Church of Denmark
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Denmark or National Church, sometimes called Church of Denmark, is the established, state-supported church in Denmark. The reigning monarch is the supreme secular authority in the church; as of 1 January 2019, 74.7% of the population of Denmark are members, though membership is voluntary. Catholic Christianity was introduced to Denmark in the 9th century by Ansgar, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. In the 10th century, King Harald Bluetooth became a Catholic and began organizing the church, by the 11th century, Christianity was accepted throughout the country. Since the Reformation in Denmark, the Church has been Evangelical Lutheran, while retaining much of its pre-Reformation liturgical traditions; the 1849 Constitution of Denmark designated the church "the Danish people's church" and mandates that the state support it as such. The Church of Denmark continues to maintain the historical episcopate. Theological authority is vested in bishops: ten bishops in mainland Denmark and one in Greenland, each overseeing a diocese.
There is no archbishop. The Church of Denmark is organized in eleven dioceses, each led by a bishop, including one for Greenland. There are no archbishops; the further subdivision includes 2,200 parishes. There are about 2,400 ordained pastors; each parish has a parochial council, elected by church members in four-year terms. The parochial council leads the practical business of the local church and decides employment of personnel, including the pastors, musicians and sacristan; the pastor is subordinate to the council, except in spiritual matters such as conducting church services and pastoral care. Parishes in the same local area are grouped with one priest serving as Rural Dean. Deaneries, parochial councils, pastors are all subordinate to the bishop of the diocese. A special feature is the possibility of creating voluntary congregations within the Church; these account for a few percent of church members. They are voluntary associations, electing their own parochial council and parish pastor, whom they agree to pay from their own pockets.
In return, they are exempt from church tax. The voluntary congregation and its pastor are subordinate to the bishop of the diocese, members remain full members of the Church; when a parish was dominated by a conservative majority and priest, the liberal minority would set up a voluntary congregation with their own priest - and vice versa. Today the voluntary congregations are a solution for people who find the idea of a free church appealing, but wish to keep some bonds to the church. Another, less used feature is parish optionality. If a Church member is dissatisfied with the particular pastor of his residence parish, he may choose to be served by another pastor who matches better with his Christian views, for example in a neighbouring parish. According to official statistics from January 2019, 74.7% of Danes are members of the Church of Denmark, one percent less than the previous year. Membership rates vary from 56.9% in the Diocese of Copenhagen to 84.2% in the Diocese of Viborg. In recent decades, the percentage of Danes that are members of the church has been declining, the most important reasons being immigration from non-Lutheran countries, withdrawal of some members, a somewhat lower rate of Danish infants being christened.
Any person, baptised into the Church of Denmark automatically becomes a member. Members may renounce their membership and return if they wish. Excommunication is possible but an extraordinarily rare occurrence. Examples include. A church member supporting reincarnation was excommunicated, but the Supreme Court overturned the excommunication in 2005. According to the latest inquiry about 2.4% of church members attend services every week, although on Christmas Eve more than a third of the population attend. However, the church is still used for traditional family ceremonies including christenings and confirmations. In the year 2017, 32.7% of weddings and 83.3% funerals were performed in the Church of Denmark, 70% of children in grade 7–8 were confirmed. The level of weekly church attendance is similar to that in Sweden. According to a 2009 poll, 25% of Danes believe Jesus is the Son of God, 18% believe he is the saviour of the world; the church is aimed at having a wide acceptance of theological views, as long as they agree with the official symbolic books as stipulated in the Danish Code of 1683.
These are: The Apostles' Creed The Nicene Creed The Athanasian Creed The Augsburg Confession Luther's Small CatechismRevised versions of the Old and New Testament were authorised by the Queen in 1992. A revised Hymn Book was authorised in 2003. Both the Bible translations and the Hymn Book implied widespread theological debate. There is a contrast between a liberal current inspired by N. F. S. Grundtvig and more strict, pietist or Bible fundamentalist movements; these tensions have sometimes threatened to divide the Church. Tidehverv is a minor fraction based on a strict Lutheranism and anti-modern, national-conservative views; the Church of Denmark is member of the Porvoo Communion between Anglican Churches. The Communion Service includes three readings from the Bible: a chapter from one of
A catechism is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts. Catechisms are doctrinal manuals – in the form of questions followed by answers to be memorised – a format, used in non-religious or secular contexts as well; the term catechumen refers to the designated recipient of the catechetical instruction. In the Catholic Church, catechumens are those. Traditionally, they would be placed separately during Holy Mass from those, baptized, would be dismissed from the liturgical assembly before the Profession of Faith and General Intercessions. Catecheticals are characteristic of Western Christianity but are present in Eastern Orthodox Christianity. In 1973, The Common Catechism, the first joint catechism of Catholics and Protestants, was published by theologians of the major Western Christian traditions, as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue. Before the Protestant Reformation, Christian catechesis took the form of instruction in and memorization of the Apostles' Creed, Lord's Prayer, basic knowledge of the sacraments.
The word "catechism" for a manual for this instruction appeared in the Late Middle Ages. The use of a question and answer format was popularized by Martin Luther in his 1529 Small Catechism, he wanted the catechumen to understand what he was learning, so the Decalogue, Lord's Prayer, Apostles' Creed were broken up into small sections, with the question "What does this mean" following each portion. The format calls upon a master and a student, or a parent and a child; the Westminster Shorter Catechism is an example: Q. What is the chief end of man? A. To glorify God and enjoy Him forever! Q. What rule hath God given to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy Him? A; the word of God, contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him. The catechism's question-and-answer format, with a view toward the instruction of children, was a form adopted by the various Protestant confessions from the beginning of the Reformation. Among the first projects of the Reformation was the production of catechisms self-consciously modelled after the older traditions of Cyril of Jerusalem and Augustine.
These catechisms showed special admiration for Chrysostom's view of the family as a "little church", placed strong responsibility on every father to teach his children, in order to prevent them from coming to baptism or the Lord's table ignorant of the doctrine under which they are expected to live as Christians. Luther's Large Catechism typifies the emphasis which the churches of the Augsburg Confession placed on the importance of knowledge and understanding of the articles of the Christian faith. Intended as instruction to teachers to parents, the catechism consists of a series of exhortations on the importance of each topic of the catechism, it is meant for those who have the capacity to understand, is meant to be memorized and repeatedly reviewed so that the Small Catechism could be taught with understanding. For example, the author stipulates in the preface: Therefore it is the duty of every father of a family to question and examine his children and servants at least once a week and to ascertain what they know of it, or are learning and, if they do not know it, to keep them faithfully at it.
The catechism, Luther wrote, should consist of instruction in the rule of conduct, which always accuses us because we fail to keep it, the rule of faith, the rule of prayer, the sacraments. Luther adds: However, it is not enough for them to comprehend and recite these parts according to the words only, but the young people should be made to attend the preaching during the time, devoted to the catechism, that they may hear it explained and may learn to understand what every part contains, so as to be able to recite it as they have heard it, when asked, may give a correct answer, so that the preaching may not be without profit and fruit. Luther's Small Catechism, in contrast, is written to accommodate the understanding of a child or an uneducated person, it begins: The First CommandmentYou shall have no other gods. Q. What does this mean? A. We should fear and trust in God above all things. Calvin's 1545 preface to the Genevan catechism begins with an acknowledgement that the several traditions and cultures which were joined in the Reformed movement would produce their own form of instruction in each place.
While Calvin argues that no effort should be expended on preventing this, he adds: We are all directed to one Christ, in whose truth being united together, we may grow up into one body and one spirit, with the same mouth proclaim whatever belongs to the sum of faith. Catechists not intent on this end, besides fatally injuring the Church, by sowing the materials of dissension in religion introduce an impious profanation of baptism. For where can any longer be the utility of baptism unless this remain as its foundation — that we all agree in one faith? Wherefore, those who publish Catechisms ought to be the more on their guard, by producing anything rashly, they may not for the present only, but in regard to posterity do grievous harm to piety, inflict a deadly wound on the Church; the scandal of diverse instruction is that it produces diverse baptisms and diverse communions, diverse faith. However, forms may v
Kløvermarken is a large green space in the Amager East district of Copenhagen, Denmark. A military area, it has been home to both Copenhagen's first air field and a camp for German refugees after World War II, it now sports other sports facilities as well as a nature centre for children. Kløvermarken is bounded by Raffinaderivej and Kløvermarksvej; the area between the park and Stadsgraven, the canal which separates Amager from Christianshavn, is dominated by allotments. Kløvermarken is the last undeveloped section of Christianshavns Fælled, which used to serve as a military training area; the name Kløvermarken is first seen in 1847. At that time the area reached all the way to the Øresund coast where the Stricker Battery had been constructed in 1801 as the most southernly point on Copenhagen's fortifications, it was decommissioned in 1914 and removed in 1965 to make way for. Kløvermarken has a central place in early Danish aviation history after it came into use as an air field in 1909. On 5 January 1910, Robert Svendsen set a Danish record when he reached a height of 84 during a flight at Kløvermarken.
On 3 June 1910, Politiken-journalist Alfred Nervø made the first flight over downtown Copenhagen when he took off from Kløvermarken in a Voisin biplane, crossed the harbour and flew over Copenhagen Fortress and The Lakes before making a circuit of the City Hall tower and returning to Kløvermarken where he landed safely. That summer, on 17 July, Robert Svendsen made the first flight across the Øresund, from Kløvermarken to Limhamn near Malmö. On 18 September 1912, Count Zeppelin landed his Zeppelin airship Hansa on Kløvermarken, its first destination outside Germany; the Royal Danish Army established the Danish Army Air Corps on 2 July 1912, setting up an aviation school at Kløvermarken. They built a complex of hangars and various other facilities at the site in 1917. Kkøvermarken was used by Danish Air Lines, founded on 29 October 1918. In 1925, the civilian flights moved to the new Copenhagen Airport a little further down the coast, at Kastrup, a couple of years they were joined by the military activities.
During the last months of World War II, large numbers of German refugees arrived in Denmark. They had been evacuated throughout the Operation Hannibal across the Baltic Sea after the Red Army started the East Prussian and East Pomeranian Offensives. Of the 240,000 German refugees who came to Denmark, 92,000 were placed in the Copenhagen area, distributed on 152 sites. After the liberation in May 1945, they were collected in large, guarded camps. A town of hutments was built at Kløvermarken where up to 19,000 refugees women and children were placed. Most of them had been sent back to Germany by August 1947 but a minor section of the camp lingered until it was shut on 14 February 1949; some sources and recent research state that thousands of children at Klövermarken died from hunger because of "a humanitarian catastrophy". In the 1950s, amateur football clubs began to use Kløvermarken. Three wooden buildings from the 1930s, built as a quarantine Station for polio patients were converted into changing rooms in 1955.
From that time on, Kløvermarken has served as an area for amateur sports. The last historic buildings from 1917 were pulled down in 1984. In 2005, in response to Lord Mayor Ritt Bjerregaard's launching of an affordable homes campaign, the architectural firm Plot, founded by Bjarke Ingels and Julien De Smedt, proposed to build a giant 3 km perimeter block around the edge of Kløvermarken to deal with the problem of housing shortage without compromising its role as a recreational space; the block would bend and curve around existing club houses and other buildings while large arches would create connections to the surrounding areas, the height of the building would vary in respect to neighbors and views to the historic skyline of the city, creating a Great Wall of roof gardens and terraces. The proposal which in this way wanted to add 3,000 apartments without sacrificing a single football field won initial support at the City Hall but was met with public protests and given up; the area was preserved in May 2012.
Most of Kløvermarken is covered by lawns used for cricket pitches. There are cricket, weight lifting and tennis facilities. Kløvermarken is home to Naturværkstedet Kløvermarken, a nature centre with recreational and educational activities and theme days for children. Time reservation is required. Hangar H Oksbøl Refugee Camp Kløvermarken sports facilities Kløvermarken Nature Centre Kløvermarkens Café
A church building or church house simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities for Christian worship services. The term is used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross; when viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area. Towers or domes are added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring visitors. Modern church buildings have a variety of architectural layouts; the earliest identified Christian church building was a house church founded between 233 and 256. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches were erected across Western Europe. A cathedral is a church building Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Oriental Orthodox, housing a cathedra, the formal name for the seat or throne of a presiding bishop.
In Greek, the adjective kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón means "belonging, or pertaining, to a Kyrios", the usage was adopted by early Christians of the Eastern Mediterranean with regard to anything pertaining to the Lord Jesus Christ: hence "Kyriakós oíkos", "Kyriakē", or "Kyriakē proseukhē". In standard Greek usage, the older word "ecclesia" was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, the overall community of the faithful; this usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages and in Turkish. In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead and derivatives formed thereof. In Old English the sequence of derivation started as "cirice" Middle English "churche", "church" in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scots kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all derived. According to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they synagogues; the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256.
In the second half of the 3rd century AD, the first purpose-built halls for Christian worship began to be constructed. Although many of these were destroyed early in the next century during the Diocletianic Persecution larger and more elaborate church buildings began to appear during the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches occurred across Western Europe. In addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or the parish church was used by the community in other ways, it could serve as a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were sometimes performed in cathedrals, cathedrals might be used for fairs; the church could be used as a place to store grain. Between 1000 and 1200 the romanesque style became popular across Europe. While the name of the romanesque era refers to the tradition of Roman architecture, it was a West- and Central European trend. Romanesque buildings appear rather compact.
Typical features are circular arches, octagonal towers and cushion capitals on the pillars. In the early romanesque era, coffering on the ceiling was fashionable, while in the same era, groined vault was more popular; the rooms became the motivs of sculptures became more epic. The Gothic style emerged around 1140 in spread through all of Europe; the gothic buildings were less compact than they had been in the romanesque era and contained symbolic and allegoric features. For the first time, pointed arches, rib vaults and buttresses were used, with the result that massive walls were not longer needed to stabilise the building. Due to that advantage, the area of the windows became bigger, which resulted in a brighter and more friendly atmosphere inside the church; the nave so did the pillars and the church steeple. The amibition to test out the limits of the architectural possibilities resulted in the collapse of several towers. In Germany and the Netherlands, but in Spain, it became popular to build hall churches, in which every vault has the same height.
Cathedrals were built in a lavish way, as in the romanesque era. Examples for that are the Notre-Dame de Paris and the Notre-Dame de Reims in France, but the San Francesco d’Assisi in Palermo, the Salisbury Cathedral and the Wool Church in Lavenham, England. Many gothic churches contain features from the romanesque era; some of the most well-known gothic churches stayed unfinished for hundreds of years, after the gothic style was not popular anymore. About half of the Cologne Cathedral was for example build in the 19th century. In the 15th and 16th century, the change in e
Dragør Church is a Lutheran church in Dragør, Denmark. It belongs to the Church of Denmark. In 1449, the Bishop of Roskilde authorized the installation of a temporary altar during the annual herring market at Dragør which attracted up to 30,000 traders and fishermen; the market disappeared in about 1500. The few permanent residents had to use Store Magleby Church in nearby Store Magleby some time between 1193 and 1370. After Christian II gave the church to the Dutch farmers who settled in the area in 1621, the church was adapted according to Dutch tradition. Service was conducted in Dutch and the best seats were reserved for the Dutch families. Dragør Church was inaugurated on 26 April 1885 but remained attached to Store Magleby until 1954 when Dragør became its own parish; the church is built in the Neo-Gothiv style. J. H. Wessel's design resembles that of Taarbæk Church north of Copenhagen, designed by Carl Emil Wessel, his father; the ceiling is inspired by the cathedral in Ireland. The clock on the east side of the tower is from 1764 and was installed by clockmaker Bernhard Larsen in 1882.
Notable people who are buried at the graveyard include the actor and comedian Dirch Passer, television presenter Otto Leisner and the marine painter Christian Mølsted whose home and studio in Dragør in now a museum dedicated to his art. Peter Boesen, actor Knud Bro, politician Christian Brochorst, actor Hans Isbrandtsen, shipowner Eigil Jensen and singer Jesper Emil Jensen, writer and songwriter Otto Leisner, television personality Tove Malzer, editor-in-chief and politician Hugo Marcussen and civil servant Knud Mühlhausen, painter Christian Mølsted, painter Dirch Passer and comedian Clara Selborn and translator Sophus Vermehren Official website
Bella Center is Scandinavia's second largest exhibition and conference center, is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. Located in Ørestad between the city centre and Copenhagen Airport, it offers an indoor area of 121,800 square metres and has a capacity of 20,000 people. Among the larger annual events are the Copenhagen International Fashion Fair, the main event of Copenhagen Fashion Week held twice a year - in February and August, CODE, the main event of Copenhagen Design Week. Bella Center takes its name from Bellahøj in northern Copenhagen where the convention centre was first situated, its first building was constructed in 1965 to the design of architect Erik Møller. During 1973–75, Bella Center was moved to its current location on Amager between the city centre and Copenhagen airport, while the original building was converted into a sports center under the name Grøndals Centret. At this stage, Bella Center's new premises were located in an undeveloped area outside the city on the former Amager Commons.
With the development of Ørestad, as decided in 1992 with construction start from around the turn of the millennium, Bella Center's surroundings are in the process of changing into a dense urban area. When the M1 line of the Copenhagen Metro opened in 2004, it was with a station named for the Bella Center located next to it. 2009: United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009 2009: 13th Olympic Congress 2009: 121st International Olympic Committee Session 2009: 33rd Ordinary UEFA Congress 2006: MTV Europe Music Awards 2006 2002: European Council 1995: The World Summit for Social Development 1993: European Council Bella Center's facilities include: Congress Hall that can be divided into three individual sections 4 auditoriums with capacities from 310-930 persons 63 flexible meeting rooms Center Hall for banquets, welcoming area, etc. Various halls that can be used as congress and exhibition halls Shopping centre with a grocer's shop and florist The 814-room Bella Sky Hotel at Bella Center is now opened.
Designed by Danish 3XN Architects, the hotel consists of two inclined towers, standing 76.5 m tall with an inclination in opposite directions of 15°. The four-star Bella Hotel provides 814 rooms, 32 conference rooms, 3 restaurants, a sky bar and a wellness centre; the foundation stone to Bella Hotel was laid 17 September 2008, the first phase was completed in spring 2011. Bella Center hosts a large variety of trade fairs, exhibitions and political summits; every year, it hosts 25-30 large exhibitions as well as around 1,300 meetings of varying sizes. Bella Center station on the M1 line of the Copenhagen Metro is located next to Bella Center; the regional Oresundtrains from Copenhagen and Malmö stop at Ørestad station nearby the Bella Center. From here it is possible to change to the Metro M1 line to go one stop to reach the Bella Center metro station; the Oresundtrains stop at Copenhagen Airport, 5 min. from Ørestad station. Bella Center is used as a location at 0:22:17 in the 1977 Olsen-banden film The Olsen Gang Outta Sight.