York County, Maine
York County is the southwesternmost county in the U. S. state of Maine, along the state of New Hampshire's eastern border. It is divided from Strafford County, New Hampshire by the Salmon Falls River, the connected tidal estuary—the Piscataqua River. Permanently re-founded in 1639, it held several of the oldest colonial settlements in Maine; as of the 2010 census, the population was 197,131. Its county seat is Alfred. York County is part of the Portland -- ME Metropolitan Statistical Area; the first patent establishing the Province of Maine was granted on August 10, 1622, to Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason by the Plymouth Council for New England, which itself had been granted a royal patent by James I to the coast of North America between the 40th and the 48th parallels "from sea to sea". This first patent encompassed the coast between the Merrimack and Kennebec rivers, as well as an irregular parcel of land between the headwaters of the two rivers. In 1629, Gorges and Mason agreed to split the patent at the Piscataqua River, with Mason retaining the land south of the river as the Province of New Hampshire.
Gorges named his more northerly piece of territory New Somersetshire. This venture failed, because of lack of funds and colonial settlement. Failed was a venture by Capt. Christopher Levett, an agent for Gorges and a member of the Council for New England. With the King's blessing, Levett embarked on a scheme to found a colony on the site of present-day Portland. Levett was granted 6,000 acres of the first Englishman to own the soil of Portland. There he proposed to found a settlement name York after the city of his birth in England; the project was abandoned, the men Levett left behind disappeared, Levett died aboard ship on his return to England from the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. One part of Levett's scheme did; the now-decommissioned Fort Levett on Cushing Island in Casco Bay is named for Capt. Levett. In 1639, Gorges obtained a renewed patent, the Gorges Patent, for the area between the Piscataqua and Kennebec Rivers, in the form of a royal charter from Charles I of England; the area was the same as that covered in the 1622 patent after the 1629 split with Mason.
The second colony foundered for lack of money and settlers, although it survived the death of Gorges in 1647. In the 1650s the nearby Massachusetts Bay Colony asserted territorial claims over what is now southern Maine, by 1658 had absorbed what is now southwestern Maine into York County, Massachusetts; the first known and recorded offer for a purchase of land in York County is in 1668, when Francis Small traded goods with the Newichewannock tribe of this area. Their Chief Wesumbe known as Captain Sandy, was friendly with Small and warned him of a plot against his life. A group of renegade tribesmen planned on murdering Small instead of paying him with the furs that were owed to him. Small escaped after watching his house in what is now Cornish, burn to the ground. Small rebuilt; the Chief made up the loss by selling Small all the lands bounded by the Great and Little Ossipee Rivers, the Saco River, the New Hampshire border. Known now as the five Ossipee towns, the tract included all of Limington, Cornish and Parsonsfield.
The large size of the county led to its division in 1760, with Cumberland and Lincoln counties carved out of its eastern portions. When Massachusetts adopted its state government in 1780, it created the District of Maine to manage its eastern territories. In 1805 the northern portion of York County was separated to form part of Oxford County; when Maine achieved statehood in 1820 all of the counties of the District of Maine became counties of Maine. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,270 square miles, of which 991 square miles is land and 279 square miles is water. Oxford County – north Cumberland County – northeast Rockingham County, New Hampshire – southwest Strafford County, New Hampshire – west Carroll County, New Hampshire – northwest Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge At the 2000 census, there were 186,742 people, 74,563 households and 50,851 families residing in the county; the population density was 188 per square mile. There were 94,234 housing units at an average density of 95 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 97.56% White, 0.42% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races. 0.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The most cited ethnicities were English, French Canadian, United States or American and Italian. 90.84 % of the population spoke 6.92 % spoke French as their first language. There were 74,563 households of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.00% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families. 24.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.96. Age distribution was 24.80% under the age of 18, 6.90% from 18 to 24, 30.00% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, 13.60% who were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females, there were 94.50 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males. The median age was 38 years; the median household income was
Sir John Wentworth, 1st Baronet
Sir John Wentworth, 1st Baronet was the British colonial governor of New Hampshire at the time of the American Revolution. He was also Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia, he is buried in the crypt of St. Paul's Church. Wentworth was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire on August 9, 1737, his ancestry went back to some of the earliest settlers of the Province of New Hampshire, he was grandson of John Wentworth, who served as the province's lieutenant governor in the 1720s, a nephew to Governor Benning Wentworth, a descendant of "Elder" William Wentworth. His father Mark was a major landowner and merchant in the province, his mother, Elizabeth Rindge Wentworth, was from the upper echelons of New Hampshire society. In 1751 he enrolled in Harvard College, receiving a BA in 1755 and an MA in 1758. During his time at Harvard, he was a classmate and became a close friend of future Founding Father and President of the United States John Adams. In 1759 the young Wentworth made his first significant investment, joining a partnership in the purchase and development of land in the Lake Winnipesaukee area.
Wentworth sat on a committee of partners that oversaw the settlement of the community, which the investors named Wolfeboro. In 1763 his father sent him to London to act on behalf of his merchant interests. Based on his father's introductions, he was soon mingling with the upper levels of British society. Among the connections he made was one with the Marquess of Rockingham, a distant relative and a leading Whig politician. In 1765 Wentworth, still in London, was appointed by the province as one of its agents; that same year Rockingham led the repeal of the hated Stamp Act. Whether Wentworth influenced Rockingham's decision is uncertain, but New Hampshire's other agent, Barlow Trecothick, drafted with Rockingham a position paper on the matter, Wentworth was sympathetic to colonial opposition to the Stamp Act. Wentworth's uncle Benning had spent many years of his governorship lining his pockets by selling land grants to the west of the Connecticut River, territory to which the province held dubious claim.
In 1764 the Lords of Trade ruled that New Hampshire's western border was at the Connecticut River, decisively awarding the territory to the Province of New York. The governor, refused to resign, leading the Lords of Trade to consider his recall. Wentworth interceded, convinced them to allow his uncle the dignity of resigning in his nephew's favor. In August 1766 he was commissioned as Governor and vice admiral of New Hampshire, Surveyor General of the King's Woods in North America. Before he returned to North America he was awarded a Doctorate of Common Law by Oxford University. After a difficult crossing he arrived at Charleston, South Carolina in March 1767, where he proceeded to make the first major survey of the forests of Georgia and the Carolinas on behalf of the crown, he made his way north overland, was received in Portsmouth with pomp and ceremony on June 13, 1767. Under Wentworth's administration the growing province was divided into five counties to distribute administration and judicial functions to communities remote from Portsmouth.
Wentworth was responsible for naming them, choosing names of current British leaders, but named Strafford County after one of his distant relatives, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford. He began the process of developing roads between the major population centers of the province, which had grown around the coast and the Merrimack and Connecticut Rivers. Although the provincial assembly was reluctant to fund new roads, Wentworth used quitrents collected on issued land grants to pay for the work. In 1771 he reported having constructed more than 200 miles of roads at a cost of £500; the same year he convinced the assembly to appropriate £100 for surveyor Samuel Holland to produce the first detailed high quality map of the province. Wentworth was responsible for significant improvements to the provincial militia organization; when he arrived the militia consisted of about 10,000 men, who were by his report "badly accoutred and scarcely at all disciplined". He expanded the militia, adding 1,600 men and three regiments to the force, attended regimental reviews.
Although Wentworth was successful in keeping New Hampshire from implementing harsh boycotts in response to the Townshend Acts, he was troubled by both colonial resistance to Parliamentary acts and by the introduction of troops into Boston in 1768. He wrote to Rockingham that the troop movement was to be problematic, that government and other reforms were more to succeed. New Hampshire businessmen were pressured into adopting a boycott of British goods when Massachusetts businessmen threatened to suspend trade with them. After the Boston Tea Party in late 1773 further inflamed tensions in New England, Wentworth defused the threat of similar action in Portsmouth. After issuing careful instructions to the master of a ship arriving with a consignment of tea, Wentworth departed Portsmouth for Dover. During his absence the tea was stored in the Portsmouth customs house; this removed the possibility of the tea being dumped as it had been in Boston, but the townspeople were still opposed to its presence.
A committee of Portsmouth merchants negotiated its safe passage to Halifax, Nova Scotia, the tea was safely transported through the town and reembarked on a ship. Wentworth's popularity in the province began to fall as tensions continued to rise in neighboring Massachusetts; when the Boston port was closed as punishment for the Tea Party, Massachusetts
Rhode Island the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest state in area, the seventh least populous, the second most densely populated, it has the longest official name of any state. Rhode Island is bordered by Connecticut to the west, Massachusetts to the north and east, the Atlantic Ocean to the south via Rhode Island Sound and Block Island Sound, it shares a small maritime border with New York. Providence is most populous city in Rhode Island. On May 4, 1776, the Colony of Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown, it was the fourth among the newly independent states to ratify the Articles of Confederation on February 9, 1778; the state boycotted the 1787 convention which drew up the United States Constitution and refused to ratify it. Rhode Island's official nickname is "The Ocean State", a reference to the large bays and inlets that amount to about 14 percent of its total area.
Despite its name, most of Rhode Island is located on the mainland of the United States. Its official name is State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, derived from the merger of four Colonial settlements; the settlements of Newport and Portsmouth were situated on what is called Aquidneck Island today, but it was called Rhode Island in Colonial times. Providence Plantation was the name of the colony founded by Roger Williams in the area now known as the city of Providence; this was adjoined by the settlement of Warwick. It is unclear how the island came to be named Rhode Island, but two historical events may have been of influence: Explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano noted the presence of an island near the mouth of Narragansett Bay in 1524 which he likened to the island of Rhodes. Subsequent European explorers were unable to identify the island that Verrazzano had named, but the Pilgrims who colonized the area assumed that it was this island. Adriaen Block passed by the island during his expeditions in the 1610s, he described it in a 1625 account of his travels as "an island of reddish appearance,", "een rodlich Eylande" in 17th-century Dutch, one popular notion is that this Dutch phrase might have influenced the name Rhode Island.
The earliest documented use of the name "Rhode Island" for Aquidneck was in 1637 by Roger Williams. The name was applied to the island in 1644 with these words: "Aquethneck shall be henceforth called the Isle of Rodes or Rhode-Island." The name "Isle of Rodes" is used in a legal document as late as 1646. Dutch maps as early as 1659 call the island "Red Island". Roger Williams was a theologian, forced out of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, seeking religious and political tolerance, he and others founded Providence Plantation as a free proprietary colony. "Providence" referred to the concept of divine providence, "plantation" was an English term for a colony. "State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations" is the longest official name of any state in the Union. In recent years, the word plantation in the state's name became a contested issue, the Rhode Island General Assembly voted on June 25, 2009 to hold a general referendum determining whether "and Providence Plantations" would be dropped from the official name.
Advocates for excising plantation claimed that the word symbolized an alleged legacy of disenfranchisement for many Rhode Islanders, as well as the proliferation of slavery in the colonies and in the post-colonial United States. Rhode Island abolished slavery in 1652, but the law was not enforced and, by the early 18th century, it was "the epicenter of the North American slave trade", according to the Brown Daily Herald. Advocates for retaining the name argued that plantation was an archaic synonym for colony and bore no relation to slavery; the referendum election was held on November 2, 2010, the people voted overwhelmingly to retain the entire original name. In 1636, Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious views, he settled at the top of Narragansett Bay on land sold or given to him by Narragansett sachem Canonicus, he named the site Providence Plantations, "having a sense of God's merciful providence unto me in my distress", it became a place of religious freedom where all were welcome.
In 1638, Anne Hutchinson, William Coddington, John Clarke, Philip Sherman, other religious dissenters settled on Aquidneck Island, purchased from the local tribes who called it Pocasset. This settlement was governed by the Portsmouth Compact; the southern part of the island became the separate settlement of Newport after disagreements among the founders. Samuel Gorton purchased lands at Shawomet in 1642 from the Narragansetts, precipitating a dispute with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1644, Providence and Newport united for their common independence as the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, governed by an elected council and "president". Gorton received a separate charter for his settlement in 1648 which he named Warwick after his patron. Brown University was founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it was one of nine Colonial colleges granted charters before the American Revolution, but was the first college in America to accept students regardless of religious affilia
A tidal river is a river whose flow and level are influenced by tides. A section of a larger river affected by the tides is a tidal reach, although it may sometimes be considered a tidal river if it has been given a separate name; the Brisbane River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean from the east coast of Australia, is a tidal river. Tidal rivers are short rivers with low discharge rates but high overall discharge. In some cases, high tides impound downstream flowing freshwater, reversing the flow and increasing the water level of the lower section of river, forming large estuaries. High tides can be noticed as far as 100 kilometres upstream. Oregon's Coquille River is one such stream. Estuary Ria tidal reach tidal bore
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude, is not adjusted for daylight saving time. In some countries where English is spoken, the term Greenwich Mean Time is used as a synonym for UTC and predates UTC by nearly 300 years; the first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960 and was first adopted as CCIR Recommendation 374, Standard-Frequency and Time-Signal Emissions, in 1963, but the official abbreviation of UTC and the official English name of Coordinated Universal Time were not adopted until 1967. The system has been adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time" before a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972; this change adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments. This CCIR Recommendation 460 "stated that carrier frequencies and time intervals should be maintained constant and should correspond to the definition of the SI second.
A decision whether to remove them altogether has been deferred until 2023. The current version of UTC is defined by International Telecommunications Union Recommendation, Standard-frequency and time-signal emissions, is based on International Atomic Time with leap seconds added at irregular intervals to compensate for the slowing of the Earth's rotation. Leap seconds are inserted as necessary to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds of the UT1 variant of universal time. See the "Current number of leap seconds" section for the number of leap seconds inserted to date; the official abbreviation for Coordinated Universal Time is UTC. This abbreviation arose from a desire by the International Telecommunication Union and the International Astronomical Union to use the same abbreviation in all languages. English speakers proposed CUT, while French speakers proposed TUC; the compromise that emerged was UTC, which conforms to the pattern for the abbreviations of the variants of Universal Time. Time zones around the world are expressed using positive or negative offsets from UTC, as in the list of time zones by UTC offset.
The westernmost time zone uses UTC−12, being twelve hours behind UTC. In 1995, the island nation of Kiribati moved those of its atolls in the Line Islands from UTC−10 to UTC+14 so that Kiribati would all be on the same day. UTC is used in many World Wide Web standards; the Network Time Protocol, designed to synchronise the clocks of computers over the Internet, transmits time information from the UTC system. If only milliseconds precision is needed, clients can obtain the current UTC from a number of official internet UTC servers. For sub-microsecond precision, clients can obtain the time from satellite signals. UTC is the time standard used in aviation, e.g. for flight plans and air traffic control clearances. Weather forecasts and maps all use UTC to avoid confusion about daylight saving time; the International Space Station uses UTC as a time standard. Amateur radio operators schedule their radio contacts in UTC, because transmissions on some frequencies can be picked up in many time zones. UTC is used in digital tachographs used on large goods vehicles under EU and AETR rules.
UTC divides time into days, hours and seconds. Days are conventionally identified using the Gregorian calendar, but Julian day numbers can be used; each day contains each hour contains 60 minutes. The number of seconds in a minute is 60, but with an occasional leap second, it may be 61 or 59 instead. Thus, in the UTC time scale, the second and all smaller time units are of constant duration, but the minute and all larger time units are of variable duration. Decisions to introduce a leap second are announced at least six months in advance in "Bulletin C" produced by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service; the leap seconds cannot be predicted far in advance due to the unpredictable rate of rotation of the Earth. Nearly all UTC days contain 86,400 SI seconds with 60 seconds in each minute. However, because the mean solar day is longer than 86,400 SI seconds the last minute of a UTC day is adjusted to have 61 seconds; the extra second is called a leap second. It accounts for the grand total of the extra length of all the mean solar days since the previous leap second.
The last minute of a UTC day is permitted to contain 59 seconds to cover the remote possibility of the Earth rotating faster, but that has not yet been necessary. The irregular day lengths mean that fractional Julian days do not work properly with UTC. Since 1972, UTC is calculated by subtracting the accumulated leap seconds from International Atomic Time, a coordinate time scale tracking notional proper time on the rotating surface of the Earth. In order to maintain a close approximation to UT1, UTC has discontinuities where it changes from one linear function of TAI to another; these discontinuities take the form of leap seconds implemented by a UTC day of irregular length. Discont