, the VI Corps, under Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin, consisted of the divisions of, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum, Maj.
Gen. William F. Baldy Smith
South Carolina /ˌsaʊθ kærəˈlaɪnə/ is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the south and west by Georgia across the Savannah River, South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution, doing so on May 23,1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote to secede from the Union on December 20,1860, after the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25,1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and the 23rd most populous U. S. state and its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3. 13%. The capital and largest city is Columbia with a 2013 population of 133,358, South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, under whose reign the English colony was first formed, with Carolus being Latin for Charles. There is evidence of activity in the area about 12000 years ago. Along the Savannah River were the Apalachee and the Yamasee, further west were the Cherokee, and along the Catawba River, the Catawba.
These tribes were village-dwellers, relying on agriculture as their food source. The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub houses made with wood and clay, about a dozen separate small tribes summered on the coast harvesting oysters and fish, and cultivating corn and beans. Travelling inland as much as 50 miles mostly by canoe, they wintered on the plain, hunting deer and gathering nuts. The names of these survive in place names like Edisto Island, Kiawah Island. The Spanish were the first Europeans in the area, in 1521, founding San Miguel de Gualdape, established with 500 settlers, it was abandoned within a year by 150 survivors. In 1562 French settlers established a settlement at what is now the Charlesfort-Santa Elena archaeological site on Parris Island, three years the Spanish built a fort on the same site, but withdrew following hostilities with the English navy. In 1629, King Charles I of England established the Province of Carolina an area covering what is now South and North Carolina, Georgia, in the 1670s, English planters from the Barbados established themselves near what is now Charleston.
Settlers built rice plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry, east of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, settlers came from all over Europe. Plantation labor was done by African slaves who formed the majority of the population by 1720, another cash crop was the Indigo plant, a plant source of blue dye, developed by Eliza Lucas. Meanwhile, in Upstate South Carolina, west of the Fall Line, was settled by farmers and traders. Colonists overthrew the rule, seeing more direct representation
Rockbridge County, Virginia
Rockbridge County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,307, the independent cities of Buena Vista and Lexington are both enclaved within the countys geographical borders. Rockbridge County was established in October,1777 from parts of now neighboring Augusta and Botetourt counties, Rockbridge County was named for Natural Bridge, a notable landmark in the southern portion of the county. The first court session in Rockbridge County was held at the home of Samuel Wallace on April 7,1778. Slaves were far fewer in Rockbridge County than in parts of Virginia, thus. For instance, several faculty at Washington College vigorously opposed slavery, many of the wealthiest residents of Rockbridge County owned slaves and passed down those slaves to their widows and children. Cyrus McCormick invented the reaper near Steeles Tavern at the end of the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 601 square miles. The population density was 35 people per square mile, there were 9,550 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 95. 42% White,2. 97% Black or African American,0. 26% Native American,0. 44% Asian,0. 12% from other races,0. 58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 23. 90% of all households were made up of individuals and 9. 90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.84. In the county, the population was out with 22. 20% under the age of 18,7. 90% from 18 to 24,27. 20% from 25 to 44,27. 10% from 45 to 64. The median age was 40 years, for every 100 females there were 100.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males, the median income for a household in the county was $36,035, and the median income for a family was $41,324. Males had an income of $28,217 versus $19,946 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,356, about 6. 60% of families and 9. 60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9. 40% of those under age 18 and 9. 60% of those age 65 or over.
Lexington is the county seat, and it shares three constitutional officers with Rockbridge County, Clerk of the Circuit Court and Commonwealths Attorney, Buena Vista does not share constitutional officers with either Rockbridge County or Lexington. Sam Houston, born in Rockbridge County, the man to be Governor of two U. S. states
Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3,1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the war and is often described as the wars turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meades Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lees attempt to invade the North. After his success at Chancellorsville in Virginia in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley to begin his second invasion of the North—the Gettysburg Campaign. Prodded by President Abraham Lincoln, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his army in pursuit, but was relieved of command just three days before the battle and replaced by Meade. Elements of the two armies collided at Gettysburg on July 1,1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there, his objective being to engage the Union army. Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended initially by a Union cavalry division under Brig.
Gen. John Buford, on the second day of battle, most of both armies had assembled. The Union line was out in a defensive formation resembling a fishhook. In the late afternoon of July 2, Lee launched an assault on the Union left flank, and fierce fighting raged at Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Devils Den. On the Union right, Confederate demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culps Hill, all across the battlefield, despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines. The charge was repulsed by Union rifle and artillery fire, at great loss to the Confederate army, Lee led his army on a torturous retreat back to Virginia. Between 46,000 and 51,000 soldiers from both armies were casualties in the battle, the most costly in US history. Shortly after the Army of Northern Virginia won a victory over the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville. Such a move would upset U. S. plans for the campaigning season. The invasion would allow the Confederates to live off the bounty of the rich Northern farms while giving war-ravaged Virginia a much-needed rest, in addition, Lees 72, 000-man army could threaten Philadelphia and Washington, and possibly strengthen the growing peace movement in the North.
Thus, on June 3, Lees army began to shift northward from Fredericksburg, the Cavalry Division remained under the command of Maj. Gen. J. E. B. The Union Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of seven corps, a cavalry corps. The first major action of the campaign took place on June 9 between cavalry forces at Brandy Station, near Culpeper, Virginia
Joseph E. Johnston
Joseph Eggleston Johnston was a career U. S. He was unrelated to Albert Sidney Johnston, another high-ranking Confederate general during the Civil war, Johnston was trained as a civil engineer at the U. S. Military Academy, graduating in the class as Robert E. Lee. He served in Florida and Kansas, and fought with distinction in the Mexican-American War and by 1860 achieved the rank of brigadier general as Quartermaster General of the U. S. Army. When his native state of Virginia declared secession from the Union, Johnston resigned his U. S. commission, to his dismay, however, he was appointed only the fourth ranking full general in the Confederate army. G. T. He defended the Confederate capital of Richmond, during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, withdrawing under the pressure of a superior force under Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan. In his only action during the campaign, he suffered a severe wound at the Battle of Seven Pines, after which he was replaced in command by his classmate at West Point.
In 1863, in command of the Department of the West, he was criticized for his inaction, in 1864, he fought against Union Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman in the Atlanta Campaign. Although he won a victory against Sherman at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain. Fed up with Johnstons constant withdrawal from Confederate territory, Davis relieved him of command after he withdrew from northwest Georgia to the outskirts of the city, in the final days of the war, he was returned to command of the small remaining forces in the Carolinas Campaign. Following a failed attempt to stall Shermans advance at the Battle of Bentonville, he surrendered his armies to Sherman at Bennett Place near Durham Station, North Carolina on April 26,1865. Two of his opponents, General Ulysses S. Grant and Sherman, made comments highly respectful of his actions in the war. After the war, Johnston was an executive in the railroad and he served a single term as a Democrat in the United States House of Representatives and was commissioner of railroads under Grover Cleveland.
He died of pneumonia after serving in inclement weather as a pallbearer at the funeral of his former adversary, Johnston was born at Longwood House in Cherry Grove, near Farmville, Virginia on February 3,1807. His grandfather, Peter Johnston, emigrated to Virginia from Scotland in 1726, Joseph was the seventh son of Judge Peter Johnston and Mary Valentine Wood, a niece of Patrick Henry. He was named for Major Joseph Eggleston, under whom his father served in the American Revolutionary War and his brother Charles Clement Johnston served as a congressman, and his nephew John Warfield Johnston was a senator, both represented Virginia. In 1811, the Johnston family moved to Abingdon, Virginia, a town near the Tennessee border, Johnston attended the United States Military Academy, nominated by John C. Calhoun while he was Secretary of War, days before he was inaugurated as vice president in 1825. He was moderately successful at academics and received only a number of disciplinary demerits
The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, USA, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. It is sometimes known as the Lower Peninsula to distinguish it from two other peninsulas to the north, the Middle Peninsula and the Northern Neck and it is the site of historic Jamestown, founded in 1607 as the first English settlement in North America. Geographically located at the northwestern reaches, Charles City and New Kent counties are part of the Virginia Peninsula, in the 21st century, they are considered part of the Richmond-Petersburg region. The rest of the Virginia Peninsula is all part of the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, the Hampton Roads MSA is the common name for the metropolitan area that surrounds the body of water of the same name. It is the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the Southeast and the 32nd largest in the United States, the land portion of Hampton Roads has been historically divided into two regions, the Virginia Peninsula or Peninsula on the north side, and South Hampton Roads on the south side.
More recently, the boundaries of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area have expanded to include the two southernmost counties of the Middle Peninsula, across the York River from the Virginia Peninsula. Early in the 16th century, Spanish explorers were the first Europeans to see the Chesapeake Bay and they were searching for the Northwest Passage to India and the Orient. They named the now known as Virginia, as Ajacán. The Spanish succeeded in founding a settlement in the New World in 1565 at St. Augustine. It was the first founded by Europeans in what is now the United States and they established small Spanish outposts along the eastern coast into present-day Georgia and the Carolinas. The northern-most post was Santa Elena, from there Juan Pardo was commissioned to lead expeditions into the interior, founding Fort San Juan in 1567-1568 at the regional Mississippian culture chiefdom of Joara. Located in present-day western North Carolina, this was the first European settlement in the interior of North America, the first permanent English settlement in North America was established in 1607 at Jamestown.
The first continuously occupied settlement was at Kecoughtan in Elizabeth City County what is now the City of Hampton, Fort Monroe, the countrys oldest military base still in use is located at Old Point Comfort. Old Point Comfort is the site of the first landing of Africans in America, after declaring independence from Great Britain, Virginias first state capital was Williamsburg. Also, the battle of the American Revolution, the siege of Yorktown in 1781. At the outset of the Peninsula Campaign, the Battle of Hampton Roads between the first ironclad warships took place near the mouth of the James River off the tip of Warwick County. The 1862 Siege of Yorktown took place along the York River, after a lengthy standoff, the largest Union Army of the war under General George B. As the region and Virginia rebuilt during Reconstruction, the Chesapeake, the tidal portion of the James River, while navigable from Hampton Roads to the fall line at Richmond, couldnt accommodate the deep drafts of collier ships