Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
City of Burnside
The City of Burnside is a local government area in the South Australian city of Adelaide stretching from the Adelaide Parklands into the Adelaide foothills with an area of 2,753 hectares. It was founded in August 1856 as the District Council of Burnside, the name of a property of an early settler, was classed as a city in 1943; the LGA is bounded by Adelaide, Adelaide Hills Council, Mitcham, Norwood Payneham and St Peters and Unley. A residential upper middle class area, Burnside has little to no industrial activity and a small commercial sector. Over 257 hectares of its area is dedicated to Parks and Reserves, the result being one of the greenest areas in Adelaide, it was one of the first areas outside of Adelaide to be settled, with the early villages of Magill, Burnside and Glen Osmond now inner suburbs. At the 2006 census, the City had a SEIFA score of 1108, the highest figure for any local government area in South Australia — individual CCD scores ranged from 909 in eastern Glenside to 1194 in Stonyfell.
Burnside was inhabited by the Kaurna Indigenous people prior to European Settlement, with the natives living around the creeks of the River Torrens during the summer months and living in the Adelaide Hills during the wintertime. The area was first settled in 1839 by Peter Anderson, a Scots migrant, who named it Burnside after his property's location adjacent to Second Creek; the Village of Burnside was established shortly thereafter and the District Council of Burnside was gazetted in 1856, being separated from the larger East Torrens Council. The council's first chairman was Dr. C. R. Penfold of Penfolds Wines fame. Beaumont House, a historic structure, was constructed for the first bishop of Adelaide, Augustus Short, during 1851. Wineries and olive groves were the mainstay of an early Burnside economy; the first council chamber was designed by chairman George Soward and built in 1869 by Thomas Hill and William Yateman. The present Council Chambers were built in 1927/8 in Tusmore, with the council becoming a municipality in 1935.
With strong growth and development throughout the region, Burnside was proclaimed a city in 1943. The 1960s' brought to Burnside a community library and a swimming centre, both were further expanded and upgraded between 1997 and 2001. Burnside has an area of 2,753 hectares and is located from the east to the south-east of the Adelaide city centre and parklands, extending east to the Cleland Conservation Park in the Mount Lofty Ranges. Two creeks of the River Torrens run through a sloping plain from the ranges. Before European Settlement in South Australia, much of the Adelaide Plains were woodland. In what became Burnside, plains leading out to Unley hosted the large Black Forest of Grey Box woodland. To the north and the floodplains of First and Second Creeks, there were Blue Gums and River Red Gums. Nearer to the foothills, in Mount Osmond and Waterfall Gully, a more diverse range of plant species existed, however Manna Gums and Blue Gums were predominant. With colonisation, much of the native foliage was cut down to enable crops and grazing.
Market Gardens in the Adelaide Hills lowered the amount of water flowing down the creeks and some of the Hills Face was used for quarrying. Early crops included olives, grapes for winemaking and barley. Over the years agriculture declined and only vineyards survive today in Magill and Waterfall Gully. With new suburbs being gazetted in the 20th century, the Burnside Council undertook ambitious tree-planting and conservation schemes to slow and reverse the negative impact on the natural environment. 190 hectares of the council area is held in reserves and parks and some 35,000 trees line the streets. A'Second Generation Tree Planting Program' has been underway since 1993. Notable parks and reserves include Langman Reserve and Hazelwood Park; the Burnside city council is divided into the following wards: Kensington Park Kensington Gardens & Magill Burnside Beaumont Eastwood & Glenunga Rose Park & Toorak Gardens Burnside library is the only public library in the city of Burnside. It is part of the civic centre.
The library is open seven days a week, from 9.30am-6pm on weekdays, except Thursday when it closes at 9pm, on the weekend from 10am-4pm on Saturday and 2pm-5pm on Sunday. For State Government Burnside is part of the Electoral Districts of Adelaide, Morialta, Heysen and Unley. Bragg takes in most of the city. Liberal strength is strongest in the wealthy hills suburbs to the south-east around Beaumont and weakest around Norwood in the north where the Labor Party dominates. Before their catastrophic collapse in recent years, the Democrats polled impressive results in the western near-city suburbs; the Greens gained much of the previous Democrats vote in recent elections. Bragg has been held by Vickie Chapman, Shadow Attorney-General of the State Liberal Party, since 2002. Burnside forms the southern part of the Federal Division of Sturt, which takes in much of Adelaide's eastern suburbs, stretchin
History of Burnside
The history of Burnside, a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia, spans three centuries. Burnside was inhabited by the Kaurna Indigenous people prior to European settlement, living around the creeks of the River Torrens during the winter and in the Adelaide Hills during the summer; the area was first settled in 1839 by Peter Anderson, a Scots migrant, who named it Burnside after his property's location adjacent to Second Creek. The village of Burnside was established shortly after, the District Council of Burnside was gazetted in 1856, separating itself from the larger East Torrens Council; the mainstays of the early Burnside economy were viticulture and olive groves. The present council chambers were built in 1926 in Tusmore. With strong growth and development throughout the region, Burnside was proclaimed a city in 1943; the 1960s brought to Burnside a swimming centre. Today, Burnside is one of Adelaide's most upper-class and sought-after regions in; the village of Kensington was established in May 1839, only 29 months after the foundation of the colony.
The village was agricultural and had a close relationship with the nearby village of Norwood. The two villages formed one of Adelaide's first municipalities in 1853 as the Town of Norwood and Kensington, evolving into today's City of Norwood Payneham St Peters. Parts of Kensington that are now included in Burnside are the suburbs of Kensington Gardens and Kensington Park; the village of Makgill was first established as the 524-acre Makgill Estate, owned by two Scots—Robert Cock and William Ferguson—who met on board the Buffalo en route to the newly founded colony. It was named after David M Makgill. Ferguson, charged with farming the estate, built the estate's homestead in 1838. Soon after farming started, the two were short of funds, thus Magill became the first foothills village to be subdivided; the village of Glen Osmond was associated with the discovery of silver and lead on the slopes of Mount Osmond by two Cornish immigrants. Their discovery of minerals provided the colony with valuable export income, at a time when the early South Australian economy was not yet established and facing bankruptcy.
Governor Gawler visited the early discovery and the first mine, Wheal Gawler, was named in his honour. South Australia's first mine exported overseas throughout the 1840s, providing employment to early Cornish and German immigrants after several mines were bought by a German businessman; the early village assumed a strong Cornish, a German character. Mining declined after an exodus of workers when a gold rush began in 1851 in the neighbouring colony of Victoria; the Anderson family was the first to settle the land, to become the village of Burnside. They brought with them good character testimonials from Scotland, valuable farming experience and 3000 pounds; the Andersons moved on to Morphett Vale in 1847, abandoning their homestead. The buyer of the Anderson land, William Randell, soon decided to build a village in his new property in 1849, he hired planner Nathan Hailes to lay out the new village. Hailes was both surprised and disappointed when he found that it had been settled and left—especially since the growth and adaptation of European foliage to the area.
The first villages to be established in the region, those of Glen Osmond and Kensington had existed for some time when the new village of Burnside was proclaimed. The new village was in a good position to grow; the village was soon attracting residents. The village was described in advertisements by Hailes in 1850 as "Burnside the Beautiful" with advantages of "perpetual running water and diversified view, rich garden soil and good building stone..." with a "... direct, newly-opened and unblemished route to Adelaide". All the villages in what was to become the Burnside District Council were in the District Council of East Torrens of 159 km2. East Torrens bordered the River Torrens in the north, the Adelaide Hills to the east, Mount Barker Road to the south, the Adelaide Parklands to the west. East Torrens was gazetted in 1853 by the District Councils Act 1852. Dr David Wark, James Cobbledick, Charles Bonney, Daniel Ferguson and George Müller were the council's first representatives. Bonney, in addition to being a councillor, was the Commissioner of Crown Lands.
The councillors met for the first time at World's End Hotel in Magill on 12 June 1853. Initial plans were put in place to first survey and evaluate the council area and to collect licence fees and taxes as provided for by the Councils Act. TB Penfold of Magill, a former captain, was to become the first District Clerk and Collector on 1 January 1854. On 4 January 1854 there was a vote in which ratepayers decided on how much they would pay to the council.
Toorak Gardens, South Australia
Toorak Gardens is a leafy residential inner eastern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, located 2 km east of the Adelaide city centre. It is characterised by tree-lined streets and detached single story villas and bungalows built in the 1920s and 1930s on allotments of around 0.25 acres. The Toorak Gardens area was part of the larger and now adjacent suburb of Rose Park. Between 1912 and 1917 it was named "Toorak" and subsequently "Toorak Gardens". Farmland owned by the Fergusson and Prescott families in the 19th century, it was subdivided and gained popularity in 1920s. First Creek, part of the Torrens catchment, runs through the north-east corner of the suburb. Toorak Gardens is in the local government area of the City of Burnside, is bounded to the north by Kensington Road, to the east by Portrush Road, to the south by Greenhill Road and to the west by Prescott Terrace and Warwick Avenue, it contains the Burnside War Memorial Hospital. Possibilities for derivation of the name Toorak are Torrak, an aboriginal word meaning tea-tree springs, toora an Aboriginal word for coot or malleefowl and other aboriginal words of similar pronunciation meaning reedy swamp and black crow.
Today's suburb of Toorak Gardens is composed of parts of the Adelaide sections of 275 and 274. Section 274 was bounded by Portrush Road, Greenhill Road and Fullarton Road. Section 275 was bounded by Portrush Road, Swaine Avenue and Prescott Terrace; the suburb of Toorak was first developed in 1912 on land, the eastern half of the Prescott Farm. Before its development into a village, it had been farmland up until that point with little settlement apart from the Prescott's home and worksheds as well as two large and extravagant houses. Julia Hallett owned a spectacular mansion on Portrush Road while Benjamin Burford had a grand mansion on Kensington Road that he named Attunga; when the suburb was first planned, laid-out and named there were many objections because of the association with the elite Melbourne suburb of Toorak. The real-estate agents assigned to the suburb received many complaints due to this association, including one signed'No Snobbery'. Extensive building restrictions were placed on development in the early suburb.
After the first houses had been built, the Adelaide Mail reported on 18 May 1912: "...only one house is allowed on each block, to cost not less than £600. Wood was tabooed, the materials being set down as either brick, stone or reinforced concrete, with slate, iron or tile roofs. Nearly all the houses are being roofed with Marseilles tiles, giving a pleasant appearance to the suburb, springing up there... where superior homes can be built of bought without fear of getting undesirable surroundings." Toorak received considerable attention from real-estate businesses, the press and the community at large. The Adelaide papers paid particular notice to the suburb's developments, announcing council work on the suburb's paths and gardens. In 1912 when trees were planted on Grant and Alexandra avenues, in 1914 when flower strips were developed on the kerbs, in 1916 when a reserve was created on Giles Street; the Toorak Bowling club was developed in this era, it stands to this day. Section 274 was bought by the Fergussons.
It was named by the family. They had come from the village of Monreith in Wigtown County and gave that name to their new farm; the Monreith farm was developed by the family, but with the death of Alexander Fergusson in 1869, the property passed into the hands of his widow, Agnes. She sold off parts of the farm in 1883 for £15,000, the remainder in 1917 for £20,000. Before the farm was sold, the Fergussons had established a flour mill, horse stabling and were engaging in business ventures in various parts of the state, it was in 1917. Developers started subdividing the new suburb on much the same lines as Toorak had been, with similar building restrictions and much media attention; the original Fergusson family home was demolished in 1923 and the family settled in separate houses on Cudmore Avenue. Miss Ivy Laver, a successful local businesswoman, was responsible for building the main park of Toorak Gardens, Fergusson Square, it remains as a monument to those. Benjamin Burford's Attunga property contained the largest and most extravagant mansion built in the suburb, with his passing it was bought in 1905 by an investor from Broken Hill, Otto Georg Ludwig von Rieben.
Although living at the property for 37 years, maintaining it, paying particular attention to the gardens, von Rieben settled on a property at Mount Lofty in the Adelaide Hills. Attunga however forty years after he gained it, was offered to the Burnside Council free of charge in 1944 for use as a hospital, on the condition that the house and grounds be maintained. A Council committee had suggested building a community hospital in August 1943, as part of its Post-War Reconstruction and Development Plan. In April 1949 the first conversion of von Rieben's home was completed, as a convalescent home caring for 21 patients, it closed in September 1956. The adjacent newly completed Burnside War Memorial Hospital opened in October, received its first patien
Eastwood, South Australia
Eastwood is a small triangular inner-southern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Burnside. It is bounded to the north by Greenhill Road and the Adelaide Parklands, to the east by Fullarton Road and the suburb of Glenside, to the southwest by Glen Osmond Road and the suburb of Parkside. In the 2016 Census, there were 764 people in Eastwood. 73.0% of people were born in Australia and 80.2% of people only spoke English at home. The most common response for religion was No Religion at 48.8%. Eastwood is covered by the federal Division of Adelaide. At State Government level, Eastwood is a part of the electoral district of Unley
Hazelwood Park, South Australia
Hazelwood Park is an upper class suburb in the City of Burnside, South Australia with a census area population of 1,717 people. The suburb is about 5 kilometres east of the Central business district. Hazelwood Park, a suburban park inside the suburb, is the major attraction in the suburb; this includes a popular site in the summer. Much of the remainder of the suburb is residential but there is a small shopping area along Glynburn Road on the eastern edge; the area has seen many community changes over the years. The suburb is split in half by Greenhill Road, to the north there are residential dwellings and the park. To the south and east are the foothills of the Mount Lofty Ranges with continued residential properties. Hazelwood Park is bounded to the north by Knightsbridge Road, to the east by Glynburn Road, to the south by Cooper Place and to the west by Devereux Road and a line along the back of the blocks between Hazelwood and Tusmore avenues. Prior to European settlement, the area, now Hazelwood Park was part of the traditional lands of the Kaurna people, that stretched from Port Broughton to Cape Jervis.
The surrounding area and Hazelwood Park, was known by the name Knightsbridge when a village was laid out under that name in 1848. The village was laid out in section 298 in the land between Second Creeks. Unlike other more brilliantly designed early villages Knightsbridge was laid out by a Captain Hall from Port Adelaide, he divided the land into eight blocks and ran Knightsbridge Road through them. Much of the land was sold to timber merchants, who made use of the suburb's thick bushland; the first house in the suburb, which remains to this day on 12 Hazelwood Avenue, was built by George Taylor, a local grocer, in 1854. Named Knightsbridge House, it was unique in having much of the ground floor situated half-underground to cope with the fierce Australian summers; the total property owned by Taylor amounted to thirty-three acres, which included much of today's suburb. He leased the property out. Notably, an orphanage was established on the land by the Sisters of St. Joseph, a Catholic Organisation.
They cared for forty to sixty children on the property between the years 1875 and 1887. The orphanage was known for providing much care to the children, with the Adelaide daily the Register noting that'the good Sisters of St. Joseph were perfect slaves to these children'. With better accommodation provided at Woodville, the orphanage moved and the Knightsbridge farm attempted a sale, but was once again leased out. In the years 1888 to 1950 it was a large dairy farm under the Coote family; the remaining part of section 298, much of it owned by a Mr Debney and not part of Knightbridge Farm, was further subdivided in 1880 and became the village of Leabrook. The remainder of today's suburb of Hazelwood Park, south of Greenhill Road, was known as Linden, it lent its name to today's suburb of Linden Park, it is notable that Linden Park's name remained so after Linden became part of Hazelwood Park. Linden had some of the best arable land in the area, was a sought-after area. After World War II, with Adelaide expanding both in the metropolitan region and in the hills area various plans were laid out to replace the windy and dangerous Mount Barker Road.
One of these proposals was the Burnside-Crafers Highway, which envisioned leaving Greenhill Road once reaching Hazelwood Park. It was to pass through Hazelwood Park and Beaumont, wind around the hills of Waterfall Gully and go over Eagle On The Hill to Crafers; the Burnside Council put much effort into this proposal, widening Linden Avenue in preparation for the highway. The proposal was rejected in favour of upgrading Mount Barker Road and Linden Avenue remained a huge out-of-place road running through an otherwise peaceful suburb. After years of drivers racing down the 2 km long avenue, the Burnside Council constructed a large median strip in 2005; the actual Hazelwood Park was acquired by the State Government free of charge in July 1915, gazetted as a'pleasure resort'. This came from the old Hazelwood estate, owned by the Francis Clark family, they had acquired a residence and 50-acre estate named "Grove Cottage" from Thomas Burr in 1853 and re-named it "Hazelwood", which reflects the name of the school in Birmingham founded by Rowland Hill, a brother of Caroline Clark.
The Burnside Council sought to acquire the park from the State Government after finding notes from a government meeting in 1944 that were to see the park sold to a private owner. The Mayor of Burnside at the time, George Bolton, had a grand vision for what the park should become. After years of effort, the Burnside Council acquired the park in May 1963 after negotiations with the Premier, Sir Thomas Playford; as part of the acquisition, the Burnside Council was to retain the name'Hazelwood' and was to maintain the park at a level satisfactory to the State Government. The deed was transferred on 2 January 1964 for the 2.2 ha of Section 298, Hazelwood Park. In 1966, after much political wrangling, a 3-pool swimming center opened at Hazelwood Park, it was named after Mayor George Bolton, the leading voice in advocating its construction. The George Bolton Swimming Center remains open to this day, saw renovations in 1996 which added further facilities.. The park is a State Heritage Item; the SA State Heritage Reg
Magill, South Australia
Magill is a suburb of Adelaide in the City of Burnside and the City of Campbelltown. It incorporates the suburb known as Koongarra Park. Magill is a suburb located 7 km from the Adelaide CBD in the eastern suburbs. Magill was first established as the 524-acre Makgill Estate, owned by two Scots, Robert Cock and William Ferguson, who met en route to the newly founded colony of South Australia when sailing out from Portsmouth on HMS Buffalo and formed a partnership as a carrier and merchant following their arrival on 28 December 1836, it was named after David M. Makgill; the estate's homestead was built in 1838 by Ferguson, charged with farming the estate. Soon after farming commenced the two were short of cash, thus Magill became the first foothill village to be subdivided. Nowadays Magill has a population of 11,222, is home to one of Penfolds Wineries, a shopping centre, a Respite Agency, UniSA Magill Campus and the historic Murray Park Estate, it is sometimes divided into Magill South and Magill North to distinguish what local government area they belong to as Magill is in both the City of Burnside and the City of Campbelltown.
Magill has three educational institutions, Magill Primary School on Magill Road, Norwood Morialta High School on The Parade, University of South Australia on St Bernards Road