Jerome, West Virginia
Jerome is an uninhabited community along the old Baltimore and Ohio Railroad main line in Morgan County in the U. S. state of West Virginia. It is located within the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park on the Potomac River. Jerome is the site of a stretch of the Western Maryland Railway right-of-way from milepost 126 to milepost 160 listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Located in the "Paw Paw Bends", Jerome was considered to be one of the most inaccessible places reached by the Western Maryland Rwy. At Jerome, the train order office was in use until it was closed on September 1, 1959; when it was abandoned by the Chessie System in May 1975, the office was not torn down and is one of the few buildings that remain today in Jerome. There was an operating connection with the B&O "low line" at milepost 137 but it was removed when the B&O abandoned the low line in 1961; the community and its station on the railroad are rumored to have been named for Jérôme Bonaparte
Great Cacapon, West Virginia
Great Cacapon is a census-designated place in Morgan County in the U. S. state of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. As of the 2010 census, its population was 386. Great Cacapon takes its name from the Cacapon River which empties into the Potomac River to the town's east, it was known as Cacapon Depot on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad mainline when a post office was established here in 1848. In 1876, its name was changed to Great Cacapon to differentiate it from Little Cacapon, on the B&O mainline, it lies four miles down Cacapon Mountain from the Panorama Overlook along Cacapon Road west of Berkeley Springs. Great Cacapon on the Washington Heritage Trail
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Berkeley Springs, West Virginia
Berkeley Springs is a town in, the county seat of, Morgan County, West Virginia, United States, in the state's Eastern Panhandle. While the area was part of Virginia, the town was incorporated as Bath. Since 1802, it has been referred to by the name of its original Virginia post office, Berkeley Springs; the population of the town was 800. The town is located within MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Berkeley Springs is a sister city to Bath, England; the area contains mineral water springs that were frequented by Native Americans indigenous to the area for thousands of years. After settlement by Europeans, the mineral springs drew many visitors from urban areas. Notable colonial visitors to the area included James Rumsey. Berkeley Springs remained a popular resort area during the early years of the United States, it is the home of the Berkeley Springs International Water Tasting, the longest running and largest such event in the world. The area continues to be a popular resort area with tourism the main industry in the county and four full-service spas using the mineral water.
A historic building whose construction began in 1888, was built as a retreat for Rosa and Samuel Taylor Suit overlooking the town. It is called "Berkeley Castle". Berkeley Springs is a noted arts community with working artists accounting for 1% of the county population of 16,000. Since 1994, the town has been listed in all four editions of John Villani's "100 Best Art Towns in America". During colonial times in 1748, George Washington just 16 years old, was part of the team that surveyed the Eastern Panhandle region for Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Washington returned several times over the next several years with his half-brother, ill, in hopes that the warm springs might improve his health; the springs, their rumored medicinal benefits, attracted numerous Native Americans as well as Europeans to the area. While vacationing in the area in 1767, Washington made note of how busy the colonial town had become. Lord Fairfax had built a summer home there and a "private bath" making the area a popular destination for Virginia's social elite.
With the advent of independence, An act for establishing a town at the Warm Springs in the county of Berkeley was adopted by the Virginia General Assembly in December 1776. The town was named Bath, in honor of England's spa city of Bath. George Washington, his family members and several of the colonial elite were among the town's first landowners; the town's main north-south street was named Washington and the main east-west street was named Fairfax. Four acres were set aside for "suffering humanity." The area around the springs always was public land known as The Grove and overseen by a state-appointed group of Berkeley Springs trustees. This would become a historic park with its springs and bathhouses, made part of the West Virginia state park system in 1925. Nearby, Cacapon State Park was opened in 1933; the mountain that gives its name to the park has an elevation of 2,320 feet above sea level. Bath's population increased during and after, the Revolutionary War as wounded soldiers and others came to the area believing that the warm springs had medicinal qualities.
Bath gained a reputation as a somewhat wild town where eating, drinking and gambling on the daily horse races were the order of the day. In 1772, the springs were part of the newly formed Berkeley County, named after its colonial governor, Norborne Berkeley; the waters became known as Berkeley Springs because the existing protocol was to name springs after the colonial Virginia county in which they were located. The area had been called Warm Springs and Medicinal Springs among other names. Bath became known permanently to the world as Berkeley Springs in 1802 when the Virginia postal system was established in the new nation and there was a Bath, Virginia, in Bath County. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, in which 50 northwestern counties of Virginia decided to break away from Virginia during the American Civil War; the new state was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863. Berkeley Springs remained the conventional name used for the town, its Sister City is England.
Berkeley Springs is located at 39°37′32″N 78°13′37″W, in the Appalachian Mountains. The town lies in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia 26 miles NW of Martinsburg, West Virginia and 36 miles W of Hagerstown, Maryland. Berkeley Springs is the county seat of Morgan County. Morgan County makes up one of the western counties in the Eastern Panhandle. According to the United States Census Bureau, the incorporated town of Bath has a total area of 0.34 square miles, all land. The main road through the town is U. S. Route 522. West Virginia Route 9 runs west through the town. There are two rivers in Morgan County; the Potomac makes up the northern border and the Cacapon River cuts through the center of the county connecting with the Potomac at Great Cacapon. The Cacapon and Sleepy Creek Mountains are the two most notable mountains in the county. Berkeley Springs is nestled in the extreme northern Shenandoah Valley at an elevation of 499 feet. Warm Spring Run cuts through the center of the town and connects with the Potomac River near the Hancock Station.
Sleepy Creek connects with the Potomac along River Road east of the town. As of the census of 2010, there were 624 people, 314 households, 158 families residing in the incorporated town of Bath; the population density was 1,835.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 416 housing units at an aver
Morgan County, West Virginia
Morgan County is a county located in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,541, its county seat is Berkeley Springs. The county was formed in 1820 from parts of Hampshire and Berkeley Counties and named in honor of General Daniel Morgan, prominent soldier of the American Revolutionary War. Morgan County is the home of an important mine producing special sand for the glass industry. Morgan County was created by an act of the Virginia General Assembly in March 1820 from parts of Berkeley and Hampshire counties, it was named in honor of General Daniel Morgan. He was born in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, moved to Winchester, Virginia as a youth, he served as a wagoner in Braddock's Army during the campaign against the Native Americans in 1755. During the campaign, a British Lieutenant became angry with him and hit him with the flat of his sword. Morgan punched the Lieutenant. Morgan was sentenced to 500 lashes. Morgan joked that the drummer who counted out the lashes miscounted and he received only 499 lashes.
For the rest of his life he claimed. The first English settlers in present-day Morgan County arrived during the 1730s; because most of these early pioneers were squatters, there is no record of their names. Historians claim that the first cabin in the county was built around 1745; as word of the county's warm springs spread eastward, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron decided that the county needed to be surveyed. In 1748, George Washington just 16 years old, was part of the survey party the surveyed the Eastern Panhandle region for Lord Fairfax, he returned to Bath several times over the next several years with his half-brother, ill and hoped that the warm springs might improve his health. The springs, their rumored medicinal benefits, attracted numerous Native Americans as well as Europeans to the area; as mentioned George Washington visited present-day Berkeley Springs several times with his half-brother, Lawrence. When he vacationed in the area in 1767, he noted. Lord Fairfax had built a summer home there and a "private bath" making the area a popular destination for Virginia's social elite.
As the town continued to grow, the Virginia General Assembly decided to formally recognize it. In October 1776, the town was named Bath, in honor of England's spa city called Bath; the town's main north-south street was named Washington and the main east-west street was named Fairfax. Seven acres were set aside for "suffering humanity." When West Virginia gained statehood, that area became West Virginia's first state park. Bath's population increased during and after the American Revolutionary War as wounded soldiers and others came to the area believing that the warm springs had medicinal qualities. Bath gained a reputation as a somewhat wild town where eating, drinking and gambling on the daily horse races were the order of the day. Bath became known as Berkeley Springs because the town's post office took that name to avoid confusion with another post office, located in southeastern Virginia, called Bath; because the mail was sent to and from Berkeley Springs, that name took precedence. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 230 square miles, of which 229 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 522 West Virginia Route 9 Washington County, Maryland Berkeley County Frederick County, Virginia Hampshire County Allegany County, Maryland Potomac River Cacapon River Cherry Run Sir Johns Run Sleepy Creek Meadow Branch Warm Spring Run As of the census of 2000, there were 14,943 people, 6,145 households, 4,344 families residing in the county; the population density was 65 people per square mile. There were 8,076 housing units at an average density of 35 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.30% White, 0.60% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. 0.83% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,145 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were non-families.
24.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.84. The age distribution is 22.40% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 26.90% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,016, the median income for a family was $40,690. Males had a median income of $29,816 versus $22,307 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,109. About 8.00% of families and 10.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.60% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 17,541 people, 7,303 households, 5,015 families residing in the county; the population density was 76.6 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 9,753 housing units at an average density of 42.6 per square mile (16
Oakland, West Virginia
Oakland is an unincorporated community in Morgan County, West Virginia. It is located along south of Stotlers Crossroads. Oakland is connected to Valley Road by County Route 28. Media related to Oakland, West Virginia at Wikimedia Commons