Walt Disney Imagineering
Disney Imagineering, some times just Imagineering or more Walt Disney Imagineering Research & Development, Inc. is the research and development arm of The Walt Disney Company, responsible for the creation and construction of Disney theme parks and attractions worldwide. Founded by Walt Disney to oversee the production of Disneyland, it was known as Walt Disney, Inc. WED Enterprises, from the initials meaning "Walter Elias Disney", the company co-founder's full name. Headquartered in Glendale, Imagineering was founded by Walt Disney to oversee the production of Disneyland. Imagineering is composed of "Imagineers", who are illustrators, engineers, lighting designers, show writers and graphic designers; the term Imagineering, a portmanteau, was introduced in the 1940s by Alcoa to describe its blending of imagination and engineering, used by Union Carbide in an in-house magazine in 1957, with an article by Richard F Sailer called "BRAINSTORMING IS IMAGination engINEERING". Disney filed for a trademark for the term in 1989, claiming first use of the term in 1962.
Imagineering is a registered trademark of The Walt Disney Company. Walt Disney, Inc. was formed by Walt Disney on December 16, 1952 with an engineering division tasked with designing Disneyland. In light of objections from Roy as well as those of potential stockholders, WDI was renamed WED Enterprises in 1953 based on Walt's initials. In 1961, WED moved into the Grand Central Business Park. WED Enterprises theme park design and architectural group became so integral to the Disney studio's operations that the Disney Productions bought it on February 5, 1965 along with the WED Enterprises name; the unit was renamed as of January 1986 to Walt Disney Imagineering. In 1996, Disney Development Company, the Disney conglomerate's real estate development subsidiary, merged into Imagineering. Imagineering created Disney Fair, a U. S. traveling attraction, which premiered in September 1996. With poor attendance, the fair was pulled after a few stops. Disney Entertainment Projects, Inc. a new Disney Asian Pacific subsidiary, selected a renamed fair called DisneyFest as its first project taking it to Singapore to open there on October 30, 1997.
By 1997, Imagineers were in several buildings in Grand Central Business Park when Disney purchased the park. In September 1999, Disney Imagineering announced the Grand Central Creative Campus redesign of the industrial park with a new office-studio complex anchored by Disney Imagineering; some of the building were demolished to make way for new buildings. The additional space would be for production facilities and offices; as part of The Walt Disney Company’s March 2018 strategic reorganization, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts merged with Disney Consumer Products and Interactive Media segments into Walt Disney Parks and Consumer Products. Imagineering is governed by 15 principles and practices in the construction of attractions and theme parks; these 15 principles have since been published for individuals wanting to achieve their creative goals. New concepts and improvements are created to fulfil specific needs. For instance, the ride vehicle of the attraction Soarin' Over California has been designed to help guests experience the sensation of flight.
During development, Imagineer Mark Sumner found an erector set in his attic, which inspired the solution to create this experience. The ride simulates hang gliding. One of Imagineering's techniques, "blue sky speculation", is a process in which ideas are generated without limitations. Imagineers start with a bold idea in extreme detail, regardless of the budgetary or physical constraints; as a result, it can take up to five years for an idea to turn into a finished attraction. The company consider this the beginning of a design process, believing, "if it can be dreamt, it can be built."Imagineering strive to perfect their work, in which Walt coined as "plussing". He believed that there is always room for innovation and improvement, stating "Disneyland will never be completed as long as there's imagination left in the world". Imagineering has returned to abandoned ideas. For example, the Museum of the Weird, was a proposed walk-through wax museum that became the Haunted Mansion. Disney theme parks are story-telling and visual experiences known as “The Art of the Show.”
The use of theming and attention to detail are essential in the Disney experience. Creative director John Hench noted the similarities between theme park design and film making, such as the use of techniques including forced perspective. One notable example of forced perspective is Cinderella Castle in Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World; the scale of architectural elements is much smaller in the upper reaches of the castle compared to the foundation, making it seem taller than its actual height of 189 feet. The attraction, Pirates of the Caribbean, evokes a “rollicking buccaneer adventure,” according to Hench. In contrast, the Disney Cruise Line ships create an elegant seafaring atmosphere. Minor details in theme park shops and restaurants are crucial; when guests walk down the area of Main Street, U. S. A. they are to notice a bakery fragrance, reminiscent of suburban America in the 1900s. In addition to theme parks, Imagineering has devised retail stores and hotels which have "stories" and create a specific mood.
For instance, the Disney's Contemporary Resort features an A-frame structure, modern décor and futuristic features including a quiet monorail in the lobby. These details reinforce the hotel's contemporary nature. In 2010, Disney Educational Products produced a series of videos
Disneyland Park Disneyland, is the first of two theme parks built at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, opened on July 17, 1955. It is the only theme park designed and built to completion under the direct supervision of Walt Disney, it was the only attraction on the property. Walt Disney came up with the concept of Disneyland after visiting various amusement parks with his daughters in the 1930s and 1940s, he envisioned building a tourist attraction adjacent to his studios in Burbank to entertain fans who wished to visit. After hiring a consultant to help him determine an appropriate site for his project, Disney bought a 160-acre site near Anaheim in 1953. Construction began in 1954 and the park was unveiled during a special televised press event on the ABC Television Network on July 17, 1955. Since its opening, Disneyland has undergone expansions and major renovations, including the addition of New Orleans Square in 1966, Bear Country in 1972, Mickey's Toontown in 1993. Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge is due to open in 2019.
Opened in 2001, Disney California Adventure Park was built on the site of Disneyland's original parking lot. Disneyland has a larger cumulative attendance than any other theme park in the world, with 708 million visits since it opened. In 2017, the park had 18.3 million visits, making it the second most visited amusement park in the world that year, behind only Magic Kingdom. According to a March 2005 Disney report, 65,700 jobs are supported by the Disneyland Resort, including about 20,000 direct Disney employees and 3,800 third-party employees. Disney Announced "Project Stardust" in 2019, which includes major structural renovations to the park to account for higher attendance numbers. Major renovations include widening Main Street, U. S. A. and changing the color scheme and forced perspective of Sleeping Beauty Castle. The concept for Disneyland began when Walt Disney was visiting Griffith Park in Los Angeles with his daughters Diane and Sharon. While watching them ride the merry-go-round, he came up with the idea of a place where adults and their children could go and have fun together, though his dream lay dormant for many years.
He may have been influenced by his father's memories of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. The Midway Plaisance there included a set of attractions representing various countries from around the world and others representing various periods of man. Another influence was Benton Harbor, Michigan's nationally famous House of David's Eden Springs Park. Disney visited the park and bought one of the older miniature trains used there; the earliest documented draft of Disney's plans was sent as a memo to studio production designer Dick Kelsey on August 31, 1948, where it was referred to as a "Mickey Mouse Park", based on notes Disney made during his and Ward Kimball's trip to Chicago Railroad Fair the same month, with a two-day stop in Henry Ford's Museum and Greenfield Village, a place with attractions like a Main Street and steamboat rides, which he had visited eight years earlier. While people wrote letters to Disney about visiting the Walt Disney Studios, he realized that a functional movie studio had little to offer to visiting fans, began to foster ideas of building a site near the Burbank studios for tourists to visit.
His ideas evolved to a small play park with other themed areas. The initial concept, the Mickey Mouse Park, started with an 8-acre plot across Riverside Drive, he started to visit other parks for inspiration and ideas, including Tivoli Gardens in Denmark, Efteling in the Netherlands, Greenfield Village and Children's Fairyland in the United States. His designers began working on concepts, though the project grew much larger than the land could hold. Disney hired Harrison Price from Stanford Research Institute to gauge the proper area to locate the theme park based on the area's potential growth. Based on Price's analysis, Disney acquired 160 acres of orange groves and walnut trees in Anaheim, southeast of Los Angeles in neighboring Orange County; the Burbank site considered by Disney is now home to Walt Disney Animation Studios and ABC Studios. Difficulties in obtaining funding prompted Disney to investigate new methods of fundraising, he decided to create a show named Disneyland, it was broadcast on then-fledgling ABC.
In return, the network agreed to help finance the park. For its first five years of operation, Disneyland was owned by Disneyland, Inc., jointly owned by Walt Disney Productions, Walt Disney, Western Publishing and ABC. In addition, Disney rented out many of the shops on Main Street, U. S. A. to outside companies. By 1960, Walt Disney Productions bought out all other shares, a partnership which would lead to the Walt Disney Corporation's acquisition of ABC in the mid-1990s. In 1952, the proposed project had been called Disneylandia, but Disney followed ABC's advice and changed it to Disneyland two years when excavation of the site began. Construction began on July 16, 1954
Casey Jr. Circus Train
The Casey Jr. Circus Train is the name of a ridable miniature railroad attraction found at Disneyland and a powered roller coaster attraction found at Disneyland Paris. Based on the train of the same name from the 1941 film Dumbo, it gives passengers a tour of many miniature versions of scenes from Disney animated films; this tour is similar to the one given on the slower paced Storybook Land Canal Boats, but does not incorporate narration. The original attraction was operating during the grand opening of Disneyland on July 17, 1955, but was closed the following day for safety testing and reopened on July 31, 1955. Casey Jr. Circus Train at Disneyland Paris is designed as a roller coaster for small children through Storybook Land, giving riders good views of the Storybook Land castle and other scenes that are not as visible from the Storybook Land Canal Boats; the Skyway used to pass over part of the Casey Junior Circus Train track. The original 2 ft narrow gauge internal combustion-powered railroad version at Disneyland was manufactured by Arrow Development.
The powered roller coaster version of the ride in Disneyland Paris was manufactured by Vekoma. About an hour and a half to an hour prior to Disneyland opening time, or its own opening time, cast members will inspect the trainset which laid-over at the station as well as the entire trackage before cold starting the callopie car, they will let the engine warm up for a little bit before taking it on a test run to get it running. If the second trainset is needed, it will back out of the roundhouse via the green switching track before running the rest of the route to the station. Casey Jr. has two train sets: No. 7 and No. 9. They consist of a locomotive resembling Casey, a calliope car, a pink open-top chair car seating 4, a monkey and wild animal cage, another open-top chair car painted blue, a caboose; the Casey Jr. locomotive however isn't the motive power. To start the train, ride operators use a method where they turn the narration on, release the brakes, blow the whistle twice, apply some throttle throw the reverser into forwards, after which they increase the throttle to top notch to prevent wheelslip.
All of this is done in quick succession to be in sync with the narration. Casey departs the station and curves parallel to the docks of the Storybook Land Canal Boats attraction, it passes the hidden backstage area and climbs up the hill with Casey chanting "I think I can". After it completes the hill, it will curve again this time parallel to the station but separated by the Storybook Land water; the train will continue and pass above the water and spiral down, where a block signal will stop it to verify its presence. Once it turns green, the train goes into the station with the ringmaster saying it's the end of the lion; the trains will go slower if both are out. No two trains will be out on the line at the same time because one train must be boarding and the other one running, despite having 4 block signals. After the final trip around Storybookland at Disneyland closing time, one trainset will lay over at the station, have its engine switched off the ride operators will inspect the tracks one more time before leaving the attraction for the night.
If two-train operations are active and aren't needed anymore one of the trainsets, will deadhead into the roundhouse. Both trainsets will take turns in the roundhouse each night. Casey Jr. Splash'n' Soak Station Rail transport in Walt Disney Parks and Resorts Broggie, Walt Disney's Railroad Story: The Small-Scale Fascination That Led to a Full-Scale Kingdom, The Donning Company Publishers, ISBN 978-1-57864-914-3 Official Disneyland website Official Disneyland Paris website
Madurodam is a miniature park and tourist attraction in the Scheveningen district of The Hague in the Netherlands. It is home to a range of 1:25 scale model replicas of famous Dutch landmarks, historical cities and large developments; the park has since been visited by tens of millions of visitors. The entirety of net proceeds from the park go towards various charities in the Netherlands. In 2012, Madurodam celebrated its 60th anniversary. Madurodam was named after George Maduro, a Dutch law student from Curaçao who fought the Nazi occupation forces as a member of the Dutch resistance and died at Dachau concentration camp in 1945. In 1946, Maduro was posthumously awarded the Medal of Knight Fourth class of the Military Order of William, the highest and oldest military decoration in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, for the valor he had demonstrated in the Battle of the Netherlands against German troops. Mrs B. Boon-van der Starp was a member of a foundation for the Dutch Students Sanatorium. In this sanatorium students with tuberculosis could obtain treatment, could study.
Financial support was needed to pay for their convalescent care. Mrs Boon-van der Starp heard about a miniature park in Beaconsfield, England; this park generated large profits, a large part of, donated to a hospital in London each year. After a meeting with Mrs Boon-van der Starp, George Maduro's parents donated the funds needed for the Madurodam project, as a memorial to their son. S. J. Bouma was appointed architect of Madurodam, visited Bekonscot because Mrs Boon-van der Starp wanted the new park to be similar. After his visit he created a plan for Madurodam and came up with a theme: Het stadje met de glimlach. On 2 July 1952, the teenage Princess Beatrix was appointed mayor of Madurodam, was given a tour of her town; when Beatrix became Queen, she relinquished this title. After her resignation a new tradition arose: the city council would annually select a mayor from their midst. All members of the youth council are The Hague students; every year schools from The Hague can nominate students to take part in the youth council.
The youth council members are members of the disbursement committee at Madurodam. The disbursement committee manages charities – Madurodam has its own fund which provides financial support to institutions that organize activities for young people. In 2011, research showing declining public interest prompted the park management to invest in a large-scale renovation, at a cost of €8 million, in time for the park's 60th anniversary in 2012. For this purpose the park was closed to the public between November 2011 and April 2012; the park is now divided into three themes: as a friend and an enemy. Each theme offers different activities - from light shows to mixing music. Small coin slots trigger factories or an oil tanker on fire. While aesthetic improvements have been made, the informative aspect has been improved. Small television stands show in-depth information. Visitors receive chipped cards upon entry. On 7 April 2012, Madurodam opened its doors to the public again; the official opening was on 21 April 2012 with former Queen Beatrix.
Every object in Madurodam has been built at a scale of 1:25. When the management decides that a specific miniature is to be made for Madurodam, the builders will first research all aspects of the actual building, they will research the shape and all other properties of that object, by analysing many pictures. After this they can start making the models. A computer sends all information to a machine that makes the physical model; the model goes to the painting room. In this painting room restorations take place; because most of the miniatures are outdoors, they need regular paint retouches. Madurodam strives to show a realistic view of The Netherlands in a scaled down environment. Everything, including flora and street decoration, is modeled to scale. Producing scaled-down trees is time consuming. There are a lot of little people around the buildings; this shows the real life of the Dutch people. These "residents" change with the weather. In the winter they wear jackets and warm clothes and in the summer they wear T-shirts.
The "residents" of Madurodam have become more and more multicultural, include some who appear to have come from other countries, reflecting real life in The Netherlands. Fantasitron is a 3D selfie photo booth where patrons can have 3D models of themselves created by software from pictures taken in the photo booth. A third party printer company such as Shapeways prints and ships manufactured models to patrons. Although Madurodam is a miniature city, a collection of Dutch landmarks is found amidst the landscapes, they include: Rijksmuseum Binnenhof Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, The Netherlands' main international airport Port of Rotterdam, world's third-largest port Traditional Dutch canal houses Tulip fields Windmills Skyline of the city of Rotterdam, like the Erasmus bridge, central train station, cubes houses and Unilever HQ buildings. Unlike the rest of the park, the Hof van Nederland is not built as a miniature, but is made in a real life size. In 4 minutes the attraction explains the beginning of the Netherlands in 1572.
The attraction is inspired by the Hof van Nederland in Dordrecht and was opened on 19 July 2015. The park was the inspiration for Storybook Land, an attraction opened at Disneyland in 1956 and at Disneyland Paris in 1994. Additionally, it was a visit to Madurodam that inspired Fern
A bateau or batteau is a shallow-draft, flat-bottomed boat, used extensively across North America in the colonial period and in the fur trade. It came in a wide variety of sizes; the name derives from the French word, the word for boat and the plural, follows the French, an unusual construction for an English plural. In the southern United States, the term is still used to refer to flat-bottomed boats, including those elsewhere called jon boats. Bateaux were double-ended, they were built with heavy stems at bow and stern and a series of frames amidships from natural oak crooks when available, planked with sawn boards pine although builders would have used whatever material was available. These boats would have varied from place to place, from builder to builder and evolved over time, however in general, they were 24 to 50 feet long and 5 to 8 feet wide; the bottoms were planked and flat, without a keel, but with a larger "keel-plank" in the center and sometimes reinforced with cross cleats. The sides were planked.
The French explorers of North America used batteaux as well as the native cartols. The boats' shallow draft worked well in rivers while its flat bottom profile allowed heavy loading of cargoes and provided stability; the smallest batteau required only one crewman, while larger ones required up to five and reach up to 45–58 feet in length. The largest batteaux could carry two to ten tons of cargo. Batteaux could mount a small sail. In military records, it is seen that the boats were propelled by oars with one oar being used at the stern as a rudder. Of Louisiana in 1763 it was described: "Beyond the mouth of the Missouri river the bateau of no prying New Orleans trader had penetrated." The same author wrote of the Roanoke Valley, Virginia: "One may make a pleasant voyage on the New River from this point to Eggleston's Springs, twenty-five miles further down the current, taking one of the many bateaux which ply on the stream, drifting on the lazy wave until the destination is reached." In the same book, the spelling is given as "batteaux": Along the Greenbrier and New Rivers adventurous boatmen ply in "batteaux", carrying merchandise or travelers who wish to explore the wonders of the New River cañon.
…Our artists, who made the tour of the New River cañon in a batteau, found it an exciting experience. At the junction of the Greenbrier and New Rivers they engaged one of the boats used in running the rapids; this boat was sixty feet long by six wide, was managed by three negroes,—the "steersman", who guided the boat with a long and powerful oar. —King, p. 679 Many types of batteaux were deployed by the Colonial French and British militaries, with the largest capable of mounting small cannon or swivel guns. In the wilderness with many rivers but few bridges, batteaux were sometimes constructed, used purposely sunk to prevent the enemy from discovering them and using them to raid behind the passing army. Alternately, utilizing the stability of their flat bottoms, batteau could be strung together to form pontoon bridges, which are, sometimes known as "batteau bridges"; some British military batteau of the French and Indian War could haul twenty men or 12 barrels of supplies with a smaller crew.
In the Revolutionary War, an extant plan of the British Admiralty calls for batteau of 30-foot-4-inch in length, with a 6 feet 6 inches beam and a depth of 2 feet 10 inches."Specific designs were developed to suit local conditions. Batteau were used as freight boats on canals in the northern U. S. until replaced by the larger canal boats in the early 1800s. James River batteau were large craft designed for hauling tobacco on Virginia's large rivers, while Mohawk River batteau were smaller and of shallow draft. Most of the inland navigations in the southern United States, penetrating the Piedmont by way of the river valleys, were for bateau. Batteaux were a important part of the American culture; the town of Ronceverte, West Virginia, commemorates the logging and batteau industry with an annual outdoor theater, Riders of the Flood, where the spring rains sent harvested timbers down the Greenbrier River for the sawmills. An ark is used in the play, a scaled-down model of the original crafts that accompanied the batteaux downriver for the spring floods.
West Virginia author W. E. Blackhurst used "bateau" in his books of Pocahontas County and the Greenbrier River; these boats figure in the logging-era book Riders of the Flood, on which the play of the same name is based. This batteau was for logging, meant to maneuver and withstand dangerous river conditions and is built differently from the New River batteau at the confluence of the Greenbrier River. Proper spelling remains a problem with researchers. Dr. William E. Trout III, a member of the Virginia Canals and Navigations Society who has written about the batteaux, explained the issue thus: We use the spelling "batteau" because we consider that to be the correct spelling for our kind of boat—the James River Batteau, invented by the Rucker brothers in 1771 and patented; this is the way it was spelled during the batteau era in the Virginia state laws. Evidently after batteaux were forgotten and the word was not used anymore, this spelling was forgotten and reverted to the French spelling for that general type of boat (and for boats gen
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California, United States, 12 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The population at the 2010 census was 103,340. Billed as the "Media Capital of the World" and only a few miles northeast of Hollywood, numerous media and entertainment companies are headquartered or have significant production facilities in Burbank, including Warner Bros. Entertainment, The Walt Disney Company, Nickelodeon Animation Studios, The Burbank Studios, Cartoon Network Studios with the West Coast branch of Cartoon Network, Insomniac Games; the Hollywood Burbank Airport was the location of Lockheed's Skunk Works, which produced some of the most secret and technologically advanced airplanes, including the U-2 spy planes that uncovered the Soviet Union missile components in Cuba in October 1962. Burbank consists of two distinct areas: a downtown/foothill section, in the foothills of the Verdugo Mountains, the flatland section; the city was referred to as "Beautiful Downtown Burbank" on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
The city was named after David Burbank, a New Hampshire–born dentist and entrepreneur who established a sheep ranch there in 1867. The city of Burbank occupies land, part of two Spanish and Mexican-era colonial land grants, the 36,400-acre Rancho San Rafael, granted to Jose Maria Verdugo by the Spanish Bourbon government in 1784, the 4,063-acre Rancho Providencia created in 1821; this area was the scene of a military skirmish which resulted in the unseating of the Spanish Governor of California, his replacement by the Mexican leader Pio Pico. Remnants of the military battle were found many years in the vicinity of Warner Bros. Studio when residents dug up cannonballs. Dr. David Burbank purchased over 4,600 acres of the former Verdugo holding and another 4,600 acres of the Rancho Providencia in 1867 and built a ranch house and began to raise sheep and grow wheat on the ranch. By 1876, the San Fernando Valley became the largest wheat-raising area in Los Angeles County, but the droughts of the 1860s and 1870s underlined the need for steady water supplies.
A professionally trained dentist, Burbank began his career in Maine. He joined the great migration westward in the early 1850s and, by 1853 was living in San Francisco. At the time the American Civil War broke out he was again well established in his profession as a dentist in Pueblo de Los Angeles. In 1867, he purchased Rancho La Providencia from David W. Alexander and Francis Mellus, he purchased the western portion of the Rancho San Rafael from Jonathan R. Scott. Burbank's property reached nearly 9,200 acres at a cost of $9,000. Burbank would not acquire full titles to both properties until after a court decision known as the "Great Partition" was made in 1871 dissolving the Rancho San Rafael, he became known as one of the largest and most successful sheep raisers in southern California, as a result, he closed his dentistry practice and invested in real estate in Los Angeles. Burbank later owned the Burbank Theatre, which opened on November 27, 1893, at a cost of $150,000. Though the theater was intended to be an opera house, instead it staged plays and became known nationally.
The theatre featured famous actors of the time including Fay Bainter and Marjorie Rambeau, until it had deteriorated into a burlesque house. When the area that became Burbank was settled in the 1870s and 1880s, the streets were aligned along what is now Olive Avenue, the road to the Cahuenga Pass and downtown Los Angeles; these were the roads the Native Americans traveled and the early settlers took their produce down to Los Angeles to sell and to buy supplies along these routes. At the time, the primary long-distance transportation methods available to San Fernando Valley residents were stagecoach and train. Stagecoaching between Los Angeles and San Francisco through the Valley began in 1858; the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in the Valley in 1876, completing the route connecting San Francisco and Los Angeles. A shrewd businessman, foreseeing the value of rail transport, Burbank sold Southern Pacific Railroad a right-of-way through the property for one dollar; the first train passed through Burbank on April 5, 1874.
A boom created by a rate war between the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific brought people streaming into California shortly thereafter, a group of speculators purchased much of Burbank's land holdings in 1886 for $250,000. One account suggests Burbank may have sold his property because of a severe drought that year, which caused a shortage of water and grass for his livestock. 1,000 of his sheep died due to the drought conditions. The group of speculators who bought the acreage formed the Providencia Land and Development Company and began developing the land, calling the new town Burbank after its founder, began offering farm lots on May 1, 1887; the townsite had Burbank Boulevard/Walnut Avenue as the northern boundary, Grandview Avenue as the southern boundary, the edge of the Verdugo Mountains as the eastern boundary and Clybourn Avenue was the western border. The establishment of a water system in 1887 allowed farmers to irrigate their orchards and provided a stronger base for agricultural development.
The original plot of the new townsite of Burbank extended from what is now Burbank Boulevard on the north, to Grandview Avenue in Glendale, California on the south, from the top of the Verdugo Hills on the east to what is now known as Clybourn Avenue on the west. At the same time, the arrival of the railroad provided immediate access for the farmers to bring crops to market. Packing houses and warehouses were built alo
Fantasia (1940 film)
Fantasia is a 1940 American animated film produced by Walt Disney and released by Walt Disney Productions. With story direction by Joe Grant and Dick Huemer, production supervision by Ben Sharpsteen, it is the third Disney animated feature film; the film consists of eight animated segments set to pieces of classical music conducted by Leopold Stokowski, seven of which are performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra. Music critic and composer Deems Taylor acts as the film's Master of Ceremonies, providing a live-action introduction to each animated segment. Disney settled on the film's concept as work neared completion on The Sorcerer's Apprentice, an elaborate Silly Symphonies short designed as a comeback role for Mickey Mouse, who had declined in popularity; as production costs grew higher than what it could earn, Disney decided to include the short in a feature-length film with other segments set to classical pieces. The soundtrack was recorded using multiple audio channels and reproduced with Fantasound, a pioneering sound reproduction system that made Fantasia the first commercial film shown in stereophonic sound.
Fantasia was first released as a theatrical roadshow held in thirteen U. S. cities from November 13, 1940. While acclaimed by critics, it was unable to make a profit due to World War II cutting off distribution to the European market, the film's high production costs, the expense of leasing theatres and installing the Fantasound equipment for the roadshow presentations; the film was subsequently reissued multiple times with its original footage and audio being deleted, modified, or restored in each version. Fantasia is the 23rd highest-grossing film of all time in the U. S. when adjusted for inflation. The Fantasia franchise has grown to include video games, Disneyland attractions, a live concert. A sequel, Fantasia 2000, co-produced by Roy E. Disney, was released in 1999. Fantasia has grown in reputation over the years and is now acclaimed. Fantasia opens with live action scenes of members of an orchestra gathering against a blue background and tuning their instruments in half-light, half-shadow.
Master of ceremonies Deems Taylor introduces the program. Toccata and Fugue in D Minor by Johann Sebastian Bach. Live-action shots of the orchestra illuminated in blue and gold, backed by superimposed shadows, fade into abstract patterns. Animated lines and cloud formations reflect the sound and rhythms of the music. Nutcracker Suite by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Selections from the ballet suite underscore scenes depicting the changing of the seasons from summer to autumn to winter. A variety of dances are presented with fairies, flowers and leaves, including "Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy", "Chinese Dance", "Arabian Dance", "Russian Dance", "Dance of the Flutes" and "Waltz of the Flowers"; the Sorcerer's Apprentice by Paul Dukas. Based on Goethe's 1797 poem "Der Zauberlehrling". Mickey Mouse, the young apprentice of the sorcerer Yen Sid, attempts some of his master's magic tricks but does not know how to control them. Rite of Spring by Igor Stravinsky. A visual history of the Earth's beginnings is depicted to selected sections of the ballet score.
The sequence progresses from the planet's formation to the first living creatures, followed by the reign and extinction of the dinosaurs. Intermission/Meet the Soundtrack: The orchestra musicians depart and the Fantasia title card is revealed. After the intermission there is a brief jam session of jazz music led by a clarinettist as the orchestra members return. A humorously stylized demonstration of how sound is rendered on film is shown. An animated sound track "character" a straight white line, changes into different shapes and colors based on the sounds played; the Pastoral Symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven. A mythical Greco-Roman world of colorful centaurs and "centaurettes", cupids and other figures from classical mythology is portrayed to Beethoven's music. A gathering for a festival to honor Bacchus, the god of wine, is interrupted by Zeus, who creates a storm and directs Vulcan to forge lightning bolts for him to throw at the attendees. Dance of the Hours by Amilcare Ponchielli. A comic ballet in four sections: Madame Upanova and her ostriches.
The finale finds all of the characters dancing together until their palace collapses. Night on Bald Mountain by Modest Mussorgsky and Ave Maria by Franz Schubert. At midnight the devil Chernabog awakes and summons evil spirits and restless souls from their graves to Bald Mountain; the spirits dance and fly through the air until driven back by the sound of an Angelus bell as night fades into dawn. A chorus is heard singing Ave Maria as a line of robed monks is depicted walking with lighted torches through a forest and into the ruins of a cathedral. In 1936, Walt Disney felt that the Disney studio's star character Mickey Mouse needed a boost in popularity, he decided to feature the mouse in The Sorcerer's Apprentice, a deluxe cartoon short based on the poem written by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and set to the orchestral piece by Paul Dukas inspired by the original tale. The concept of matching animation to classical music was used as early as 1928 in Disney's cartoon series, the Silly Symphonies, but he wanted to go beyond the usual slapstick, produce shorts where "sheer fantasy unfolds... action controlled by a musical pattern has great charm in the realm of unreality."
Upon receiving the rights to use the music by the end of Ju