The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Salem County, New Jersey
Salem County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. Its western boundary is formed by the Delaware River and it has the eastern terminus of the Delaware Memorial Bridge, connecting to New Castle, Delaware, its county seat is Salem. The county is part of the Delaware Valley area; as of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 62,792, making it the state's least populous county, representing a 5.0% decrease from the 66,083 enumerated at the 2010 Census, in turn increasing by 1,798 from the 64,285 counted in the 2000 Census, retaining its position as the state's least populous county. The most populous place was Pennsville Township, with 13,409 residents at the time of the 2010 Census. Lower Alloways Creek Township covers the largest total area of any municipality. European settlement began with English colonists in the seventeenth century, who were settling both sides of the Delaware River, they established a colonial court in the area in 1681, but Salem County was first formally organized within West Jersey on May 17, 1694, from the Salem Tenth.
Pittsgrove Township was transferred to Cumberland County in April 1867, but was restored to Salem County in February 1868. The area was settled by Quakers; the Old Salem County Courthouse, situated on the same block as the Salem County Courthouse, serves as the court for Salem City in the 21st century. It is the oldest active courthouse in New Jersey and is the second oldest courthouse in continuous use in the United States, the oldest being King William County Courthouse in Virginia; the courthouse was built in 1735 during the reign of King George II using locally manufactured bricks. The building was enlarged in 1817 and additionally enlarged and remodeled in 1908, its distinctive bell tower is unchanged and the original bell sits in the courtroom. Judge William Hancock of the King's Court presided at the courthouse, he was killed by the British in the American Revolutionary War during the massacre at Hancock House committed by the British against local militia during the Salem Raid in 1778.
Afterward the courthouse was the site of the "treason trials," wherein suspected Loyalists were put on trial for having aided the British during the Salem Raid. Four men were sentenced to death for treason; the courthouse is the site of the legend of Colonel Robert Gibbon Johnson's proving the edibility of the tomato. Before 1820, Americans assumed tomatoes were poisonous. In 1820, Colonel Johnson, according to legend, stood upon the courthouse steps and ate tomatoes in front of a large crowd assembled to watch him do so. Salem County is notable for its distinctive Quaker-inspired architecture and masonry styles of the 18th century, it had a agricultural economy. In the early 20th century, its towns received numerous immigrants from eastern and southern Europe, who markedly added to the population. In the period following World War II, the county's population increased due to suburban development. To accommodate increasing traffic, the Delaware Memorial Bridge was built from Salem County to New Castle, Delaware.
According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 372.33 square miles, including 331.90 square miles of land and 40.43 square miles of water. The county is bordered on the west by the Delaware River, drained by Salem River and other creeks; the terrain is uniformly flat coastal plain, with minimal relief. The highest elevation in the county has never been determined with any specificity, but is one of seven low rises in Upper Pittsgrove Township that reach 160 feet in elevation. Sea level is the lowest point; the county adjoins the following areas: Gloucester County, New Jersey - northeast Cumberland County, New Jersey - southeast Kent County, Delaware- southwest1 New Castle County, Delaware - west1across Delaware Bay. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 66,083 people, 25,290 households, 17,551.260 families residing in the county. The population density was 199.1 per square mile. There were 27,417 housing units at an average density of 82.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 79.83% White, 14.09% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.64% from other races, 2.22% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.82% of the population. There were 25,290 households out of which 29% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.9% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 29.4% from 45 to 64, 15% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.8 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.6 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 64,285 people, 24,295 households, 17,370 families
Delaware Bay is the estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the Northeast seaboard of the United States. 782 square miles in area, the bay's fresh water mixes for many miles with the salt water of the Atlantic Ocean. The bay is bordered inland by the States of New Jersey and Delaware, the Delaware Capes, Cape Henlopen and Cape May, on the Atlantic; the Delaware Bay is bordered by six counties: Sussex and New Castle in Delaware, along with Cape May and Salem in New Jersey. The Cape May–Lewes Ferry crosses the Delaware Bay from Cape May, New Jersey, to Lewes, Delaware. Management of ports along the bay is the responsibility of the Delaware Bay Authority; the shores of the bay are composed of salt marshes and mudflats, with only small communities inhabiting the shore of the lower bay. Besides the Delaware, it is fed by numerous smaller rivers and streams, including the Christina River, Appoquinimink River, Leipsic River, Smyrna River, St. Jones River, Murderkill Rivers on the Delaware side, the Salem River, Cohansey River, Maurice Rivers on the New Jersey side.
Several of the rivers hold protected status for their salt marsh wetlands bordering the bay, which serves as a breeding ground for many aquatic species, including horseshoe crabs. The bay is a prime oystering ground; the Delaware Bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on May 20, 1992. It was the first site classified in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network. At the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the early 17th century, the area around the bay was inhabited by the Native American Lenape people, they called the Delaware River "Lenape Wihittuck", which means "the rapid stream of the Lenape". The Delaware Bay was called "Poutaxat", which means "near the falls". In 1523 Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón had received from Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor a grant for the land explored in 1521 by Francisco Gordillo and slave trader Captain Pedro de Quejo. In 1525 Ayllón sent Quejo northward and received reports of the coastline from as far north as the Delaware Bay. In 1525 De Ayllon and Captain Quejo called Delaware Bay by the name Saint Christopher's Bay.
In the 1600s the bay was known as "Niew Port May" after Captain Cornelius May. Another recorded European visit to the bay was by Henry Hudson, who claimed it for the Dutch East India Company in 1609; the Dutch called the estuary "Godyns Bay", or "Godins Bay" after a director of the company, Samuel Godijn. As part of the New Netherland colony, the Dutch established several settlements on the shores of the bay and explored its coast extensively; the thin nature of the corporate colony's presence in the bay and along what was called the South River made it possible for Peter Minuit, the former director of New Netherland, to establish a competing Swedish sponsored settlement, New Sweden in 1638. The resulting dispute with the Dutch colonial authorities in New Amsterdam was settled when Petrus Stuyvesant led a Dutch military force into the area in 1655. After the English took title to the New Netherland colony in 1667 at the Treaty of Breda the bay came into their possession and was renamed, by Samuel Argall, the river Delaware, after the first Governor of Virginia Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr.
The Native American tribe living along the bay and river were called the Delaware by the Europeans due to their location. The U. S. state takes its name from the bay and the river. Conflicting crown grants were made to the James, Duke of York and William Penn on the west bank of the bay and river. Settlement grew leading Philadelphia, upriver on the Delaware, to become the largest city in North America in the 18th century. Penn viewed access to the Delaware Bay as being so critical to Pennsylvania's survival that he engaged in an eighty-year long legal boundary dispute with the Calvert family to secure it. In 1782 during the American Revolutionary War, Continental Navy Lieutenant Joshua Barney fought with a British squadron within the bay. Barney's force of three sloops defeated a Royal Navy frigate, a sloop-of-war and a Loyalist privateer; the strategic importance of the bay was noticed by the Marquis de Lafayette during the American Revolutionary War, who proposed the use of Pea Patch Island at the head of the bay for a defensive fortification to protect the important ports Philadelphia and New Castle, Delaware.
Fort Delaware was constructed on Pea Patch Island. During the American Civil War it was used as a Union prison camp. In 1855, the United States government systematically undertook the formation of a 26 ft channel 600 ft wide from Philadelphia to deep water in Delaware Bay; the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 provided for a 30-foot channel 600 feet wide from Philadelphia to the deep water of the bay. Other names for the bay have been "South Bay" and "Zuyt Baye"; the bay is one of the most important navigational channels in the United States. Its lower course forms part of the Intracoastal Waterway; the need for direct navigation around the two capes into the ocean is circumvented by the Cape May Canal and the Lewes and Rehoboth Canal at the north and south capes respectively. The upper bay is connected directly to the north end of Chesapeake Bay by the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal; the bay offers several challenges to mariners: a significant current of up to three knots, which builds a nasty chop when the wind is in opposition.
Partnership for the Delaware Estuary Lewes and Rehoboth Canal Chesapeake and Delaware Canal B
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Cumberland County, New Jersey
Cumberland County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 152,538, making it the state's 16th-largest county, representing a 2.8% decrease from the 156,898 enumerated at the 2010 United States Census, in turn increasing by 10,460 from the 146,438 counted in the 2000 Census, retaining its position as the state's 16th-most populous county. Its county seat is Bridgeton. Cumberland County is named for Duke of Cumberland; the county was formally created from portions of Salem County as of January 19, 1748. This county is part of the Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Delaware Valley Combined Statistical Area. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 677.62 square miles, including 483.70 square miles of land and 193.92 square miles of water. Cumberland is a low-lying featureless coastal county, with many salt marshes near the Delaware Bay; the highest elevation is at one of 12 areas in Upper Deerfield Township that stand 140 feet above sea level.
Gloucester County, New Jersey – north Atlantic County, New Jersey – northeast Cape May County, New Jersey – southeast Kent County, Delaware – southwest1 Salem County, New Jersey – northwest1across Delaware Bay. The population density was 324.4 per square mile. There were 55,834 housing units at an average density of 115.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.74% White, 20.23% Black or African American, 1.11% Native American, 1.22% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 11.15% from other races, 3.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.06% of the population. There were 51,931 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 18.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were non-families. 24% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.26.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.5 years. For every 100 females there were 106.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 106.9 males. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 146,438 people, 49,143 households, 35,186 families residing in the county; the population density was 299 people per square mile. There were 52,863 housing units at an average density of 108 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 65.88% White, 20.20% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 9.08% from other races, 2.85% from two or more races. 19.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among those residents listing their ancestry, 15.6% of residents were of Italian, 12.1% German, 10.7% Irish and 8.4% English ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 49,143 households out of which 34.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.70% were married couples living together, 17.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.40% were non-families.
23.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 31.20% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 104.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,150, the median income for a family was $45,403. Males had a median income of $35,387 versus $25,393 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,376. About 11.3% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.1% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over. Cumberland County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders consisting of seven members; each Freeholder is assigned responsibility for one of the County's departments.
These individuals are elected at large by the citizens of Cumberland County in partisan elections and serve staggered three-year terms in office, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. In 2016, freeholders were paid $15,000 and the freeholder director was paid an annual salary of $16,000; as of 2018, members of the Cumberland County Board of Chosen Freeholders are: Freeholder Director Joseph Derella Jr. Deputy Freeholder Director Darlene R. Barber George Castellini Carol Musso James F. Quinn Joseph V. Sparacio Jack Surrency Then-Freeholder Director Bill Whelan, whose term was to run to December 2014, announced in July 2013 that he was resigning from office; that month, Joe Derella was chosen to replace Whelan as
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –