Lyuben Berov was a Bulgarian economist. He served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria in the 80th Government from 30 December 1992 to 17 October 1994. List of foreign ministers in 1993 Foreign relations of Bulgaria List of Bulgarians History of Bulgaria since 1989
Ministry of Finance (Bulgaria)
The Ministry of Finance of Bulgaria was established in 1879 in accordance with the Tarnovo Constitution. The Ministry is responsible for formulating and implementing the budget and the fiscal and financial policy of Bulgaria; as of August 2017, the Finance Minister of Bulgaria is Vladislav Goranov. Audit of EU Funds Executive Agency Bulgarian Development Bank Customs Agency National Revenue Agency National Compensation Housing Fund Public Finance Inspection Agency State Commission on Gambling Economy of Bulgaria List of Bulgarian finance ministers Official website of the Ministry of Finance of Bulgaria in English
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l
An economist is a practitioner in the social science discipline of economics. The individual may study and apply theories and concepts from economics and write about economic policy. Within this field there are many sub-fields, ranging from the broad philosophical theories to the focused study of minutiae within specific markets, macroeconomic analysis, microeconomic analysis or financial statement analysis, involving analytical methods and tools such as econometrics, economics computational models, financial economics, mathematical finance and mathematical economics; the professionalization of economics, reflected in academia, has been described as "the main change in economics since around 1900." Economists debate the path. It is a debate between a scholastic orientation, focused on mathematical techniques, a public discourse orientation, more focused on communicating to lay people pertinent economic principles as they relate to public policy. Surveys among economists indicate a preference for a shift toward the latter.
Most major universities have an economics faculty, school or department, where academic degrees are awarded in economics. Getting a PhD in economics takes six years, on average, with a median of 5.3 years. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, established by Sveriges Riksbank in 1968, is a prize awarded to economists each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics; the prize winners are announced in October every year. They receive their awards on the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death. Economists work in many fields including academia, government and in the private sector, where they may "...study data and statistics in order to spot trends in economic activity, economic confidence levels, consumer attitudes. They assess this information using advanced methods in statistical analysis, computer programming they make recommendations about ways to improve the efficiency of a system or take advantage of trends as they begin."In contrast to regulated professions such as engineering, law or medicine, there is not a required educational requirement or license for economists.
In academia, to be called an economist requires a Ph. D. degree in Economics. In the US government, on the other hand, a person can be hired as an economist provided that they have a degree that included or was supplemented by 21 semester hours in economics and three hours in statistics, accounting, or calculus. A professional working inside of one of many fields of economics or having an academic degree in this subject is considered to be an economist. In addition to government and academia, economists are employed in banking, accountancy, marketing, business administration and non- or not-for profit organizations. Politicians consult economists before enacting economic policy. Many statesmen have academic degrees in economics. Economics graduates are employable in varying degrees depending on the regional economic scenario and labour market conditions at the time for a given country. Apart from the specific understanding of the subject, employers value the skills of numeracy and analysis, the ability to communicate and the capacity to grasp broad issues which the graduates acquire at the university or college.
Whilst only a few economics graduates may be expected to become professional economists, many find it a base for entry into a career in finance – including accounting, insurance and banking, or management. A number of economics graduates from around the world have been successful in obtaining employment in a variety of major national and international firms in the financial and commercial sectors, in manufacturing, retailing and IT, as well as in the public sector – for example, in the health and education sectors, or in government and politics. Small numbers go on to undertake postgraduate studies, either in economics, teacher training or further qualifications in specialist areas. In Brazil, unlike most countries in the world where the profession is not regulated, the profession of Economist is regulated by Law. 1411 of August 13, 1951. The professional designation of economist, according to the said law, is exclusive to the bachelors in economics graduates in Brazil. According to the United States Department of Labor, there were about 15,000 non-academic economists in the United States in 2008, with a median salary of $83,000 the top ten percent earning more than $147,040 annually.
Nearly 135 colleges and universities grant around 900 new Ph. D.s every year. Incomes are highest for those in the private sector, followed by the federal government, with academia paying the lowest incomes; as of January 2013, PayScale.com showed Ph. D. economists' salary ranges as follows: all Ph. D. economists, $61,000 to $160,000. D. corporate economists, $71,000 to $207,000. The largest single professional grouping of economists in the UK are the more than 1000 members of the Government Economic Service, who work in 30 government departments and agencies. Analysis of destination surveys for economics graduates from a number of selected top schools of economics in the United Kingdom, shows nearly 80 percent in employment six months after graduation – with a wide range of roles and employers, including regional and international organisations, across many sectors; this figure compares favourably with the national picture, with 64 percent of economics graduates in employment. Some current we
University of National and World Economy
The University of National and World Economy is a university in Sofia, Bulgaria. Notable alumni of the university are five Prime Ministers of Bulgaria – Reneta Indzhova, Stefan Sofiyanski, Ivan Kostov, Marin Raykov and Plamen Oresharski. UNWE was founded in 1920 as the Free University of Political and Economic Sciences by Stefan Bobchev and the Russian emigre Peter Bogaevsky with ordinance of the Minister of Public Education. In 1940 FUPES was transformed into the State Higher Education School of Finance and Administrative Sciences and in 1947 SHESFA was transformed into a Faculty of Economic and Social Sciences at Sofia University; the autonomy of the higher school was regained during Communist period in Bulgaria in 1952 under the name Higher Institute of Economics. In 1953 the institute was named after Karl Marx. After the democratic changes in Bulgaria, the Academic Board passed a resolution renaming the Karl Marx Higher Institute of Economics into the University of National and World Economy.
This was done with an act of the National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria on the establishment and transformation of higher educational institutions. Prof. Statty Stattev is the current rector of the university, elected in December 2011. UNWE is a leading and coordinating university for Bulgaria in the Central European Initiative for university networking. Development of programmes providing mobility for students and academic staff is in its initial stage. Application for funded joint education is done on the basis of established contacts with universities from CEI member states whenever students and academic staff are in another foreign university. University of National and World Economy is the eldest, the most prestigious and the largest University of Economics in Southeast Europe, a leader in Bulgarian higher education. In 2006 UNWE was given the highest institutional evaluation among all Bulgarian universities by the National Agency for Assessment and Accreditation, in 2007 the professional field of Economics and in 2008 the professional fields of Administration and Management received the highest estimate, given so far in Bulgaria.
UNWE is the first in the rankings of foreign universities with economic concentration. The University took the 1st place in Bulgaria, 28th place in Europe and 64th in the world ranking of business universities worldwide worked out from the Supreme consortium of 126 research centers and institutes under the Ministry of Education of Spain; the Consortium is the largest research organization, which makes global ranking of the universities from all over the world. University of National and World Economy is the absolute leader among students in the professional fields of Economics and Management. By this criteria, according to the ranking system of the Ministry of Education and Science and the Open Society Institute, UNWE is № 1. Ranked by its social insurance income and by the number of registered unemployed UNWE again occupies the top positions: the professional field of Informatics and Computer Science is at the 8th place followed by the professional field of Economics 0.00% graduates of the professional field of Tourism have registered as unemployed.
"Administration and Management", "Law" and "Political Science" at UNWE are the other professional fields at the forefront. It means that all of the six professional fields of education at UNWE are at the first positions in the rankings, it is the rating of 112 professional fields of higher education institutes in our country which give the students the opportunity to achieve the highest level of material well-being. Traditionally, the highest number of applicants as well as a record number of A students study at UNWE in comparison to other universities in the country. For admission at the university since 2007 there is a unified exam similar to the SAT test and since 2008 it is under the professional fields; the University ranks first in Bulgaria by the realization of its graduates and the majority of them hold favorable positions in the labor market. State and private employers adopt UNWE as a synonymous with excellent training and professionalism of its graduates, it is not a coincidence that UNWE is known as Bulgarian Harvard – the university where state and business elite of Bulgaria is trained.
Only in the recent few years among its graduates there are four prime ministers, vice prime ministers, ministers, a president of the National Assembly, many deputies, a President of the National Audit Office, a chief prosecutor, a lot of bankers and many others. Under regular and distance form of education are trained more than 20,000 students at UNWE. There are 39 majors for bachelor's degree as well as over 40 graduate programs; the University has been awarded the Certificate of quality in education according to ISO 9001:2000. UNWE is the coordinating university for Bulgaria in the Central European initiative for inter-university relationships and it is in collaboration with over 100 universities of US, Europe and Asia; the implemented credit system allows foreign students at UNWE to earn credits at the University, as well as current students at UNWE to gra
Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria. The city is at the foot of Vitosha Mountain in the western part of the country. Being in the centre of the Balkan peninsula, it is midway between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea, closest to the Aegean Sea. Sofia has been an area of human habitation since at least 7000 BC; the recorded history of Sofia begins with the attestation of the conquest of Serdica by the Roman Republic in 29 BC from the Celtic tribe Serdi, raided by Huns in 343-347 AD and 447 AD, conquered by Visigoths in 376-382 AD, conquered by Avars and Slavs in 617 AD, on 9th April, 809 Serdica was surrendered to Krum of Bulgaria. In 1018, the Byzantines ended Bulgarian rule; the town was conquered by the Pechenegs in 1048 and 1078, by the Magyars and Serbs in 1183, by the Crusaders in 1095 and 1190. The rule of the Second Bulgarian Empire lasted from 1194 until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1382.. From 1520 to 1836, Sofia was the regional capital of Rumelia Eyalet, the Ottoman Empire's key province in Europe.
Bulgarian rule was restored in 1878. During World War II Sofia was bombarded by the UK and US Air Forces and at the end of the war, it was seized by the Soviet Army. Being Bulgaria's primate city, Sofia is a hometown of many of the major local universities, cultural institutions and commercial companies. Sofia is one of the top 10 best places for start-up businesses in the world in information technologies, according to Bulgarian National Television. Sofia was Europe's most affordable capital to visit in 2013; the population of Sofia declined down from 70,000 in the late 18th century, through 19,000 in 1870, to 11,649 in 1878 and began increasing. Sofia hosts some 1.23 million residents within a territory of 492 km2, a concentration of 17.5% of the country population within the 200th percentile of the country territory. The urban area of Sofia hosts some 1.54 million residents within 5723 km², which comprises Sofia City Province and parts of Sofia Province and Pernik Province, representing 5.16% of the country territory.
The metropolitan area of Sofia is based upon one hour of car travel time, stretches internationally and includes Dimitrovgrad in Serbia. Unlike most European metropolitan areas, it is not to be defined as a functional metropolitan area, but is of the type with "limited variety of functions"; the metropolitan region of Sofia is inhabited by a population of 1.68 million and is made up of the whole provinces Sofia City and Pernik, comprising more than 10,000 km². For the longest time the city possessed a Thracian name, derived from the tribe Serdi, who were either of Thracian, Celtic, or mixed Thracian-Celtic origin; the emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus gave the city the combinative name of Ulpia Serdica. It seems that the first written mention of Serdica was made during his reign and the last mention was in the 19th century in a Bulgarian text. Other names given to Sofia, such as Serdonpolis and Triaditza, were mentioned by Byzantine Greek sources or coins; the Slavic name Sredets, related to "middle" and to the city's earliest name, first appeared on paper in an 11th-century text.
The city was called Atralisa by the Arab traveller Idrisi and Strelisa, Stralitsa or Stralitsion by the Crusaders. The name Sofia comes from the Saint Sofia Church, as opposed to the prevailing Slavic origin of Bulgarian cities and towns; the origin is in the Greek word sophia "wisdom", which may derive from the Egyptian word sbÅ "teach, learn or wise" provided b oftentimes turns into ph in Egyptian to Greek translations. The earliest works where this latest name is registered are the duplicate of the Gospel of Serdica, in a dialogue between two salesmen from Dubrovnik around 1359, in the 14th-century Vitosha Charter of Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman and in a Ragusan merchant's notes of 1376. In these documents the city is called Sofia, but at the same time the region and the city's inhabitants are still called Sredecheski, which continued until the 20th century; the city became somehow popular to the Ottomans by the name Sofya. In 1879 there was a dispute about what the name of the new Bulgarian capital should be, when the citizens created a committee of famous people, insisting for the Slavic name.
A compromise arose, officialisation of Sofia for the nationwide institutions, while legitimating the title Sredets for the administrative and church institutions, before the latter was abandoned through the years. The city's name is pronounced by Bulgarians with a stress on the'o', in contrast with the tendency of foreigners to place the stress on'i'; the female given name "Sofia" is pronounced by Bulgarians with a stress on the'i'. Sofia City Province has an area of 1344 km2. Sofia's development as a significant settlement owes much to its central position in the Balkans, it is situated in western Bulgaria, at the northern foot of the Vitosha mountain, in the Sofia Valley, surrounded by the Balkan mountains to the north. The valley has an average altitude of 550 metres. Unlike most European capitals, Sofia does not have any large rivers or bridges, but is surrounded by comparatively high mountains on all sides. Three mountain passes lead to the city, which have been key roads since antiquity, Vitosha being the watershed between Black and Aegean Seas.
A number of l
Bulgarian Socialist Party
The Bulgarian Socialist Party, known as the Centenarian, is a social-democratic political party in Bulgaria and the successor to the Bulgarian Communist Party. It is a member of the Party of European Socialists with a pro-EU stance, although it has taken some eurosceptic positions and called for an end to EU sanctions against Russia. BSP is a member of the Socialist International, it is Bulgaria's largest political party by membership. The Bulgarian Socialist Party is recognized as the successor of the Bulgarian Social Democratic Workers' Party created on 2 August 1891 on Buzludzha peak by Dimitar Blagoev, designated in 1903 as the Bulgarian Social Democratic Workers' Party and as the Bulgarian Communist Party; the party was formed after the political changes of 1989, when the Communist Party abandoned Marxism–Leninism and refounded itself as the "Bulgarian Socialist Party" in April 1990. The party formed a government after the Constitutional Assembly elections of 1990, but was forced to resign after a general strike that December.
A non-partisan government led by Dimitar Popov took over until the next elections in October 1991. In the aftermath the party was confined to opposition; as part of the Democratic Left coalition, it helped form a new government in 1995, headed by BSP leader Zhan Videnov as Prime Minister. Its term ended at the end of 1996, after the country entered into a spiral of hyperinflation, the most serious economic and financial crisis in its recent history. Large-scale demonstrations in the cities and a general strike prevented the formation of a new socialist government. In 2001, party chairman Georgi Parvanov was elected President of Bulgaria on the second round, defeating incumbent SDS candidate on the second ballot. Parvanov was succeeded by Sergei Stanishev. After two full terms out of power, the BSP and its allies in the Coalition for Bulgaria won the national elections of 2005 with 31.0% of the vote and formed a coalition government with the centrist party National Movement Simeon II and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms.
The cabinet was headed by BSP chairman Sergei Stanishev. In 2006, Georgi Parvanov was reelected president in a landslide, becoming the first Bulgarian president to be reelected directly by the public. In 2007, Bulgaria joined the European Union; the triple-coalition lost millions of Euros of European financial aid in the wake of allegations of widespread political corruption. The cabinet was unable to react to the encroaching world economic crisis and its term ended with a budget deficit after several successive surplus years. In the 2009 parliamentary elections, the BSP was defeated by the new conservative party GERB, obtaining 37 out of 240 parliamentary seats, went into opposition. In the 2013 parliamentary elections the party took 26.6% of the votes, second behind GERB with 30.5%. The party's candidate for prime minister, Plamen Oresharski, his proposed government were elected with the parliament support of the BSP and the DPS; the appointment of the controversial media mogul Delyan Peevski as head of the state security agency DANS, sparked large-scale protests on 14 June.
Demonstrations urging the government to step down continued until the government resigned in July of the following year. The party is the largest in Bulgaria by number of members, as of 2016 having 105,000 members, down from 130,000 in 2013, 150,000 in 2012, 210,000 in 2009, 250,000 in 1996 and around 1 million members during late Communist rule; the following is a summary of BSP's results in legislative elections for the Bulgarian National Assembly. Official website