Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium; the term is equivalent to the term Midgard of Norse mythology, describing the human-inhabited world, that is, the central continent of the Earth in Tolkien's imagined mythological past. Tolkien's most read works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, take place in Middle-earth, Middle-earth has become a short-hand to refer to the legendarium and Tolkien's fictional take on the world. Within his stories, Tolkien translated the name "Middle-earth" as Endor and Ennor in the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin sometimes referring only to the continent that the stories take place on, with another southern continent called the Dark Land. Middle-earth is the north continent of Earth in an imaginary period of the Earth's past, in the sense of a "secondary or sub-creational reality", its general position is reminiscent of Europe, with the environs of the Shire intended to be reminiscent of England. Tolkien's stories chronicle the struggle to control the world and the continent of Middle-earth: on one side, the angelic Valar, the Elves and their allies among Men.
In ages, after Morgoth's defeat and expulsion from Arda, his place was taken by his lieutenant Sauron. The Valar withdrew from direct involvement in the affairs of Middle-earth after the defeat of Morgoth, but in years they sent the wizards or Istari to help in the struggle against Sauron; the most important wizards were Gandalf the Saruman the White. Gandalf proved crucial in the fight against Sauron. Saruman, became corrupted and sought to establish himself as a rival to Sauron for absolute power in Middle-earth. Other races involved in the struggle against evil were Dwarves and most famously Hobbits; the early stages of the conflict are chronicled in The Silmarillion, while the final stages of the struggle to defeat Sauron are told in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings. Conflict over the possession and control of precious or magical objects is a recurring theme in the stories; the First Age is dominated by the doomed quest of the elf Fëanor and most of his Noldorin clan to recover three precious jewels called the Silmarils that Morgoth stole from them.
The Second and Third Age are dominated by the forging of the Rings of Power, the fate of the One Ring forged by Sauron, which gives its wearer the power to control or influence those wearing the other Rings of Power. In ancient Germanic mythology, the world of Men is known by several names, such as Midgard, Middenheim and Middengeard; the Old English middangeard descends from an earlier Germanic word and so has cognates in languages related to Old English such as the Old Norse word Miðgarðr from Norse mythology, transliterated to modern English as Midgard. The term "Middle-earth", it is found throughout the Modern English period as a development of the Middle English word middel-erde, which developed in turn, through a process of folk etymology, from middanġeard. By the time of the Middle English period, middangeard was being written as middellærd, midden-erde, or middel-erde, indicating that the second element had been reinterpreted, based on its similarity to the word for "earth"; the shift in meaning was not great, however: middangeard properly meant "middle enclosure" instead of "middle-earth".
Tolkien first encountered the term middangeard in an Old English fragment he studied in 1914: Éala éarendel engla beorhtast / ofer middangeard monnum sended. Hail Earendel, brightest of angels / above the middle-earth sent unto men; this quote is from the second of the fragmentary remnants of the Crist poems by Cynewulf. The name Éarendel was the inspiration for Tolkien's mariner Eärendil, who set sail from the lands of Middle-earth to ask for aid from the angelic powers, the Valar. Tolkien's earliest poem about Eärendil, from 1914, the same year he read the Crist poems, refers to "the mid-world's rim"; the concept of middangeard was considered by Tolkien to be the same as a particular usage of the Greek word οἰκουμένη - oikoumenē. In this usage Tolkien says that the oikoumenē is "the abiding place of men". Tolkien wrote: Middle-earth is... not my own invention. It is a modernization or alteration... of an old word for the inhabited world of Men, the oikoumene: middle because thought of vaguely as set amidst the encircling Seas and between ice of the North and the fire of the South.
O. English middan-geard, mediaeval E. midden-erd, middle-erd. Many reviewers seem to assume. However, the term "Middle-earth" is not found in Tolkien's earliest writings about Middle-earth, dating from the early 1920s and published in The Book of Lost Tales. Nor is the term used in The Hobbit. Tolkien began to use the term "Middle-earth" in the late 1930s, in place of the earlier terms "Great Lands", "Outer Lands", "Hither Lands"
Harry Potter is a series of fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling; the novels chronicle the lives of a young wizard, Harry Potter, his friends Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The main story arc concerns Harry's struggle against Lord Voldemort, a dark wizard who intends to become immortal, overthrow the wizard governing body known as the Ministry of Magic, subjugate all wizards and Muggles. Since the release of the first novel, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, on 26 June 1997, the books have found immense popularity, critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide, they have attracted a wide adult audience as well as younger readers and are considered cornerstones of modern young adult literature. As of February 2018, the books have sold more than 500 million copies worldwide, making them the best-selling book series in history, have been translated into eighty languages; the last four books consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history, with the final instalment selling eleven million copies in the United States within twenty-four hours of its release.
The series was published in English by two major publishers, Bloomsbury in the United Kingdom and Scholastic Press in the United States. A play, Harry Potter and the Cursed Child, based on a story co-written by Rowling, premiered in London on 30 July 2016 at the Palace Theatre, its script was published by Little, Brown; the original seven books were adapted into an eight-part namesake film series by Warner Bros. Pictures, the third highest-grossing film series of all time as of February 2018. In 2016, the total value of the Harry Potter franchise was estimated at $25 billion, making Harry Potter one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time. A series of many genres, including fantasy, coming of age, the British school story, the world of Harry Potter explores numerous themes and includes many cultural meanings and references. According to Rowling, the main theme is death. Other major themes in the series include prejudice and madness; the success of the books and films has allowed the Harry Potter franchise to expand with numerous derivative works, a travelling exhibition that premiered in Chicago in 2009, a studio tour in London that opened in 2012, a digital platform on which J.
K. Rowling updates the series with new information and insight, a pentalogy of spin-off films premiering in November 2016 with Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, among many other developments. Most themed attractions, collectively known as The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, have been built at several Universal Parks & Resorts amusement parks around the world; the central character in the series is Harry Potter, a boy who lives in Surrey with his aunt and cousin – the Dursleys – and discovers, at the age of eleven, that he is a wizard, though he lives in the ordinary world of non-magical people known as Muggles. The wizarding world exists parallel to the Muggle world, albeit hidden and in secrecy, his magical ability is inborn, children with such abilities are invited to attend exclusive magic schools that teach the necessary skills to succeed in the wizarding world. Harry becomes a student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, a wizarding academy in Scotland, it is here where most of the events in the series take place.
As Harry develops through his adolescence, he learns to overcome the problems that face him: magical and emotional, including ordinary teenage challenges such as friendships, romantic relationships and exams, depression and the greater test of preparing himself for the confrontation that lies ahead in wizarding Britain's increasingly-violent second wizarding war. Each novel chronicles one year in Harry's life during the period from 1991 to 1998; the books contain many flashbacks, which are experienced by Harry viewing the memories of other characters in a device called a Pensieve. The environment Rowling created is intimately connected to reality; the British magical community of the Harry Potter books is inspired by 1990s British culture, European folklore, classical mythology and alchemy, incorporating objects and wildlife such as magic wands, magic plants, spells, flying broomsticks and other magical creatures, the Philosopher's Stone, beside others invented by Rowling. While the fantasy land of Narnia is an alternate universe and the Lord of the Rings' Middle-earth a mythic past, the wizarding world of Harry Potter exists parallel to the real world and contains magical versions of the ordinary elements of everyday life, with the action set in Scotland, the West Country, Devon and Surrey in southeast England.
The world only accessible to wizards and magical beings comprises a fragmented collection of overlooked hidden streets, ancient pubs, lonely country manors, secluded castles invisible to the Muggle population. When the first novel of the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone opens, it is apparent that some significant event has taken place in the wizarding world – an event so remarkable Muggles notice signs of it; the full background to this event and Harry Potter's past is revealed throughout the series. After the introductory chapter, the book leaps forward to a time shortly before Harry Potter's eleventh birthday, it is at this point that his magical background begins to be revealed. Despite Harry's aunt and uncle's desperate prevention of Harry
In theatre, a monologue is a speech presented by a single character, most to express their mental thoughts aloud, though sometimes to directly address another character or the audience. Monologues are common across the range of dramatic media, as well as in non-dramatic media such as poetry. Monologues share much in common with several other literary devices including soliloquies and asides. There are, distinctions between each of these devices. Monologues are similar to poems and others, in that, they involve one'voice' speaking but there are differences between them. For example, a soliloquy involves a character relating his or her thoughts and feelings to him/herself and to the audience without addressing any of the other characters. A monologue is the thoughts of a person spoken out loud. Monologues are distinct from apostrophes, in which the speaker or writer addresses an imaginary person, inanimate object, or idea. Asides differ from each of these not only in length but in that asides are not heard by other characters in situations where they logically should be.
In ancient Greek theatre, the origin of western drama, the conventional three actor rule was preceded by a two-actor rule, itself preceded by a convention in which only a single actor would appear on stage, along with the chorus. The origin of the monologue as a dramatic device, therefore, is not rooted in dialogue, it is, the other way around. Ancient Roman theatre featured monologues extensively, more than either Ancient Greek theatre or modern theatre. One of the key purposes of these monologues was to indicate the passage of significant amounts of time within scenes; this type of monologue is referred to as a linking monologue. Other monologue types exit monologues. In each of these cases a primary function is indicating the passage of time. From Renaissance theatre onward, monologues focused on characters using the extended speech to pursue their dramatic need. Postmodern theatre, on the other hand embraces the performative aspects of the monologue to the point of challenging the boundary between character portrayal and autobiographical speeches.
Interior monologues involve a character externalizing their thoughts so that the audience can witness experiences that would otherwise be internal. In contrast, a dramatic monologue involves one character speaking to another character. Monologues can be divided along the lines of active and narrative monologues. In an active monologue a character is using their speech to achieve a clear goal. Narrative monologues involve a character telling a story and can be identified by the fact that they are in the past tense. Actors in theatre, sometimes in film and television, may be asked to deliver monologues in auditions. Audition monologues demonstrate an actor's ability to deliver a performance; these pieces are limited to two minutes or less and are paired with a contrasting monologue: comic and dramatic. The choice of monologues for an audition depends on the play or role. Dramatic monologue One-person show Oratory Performance poetry Rhetoric Stand-up comedy Storytelling Diseuse Spoken word To inspire people Monologue at Curlie
Improvisational theatre called improvisation or improv, is the form of theatre comedy, in which most or all of what is performed is unplanned or unscripted: created spontaneously by the performers. In its purest form, the dialogue, action and characters are created collaboratively by the players as the improvisation unfolds in present time, without use of an prepared, written script. Improvisational theatre exists in performance as a range of styles of improvisational comedy as well as some non-comedic theatrical performances, it is sometimes used in film and television, both to develop characters and scripts and as part of the final product. Improvisational techniques are used extensively in drama programs to train actors for stage and television and can be an important part of the rehearsal process. However, the skills and processes of improvisation are used outside the context of performing arts - Applied Improvisation, it is used in classrooms as an educational tool and in businesses as a way to develop communication skills, creative problem solving, supportive team-work abilities that are used by improvisational, ensemble players.
It is sometimes used in psychotherapy as a tool to gain insight into a person's thoughts and relationships. The earliest well documented use of improvisational theatre in Western history is found in the Atellan Farce of 391 BC. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, commedia dell'arte performers improvised based on a broad outline in the streets of Italy. In the 1890s, theatrical theorists and directors such as the Russian Konstantin Stanislavski and the French Jacques Copeau, founders of two major streams of acting theory, both utilized improvisation in acting training and rehearsal. Modern theatrical improvisation games began as drama exercises for children, which were a staple of drama education in the early 20th century thanks in part to the progressive education movement initiated by John Dewey in 1916; some people credit American Dudley Riggs as the first vaudevillian to use audience suggestions to create improvised sketches on stage. Improvisation exercises were developed further by Viola Spolin in the 1940s, 50s, 60s, codified in her book Improvisation For The Theater, the first book that gave specific techniques for learning to do and teach improvisational theater.
In the 1970s in Canada, British playwright and director Keith Johnstone wrote Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre, a book outlining his ideas on improvisation, invented Theatresports, which has become a staple of modern improvisational comedy and is the inspiration for the popular television show Whose Line Is It Anyway? Spolin influenced the first generation of modern American improvisers at The Compass Players in Chicago, which led to The Second City, her son, Paul Sills, along with David Shepherd, started The Compass Players. Following the demise of the Compass Players, Paul Sills began The Second City, they were the first organized troupes in Chicago, the modern Chicago improvisational comedy movement grew from their success. Many of the current "rules" of comedic improv were first formalized in Chicago in the late 1950s and early 1960s among The Compass Players troupe, directed by Paul Sills. From most accounts, David Shepherd provided the philosophical vision of the Compass Players, while Elaine May was central to the development of the premises for its improvisations.
Mike Nichols, Ted Flicker, Del Close were her most frequent collaborators in this regard. When The Second City opened its doors on December 16, 1959, directed by Paul Sills, his mother Viola Spolin began training new improvisers through a series of classes and exercises which became the cornerstone of modern improv training. By the mid-1960s, Viola Spolin's classes were handed over to her protégé, Jo Forsberg, who further developed Spolin's methods into a one-year course, which became The Players Workshop, the first official school of improvisation in the USA. During this time, Forsberg trained many of the performers who went on to star on The Second City stage. Many of the original cast of Saturday Night Live came from The Second City, the franchise has produced such comedy stars as Mike Myers, Tina Fey, Bob Odenkirk, Amy Sedaris, Stephen Colbert, Eugene Levy, Jack McBrayer, Steve Carell, Chris Farley, Dan Aykroyd, John Belushi. Keith Johnstone's group The Theatre Machine, which originated in London, was touring Europe.
This work gave birth to Theatresports, at first secretly in Johnstone's workshops, in public when he moved to Canada. Toronto has been home to a rich improv tradition. In 1984, Dick Chudnow founded ComedySportz in Milwaukee, WI. Expansion began with the addition of ComedySportz-Madison, in 1985; the first Comedy League of America National Tournament was held in 1988, with 10 teams participating. The league boasts a roster of 29 international cities. In San Francisco, The Committee theater was active in North Beach during the 1960s, it was founded by Alan Myerson and his wife Jessica. When The Committee disbanded in 1972, three major companies were formed: The Pitchell Players, The Wing, Improvisation Inc; the only company that continued to perform Close's Harold was the latter one. Its two former members, Michael Bossier and John Elk, formed Spaghetti Jam in San Francisco's Old Spaghetti Factory in 1976, where shortform improv and Harolds were performed through 1983. Stand-up comedians performing down the street at the Intersection for the Arts would drop by and sit in.
In 1979, Elk brought shortform to England, teaching workshops at Jacksons Lane Theatre, he was the first American to perform at The Comedy Store, above
Dice are small throwable objects that can rest in multiple positions, used for generating random numbers. Dice are suitable as gambling devices for games like craps and are used in non-gambling tabletop games. A traditional die is a cube, with each of its six faces showing a different number of dots from one to six; when thrown or rolled, the die comes to rest showing on its upper surface a random integer from one to six, each value being likely. A variety of similar devices are described as dice, they may be used to produce results other than one through six. Loaded and crooked dice are designed to favor some results over others for purposes of cheating or amusement. A dice tray, a tray used to contain thrown dice, is sometimes used for gambling or board games, in particular to allow dice throws which do not interfere with other game pieces. Dice have been used since before recorded history, it is uncertain where they originated; the oldest known dice were excavated as part of a backgammon-like game set at the Burnt City, an archeological site in south-eastern Iran, estimated to be from between 2800–2500 BC.
Other excavations from ancient tombs in the Indus Valley civilization indicate a South Asian origin. The Egyptian game of Senet was played with dice. Senet was played before 3000 BC and up to the 2nd century AD, it was a racing game, but there is no scholarly consensus on the rules of Senet. Dicing is mentioned as an Indian game in the Rigveda and the early Buddhist games list. There are several biblical references to "casting lots", as in Psalm 22, indicating that dicing was commonplace when the psalm was composed, it is theorized that dice developed from the practice of fortunetelling with the talus of hoofed animals, colloquially known as "knucklebones", but knucklebones is not the oldest divination technique that incorporates randomness. Knucklebones was a game of skill played by children. Although gambling was illegal, many Romans were passionate gamblers who enjoyed dicing, known as aleam ludere. Dicing was a popular pastime of emperors. Letters by Augustus to Tacitus and his daughter recount his hobby of dicing.
There were two sizes of Roman dice. Tali were large dice inscribed with one, three and six on four sides. Tesserae were smaller dice with sides numbered from one to six. Twenty-sided dice date back to the 2nd century AD and from Ptolemaic Egypt as early as the 2nd century BC. Dominoes and playing cards originated in China as developments from dice; the transition from dice to playing cards occurred in China around the Tang dynasty, coincides with the technological transition from rolls of manuscripts to block printed books. In Japan, dice were used to play a popular game called sugoroku. There are two types of sugoroku. Ban-sugoroku is similar to backgammon and dates to the Heian period, while e-sugoroku is a racing game. Dice are thrown onto a surface either from a container designed for this; the face of the die, uppermost when it comes to rest provides the value of the throw. One typical dice game today is craps, where two dice are thrown and wagers are made on the total value of the two dice.
Dice are used to randomize moves in board games by deciding the distance through which a piece will move along the board. The result of a die roll is determined by the way it is thrown, according to the laws of classical mechanics. A die roll is made random by uncertainty in minor factors such as tiny movements in the thrower's hand. To mitigate concerns that the pips on the faces of certain styles of dice cause a small bias, casinos use precision dice with flush markings. Common dice are small cubes most 1.6 cm across, whose faces are numbered from one to six by patterns of round dots called pips. Opposite sides of a modern die traditionally add up to seven, implying that the 1, 2 and 3 faces share a vertex; the faces of a die may be placed counterclockwise about this vertex. If the 1, 2 and 3 faces run counterclockwise, the die is called "right-handed", if those faces run clockwise, the die is called "left-handed". Western dice are right-handed, Chinese dice are left-handed; the pips on dice are arranged in specific patterns.
Asian style dice bear similar patterns to Western ones, but the pips are closer to the center of the face. One possible explanation is. In some older sets, the "one" pip is a colorless depression. Non-precision dice are manufactured via the plastic injection molding process; the pips or numbers on the die are a part of the mold. The coloring for numbering is achieved by submerging the die in paint, allowed to dry; the die is polished via a tumble finishing process similar to rock polishing. The abrasive agent scrapes off all of the paint except for the indents of the numbering. A finer abrasive is used to polish the die; this process creates the smoother, rounded edges on the dice. Precision casino dice may have a polished or sand finish, making them transparent or translucent res
A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story. Such stories feature entities such as dwarfs, elves, giants, goblins, mermaids, talking animals, unicorns, or witches, magic or enchantments. In most cultures, there is no clear line separating myth from fairy tale. Fairy tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends and explicit moral tales, including beast fables; the term is used for stories with origins in European tradition and, at least in recent centuries relates to children's literature. In less technical contexts, the term is used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy-tale ending" or "fairy-tale romance". Colloquially, the term "fairy tale" or "fairy story" can mean any far-fetched story or tall tale. Legends are perceived as real. However, unlike legends and epics, fairy tales do not contain more than superficial references to religion and to actual places and events. Fairy tales occur both in literary form.
Many of today's fairy tales have evolved from centuries-old stories that have appeared, with variations, in multiple cultures around the world. The history of the fairy tale is difficult to trace because only the literary forms can survive. Still, according to researchers at universities in Durham and Lisbon, such stories may date back thousands of years, some to the Bronze Age more than 6,500 years ago. Fairy tales, works derived from fairy tales, are still written today. Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various ways; the Aarne-Thompson classification system and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp are among the most notable. Other folklorists have interpreted the tales' significance, but no school has been definitively established for the meaning of the tales; some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen or "wonder tale" to refer to the genre over fairy tale, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes.
It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvellous. In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries, succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses." The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls. Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute; the term itself comes from the translation of Madame D'Aulnoy's Conte de fées, first used in her collection in 1697. Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or mythical beings should be taken as a differentiator. Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals. To select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folklore Aarne-Thompson 300-749 – in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction – to gain a clear set of tales.
His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself to tales that do not involve a quest, furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works. Were I asked, what is a fairytale? I should reply, Read Undine:, a fairytale... of all fairytales I know, I think Undine the most beautiful. As Stith Thompson points out, talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves. However, the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale when the animal is a mask on a human face, as in fables. In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves and not only other magical species but many other marvels. However, the same essay excludes tales that are considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.
Steven Swann Jones identified the presence of magic as the feature by which fairy tales can be distinguished from other sorts of folktales. Davidson and Chaudri identify "transformation" as the key feature of the genre. From a psychological point of view, Jean Chiriac argued for the necessity of the fantastic in these narratives. In terms of aesthetic values, Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, b
Mind's Eye Theatre
Mind's Eye Theatre is a live action role-playing game based on the White Wolf World of Darkness universe, sharing a theme and setting with the table-top role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade and with two revisions, Vampire: The Requiem and Mind's Eye Theater: Vampire The Masquerade. Other games or "venues" include: Werewolf: The Forsaken, Mage: The Awakening, Changeling: The Lost and more. Conflicts and skill challenges are settled in the first and current editions with a "rock-paper-scissors" system referred to as "throwing chops" or "hand jamming"; the 2005 Mind's Eye Theatre system, used a random card-draw mechanic. Every player carried a deck of ten playing cards, added a skill modifier to their draw; the game possesses many rules both for player safety. Some groups, use the game as background material, while using home-grown sets of rules for their actual game-play. In 1999 Pyramid magazine named Mind's Eye Theatre as one of the Millennium's Best Games. Editor Scott Haring said "Mind's Eye Theater was the first to take an established pen-and-paper RPG and do the translation to live-action.
And it is the most successful live-action game, too." People wishing to participate can find or create a local game, some of which are part of a larger setting run by an organization like the Camarilla/Mind's Eye Society, One World By Night, Isles of Darkness, The Garou Nation, or Underground Theater. Independent groups create their own worlds using and based on the chronicle material published by White Wolf; the books have a large number of optional rules and variations for the settings, so the style and rules of the game can vary a good deal between such games if they follow the published books. Some independent groups are regional clusters of related games in which characters can travel back and forth. Local gaming stores, Conventions and LARPing websites have information concerning games in a particular area; the Mind's Eye Society is an official worldwide fan organization of White Wolf. They have affiliate organizations across the world playing a distributed role-playing game in which thousands of players assume the roles of the World of Darkness' inhabitants.
Despite being separated by distance, many of these players have characters in the same world, or chronicle. The club was named The Camarilla, after the fictional organization of vampires in Vampire: The Masquerade; when it was announced that the Camarilla will no longer be owned and ran by White Wolf Publishing, would become a non-profit organization in 2010, the club changed its name to The Mind's Eye Society due to White Wolf's copyright on the term The Camarilla. Second Act was founded in 2016 by a number of individuals with experience from other Vampire LARP organizations, it emphasizes local storyteller control through a democratically representative Storyteller Council, with the assistance and support of national storytellers. Underground Theater is a 501 nonprofit LARPing organization connecting World of Darkness troupes in a worldwide network of games. Formed in February 2013, Underground Theater was the first LARPing organization to utilize the By Night Studios Mind's Eye Theatre Vampire: The Masquerade rulebooks.
The Hidden Parlor is a 501 nonprofit LARPing organization that utilizes By Night Studios Mind's Eye Theatre Vampire: The Masquerade rule system. The organization hosts a single, shared chronicle where characters of conflicting factions and sects have the ability to affect the global setting. Individual chapters started game play during their soft-launch period that started on October 1, 2015; the full organizational launch is January 1, 2016, which allows Storytellers to gain access to global setting information that they can integrate into their local chapter's game. The club's emphasis is on leveraging online tools to connect players while maintaining a focus on the in-person element of LARP. One World by Night, is a global independent chronicle of games set in a shared setting. OWbN is set in the Old World of Darkness, though a long history of in-character actions have altered it somewhat; the Garou Nation, is a collection of games set in a shared setting. Like OWbN, TGN is set in the Old World of Darkness, but unlike OWbN, TGN focuses on the Werewolf: The Apocalypse genre.
Isles of Darkness is an independent LARP group based in Britain, which runs most New World of Darkness games, as well as Dark Ages: Vampire, Werewolf: the Apocalypse. It hosts annual national events. Shadowplay International is an organisation of member clubs in Australia, the United States, elsewhere, which runs Chronicles of Darkness games. Mark Rein-Hagen, Ian Lemke et Mike Tinney, The Masquerade, 1993, 2nd ed. 1994 Richard E Dansky, Beth Fischi, et al. Laws of the night, 1996 Mind's Eye Theatre Core Rulebook Mind's Eye Theatre: The Requiem Mind's Eye Theatre: The Awakening Mind's Eye Theater: Vampire The Masquerade City in the Sand * Laws of the Night Laws of the Wild Oblivion Laws of the Hunt The Long Night The Shining Host Laws of the Wyld West (based on Werewolf