A scale ruler is a tool for measuring distances and transferring measurements at a fixed ratio of length. An architect's scale is a specialized ruler designed to facilitate the drafting and measuring of architectural drawings, such as floor plans and orthographic projections. In scientific and engineering terminology, a device to measure linear distance and create proportional linear measurements is called a scale. A device for drawing straight lines is ruler. In common usage both are referred to as a ruler; because the scale of such drawings are smaller than life-size, an architect's scale features multiple units of length and proportional length increments. For accuracy and longevity, the material used should be dimensionally durable. Scales were traditionally made of wood, but today they are made of rigid plastic or aluminium. Architect's scales may be flat, with 4 scales, or have a symmetric 3-lobed cross-section, with 6 scales. In the United States, prior to metrification in Britain and Australia, architect's scales are/were marked as a ratio of x inches-to-the-foot.
For example, one inch measured from a drawing with a scale of "one-inch-to-the-foot" is equivalent to one foot in the real world whereas one inch measured from a drawing with a scale of "two-inches-to-the-foot" is equivalent to six inches in the real world. It is not to be confused with a true unitless ratio. A 1:5 architectural scale would be a 1:60 unitless scale. Typical scales used in the United States are: Full scale, with inches divided into sixteenths of an inchThe following scales are grouped in pairs using the same dual-numbered index line: three-inches-to-the-foot /one-and-one-half-inch-to-the-foot one-inch-to-the-foot /one-half-inch-to-the-foot three-quarters-inch-to-the-foot /three-eighths-inch-to-the-foot one-quarter-inch-to-the-foot /one-eighth-inch-to-the-foot three-sixteenths-inch-to-the-foot /three-thirty-seconds-inch-to-the-foot Architect's scale rulers used in Britain and other metric countries are marked with ratios without reference to a base unit. Therefore, a drawing will indicate both the unit of measurement being used.
In Britain, elsewhere, the standard units used on architectural drawings are the units millimetres and metres, whereas in France centimetres and metres are most used. In Britain, for flat rulers, the paired scales found on architect's scales are: For triangular rulers, the paired scales are: Less common scales are: 1:25/1:250 1:331⁄3 2:1 An engineer's scale is a tool for measuring distances and transferring measurements at a fixed ratio of length, it is made of plastic or aluminum, is just over 12 inches long, but with only 12 inches of markings, leaving the ends unmarked so that the first and last measuring ticks do not wear off. It is used in making engineering drawings called blueprints, blue lines or plans in a specific scale. For example, "one-tenth size" would appear on a drawing to indicate a part larger than the drawing on the paper itself, it is not to be used to measure machined parts to see. In the United States this scale is divided into decimalized fractions of an inch, but has a cross-section like an equilateral triangle, which enables the scale to have six edges indexed for measurement.
One edge is divided into tenths of an inch, the subsequent ones are directly marked for twentieths, fortieths and sixtieths of an inch. Referred to as 1:10, 1:20, 1:30,1:40, 1:50 or 1:60 scale. In civil engineering applications, 1:10 is used for detail drawings. 1:20 and 1:40 scales are used for working plans. 1:60 is used only to show large areas of a project. The engineer's scale came into existence when machining parts required a greater precision than the usual, binary fractionalization of the inch, as in the architect's scale, for houses and furniture, they were used, for example, in laying out printed circuit boards with the spacing of leads from integrated circuits as one-tenth of an inch. Technical drawing tools Engineering and Architectural Scale Information
Broaching is a machining process that uses a toothed tool, called a broach, to remove material. There are two main types of broaching: rotary. In linear broaching, the more common process, the broach is run linearly against a surface of the workpiece to effect the cut. Linear broaches are used in a broaching machine, sometimes shortened to broach. In rotary broaching, the broach is rotated and pressed into the workpiece to cut an axisymmetric shape. A rotary broach is used in a screw machine. In both processes the cut is performed in one pass of the broach, which makes it efficient. Broaching is used when precision machining is required for odd shapes. Machined surfaces include circular and non-circular holes, splines and flat surfaces. Typical workpieces include small to medium-sized castings, screw machine parts, stampings. Though broaches can be expensive, broaching is favored over other processes when used for high-quantity production runs. Broaches are shaped similar to a saw, except the height of the teeth increases over the length of the tool.
Moreover, the broach contains three distinct sections: one for roughing, another for semi-finishing, the final one for finishing. Broaching is an unusual machining process; the profile of the machined surface is always the inverse of the profile of the broach. The rise per tooth known as the step or feed per tooth, determines the amount of material removed and the size of the chip; the broach can be moved relative to the vice versa. Because all of the features are built into the broach, no complex motion or skilled labor is required to use it. A broach is a collection of single-point cutting tools arrayed in sequence, cutting one after the other; the process depends on the type of broaching being performed. Surface broaching is simple as either the workpiece is moved against a stationary surface broach, or the workpiece is held stationary while the broach is moved against it. Internal broaching is more involved; the process begins by clamping the workpiece into a special holding fixture, called a workholder, which mounts in the broaching machine.
The broaching machine elevator, the part of the machine that moves the broach above the workholder lowers the broach through the workpiece. Once through, the broaching machine's puller a hook, grabs the pilot of the broach; the elevator releases the top of the follower and the puller pulls the broach through the workpiece completely. The workpiece is removed from the machine and the broach is raised back up to reengage with the elevator; the broach only moves linearly, but sometimes it is rotated to create a spiral spline or gun-barrel rifling. Cutting fluids are used for three reasons. Fortified petroleum cutting fluids are the most common. However, heavy-duty water-soluble cutting fluids are being used because of their superior cooling and non-flammability. Broaching was developed for machining internal keyways. However, it was soon discovered that broaching is useful for machining other surfaces and shapes for high volume workpieces; because each broach is specialized to cut just one shape, either the broach must be specially designed for the geometry of the workpiece or the workpiece must be designed around a standard broach geometry.
A customized broach is only viable with high volume workpieces, because the broach can cost US$15,000 to US$30,000 to produce. Broaching speeds vary from 20 to 120 surface feet per minute; this results in a complete cycle time of 5 to 30 seconds. Most of the time is consumed by the return stroke, broach handling, workpiece loading and unloading; the only limitations on broaching are that there are no obstructions over the length of the surface to be machined, the geometry to be cut does not have curves in multiple planes, that the workpiece is strong enough to withstand the forces involved. For internal broaching a hole must first exist in the workpiece so the broach can enter. There are limits on the size of internal cuts. Common internal holes can range from 0.125 to 6 in in diameter but it is possible to achieve a range of 0.05 to 13 in. Surface broaches' range is 0.075 to 10 in, although the feasible range is 0.02 to 20 in. Tolerances are ±0.002 in, but in precise applications a tolerance of ±0.0005 in can be held.
Surface finishes are between 16 and 63 microinches, but can range from 8 to 125 μin. There may be minimal burrs on the exit side of the cut. Broaching works best on softer materials, such as brass, copper alloys, graphite, hard rubbers, wood and plastic. However, it still has a good machinability rating on free machining steels; when broaching, the machinability rating is related to the hardness of the material. For steels the ideal hardness range is between 16 and 24 Rockwell C. Broaching is more difficult on harder materials, stainless steel and titanium, but is still possible. Broaches can be categorized by many means: Use: internal, or surface Purpose: single, or combination Motion: push, pull, or stationary Construction: solid, built-up, hollow or shell Function: roughing, sizing, or burnishingIf the broach is large enough the costs can be reduced by using a built-up or modular construction; this involves producing the broach in pieces and assemb
A chalk line or chalk box is a tool for marking long, straight lines on flat surfaces, much farther than is practical by hand or with a straightedge. They may be used to lay out straight lines between two points, or vertical lines by using the weight of the line reel as a plumb line, it is an important tool in carpentry, the working of timber in a rough and unplaned state, as it does not require the timber to have a straight or squared edge formed onto it beforehand. A chalk line draws straight lines by the action of a taut nylon or similar string, coated with a loose dye chalk; the string is laid across the surface to be marked and pulled tight. Next, the string is plucked or snapped causing the string to strike the surface, which transfers its chalk to the surface along that straight line where it struck. Chalk lines are used to mark flat surfaces. However, as long as the line is taut and the two ends of the chalk line are in nearly the same plane, the chalk line will mark all points that the string touches on or near that plane once snapped.
The objects to be marked do not need to be continuous along the line. Chalk lines can be used across irregular surfaces and surfaces with holes in them, for example on an unfinished stud wall; the primary problems associated with improper maintenance of a chalk line are string breakage due to excessive tension on the line, degradation of the line associated with moisture contamination. Chalk lines and plumb-bobs are sold as a single tool. Chalk lines have been in use since ancient Egypt, used continuously by builders in various cultures since. Continuing development of this simple but effective tool focuses on the coloration for the chalk or marking compound, as well as the outer case and method of handling. In East Asia, an ink line is used in preference to a chalk line; this is a silken cord, stored on a combined inkpot called a sumitsubo in Japanese. Alongside the line reel is a cavity filled with ink-soaked cotton fibres, which the line is drawn through as it is unreeled; these sumitsubo are decorated and much-prized by their owners.
As with many such tools, they're made by their users while apprentices. On the completion of a major building, such as a temple, a large celebration or topping-out ceremony is held; as part of this event, a set of symbolic carpenter's tools are freshly made and presented to the new building. A sumitsubo is a traditional tool included with them. Measuring tape Chalk line – One person operation Chalk line – Two-person operation Hand-made chalk-line
A file is a tool used to remove fine amounts of material from a workpiece. It is common in woodworking and other similar trade and hobby tasks. Most are hand tools, made of a case hardened steel bar of rectangular, triangular, or round cross-section, with one or more surfaces cut with sharp parallel teeth. A narrow, pointed tang is common at one end. A rasp is a form of file with distinct, individually cut teeth used for coarsely removing large amounts of material. Files have been developed with abrasive surfaces, such as natural or synthetic diamond grains or silicon carbide, allowing removal of material that would dull or resist metal, such as ceramic. Early filing or rasping has prehistoric roots and grew out of the blending of the twin inspirations of cutting with stone cutting tools and abrading using natural abrasives, such as well-suited types of stone. Relatedly, lapping is quite ancient, with wood and beach sand offering a natural pair of lap and lapping compound; the Disston authors state, "To abrade, or file, ancient man used sand, coral, fish skin, gritty woods,—also stone of varying hardness in connection with sand and water."The Bronze Age and the Iron Age had various kinds of files and rasps.
Archaeologists have discovered rasps made from bronze in Egypt, dating back to the years 1200–1000 BC. Archaeologists have discovered rasps made of iron used by the Assyrians, dating back to the 7th Century BC. During the Middle Ages files were quite advanced, thanks to the extensive talents of blacksmiths. By the 11th century, there existed hardened files that would seem quite modern to today's eyes, but although they existed, could have spread in a geographical sense, via trade, they were not widespread in the cultural sense of the word—that is, most people, many smiths, did not have them. For example, in the 13th century, ornamental iron work at Paris was done skillfully with the aid of files, but the process was a secret known only to a master craftsman; the Disston authors state, "It was not until the fourteenth century, that those who practiced art in ironwork began to use other tools, besides heat and the hammer, regularly." This statement could mislead in the sense that stoning and lapping have never been rare activities among humans, or smiths.
But the point is that modern iron or steel files, with teeth and hardening, the material culture of intricate filing that would lead to locksmithing and gunsmithing, for example, are what took time to become common. But by the late Middle Ages, the transition was extensive; the Disston authors mention Nuremberg and Remscheid as leading centers of production for files as well as tools in general. The activity in Remscheid reflects the metalworking spirit of the Rhine-Ruhr region in general rather than representing a single village of geniuses in isolation. Most files of the period were smithed by hand in a sequence in which the iron was forged the teeth were cut with a chisel, the piece was hardened, followed sometimes by tempering. Among the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci is a sketch of a machine tool for the cutting of files. Prior to the industrialization of machining and the development of interchangeable parts during the 19th century, filing was much more important in the construction of mechanisms.
Component parts were shaped by forging, by primitive machining operations. These components were individually hand-fit for assembly by careful and deliberate filing; the potential precision of such fitting is much higher than assumed, but the components of such hand-fit assemblies are decidedly not interchangeable with those from another assembly. Locks and firearms were manufactured in this way for centuries before the Industrial Revolution. Machining in the mid-19th century was dependent on filing, because milling practice was evolving out of its infancy; as late as the early 20th century, manufacturing involved filing parts to precise shape and size. In today's manufacturing environment and grinding have replaced this type of work, filing tends to be for deburring only. Skillful filing to shape and size is still a part of diemaking, toolmaking, etc. but in those fields, the goal is to avoid handwork when possible. Files come in a wide variety of materials, shapes and tooth configurations; the cross-section of a file can be flat, half-round, square, knife edge or of a more specialized shape.
Steel files may be through hardened or case hardened. There is no unitary international standard for file nomenclature. A file is "blunt" if its sides and width are both parallel throughout i
A hydraulic press is a machine press using a hydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive force. It uses the hydraulic equivalent of a mechanical lever, was known as a Bramah press after the inventor, Joseph Bramah, of England, he invented and was issued a patent on this press in 1795. As Bramah installed toilets, he studied the existing literature on the motion of fluids and put this knowledge into the development of the press; the hydraulic press depends on Pascal's principle-the pressure throughout a closed system is constant. One part of the system is a piston acting as a pump, with a modest mechanical force acting on a small cross-sectional area. Only small-diameter tubing is needed. Pascal's law: Pressure on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished and acts with equal force on equal areas and at 90 degrees to the container wall. A small effort force acts on a small piston; this creates a pressure, transferred through the hydraulic fluid to a large piston Hydraulic presses are used for forging, moulding, punching, deep drawing, metal forming operations.
With the growth and importance of light-weighting in the aerospace and automotive industry, more applications are present in Thermoplastics, Composites, SMC Sheet Molded Composites, RTM Resin Transfer Molding, GMT Glass Mat Transfer and Carbon Fiber Molding. All of these applications require precise repeat-ability. End users in many cases need to record data of every press stroke to assure parts meet compliance issues. With I-PRESS Connected Enterprise, users can download and store part to part information that includes, press position, speeds, automation location, in-feed of material, part exit and more. With the ongoing surge towards light-weight parts for aerospace, automotive appliances and many other industries, Servo Hydraulic and Hydraulic presses have become a key tool for the Thermoplastic Industries. Otherwise known as compression molding presses, control of speed, position and cooling mould temperatures can be managed with the I-PRESS HYDRO controller for press and automation functions.
In the 900s the diplomat Liutprand of Cremona, when visiting the emperor in the Byzantine Empire, explained that he saw the emperor sitting on a hydraulic throne and that it was "made in such a cunning manner that at one moment it was down on the ground, while at another it rose higher and was seen to be up in the air". The room featured in Fermat's Room has a design similar to that of a hydraulic press. Boris Artzybasheff created a drawing of a hydraulic press, in which the press was created out of the shape of a robot. In 2015, the Hydraulic Press Channel, a YouTube channel dedicated to crushing objects with a hydraulic press, was created by Lauri Vuohensilta, a factory owner from Tampere, Finland
A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw and made for cutting metal. The equivalent saw for cutting wood is called bow saw. Most hacksaws are hand saws with a C-shaped frame; such hacksaws have a handle a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow disposable blade. The frames may be adjustable to accommodate blades of different sizes. A screw or other mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. On hacksaws, as with most frame saws, the blade can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke. In normal use, cutting vertically downwards with work held in a bench vice, hacksaw blades are set to be facing forwards. While saws for cutting metal had been in use for many years, significant improvements in longevity and efficiency were made in the 1880s by Max Flower-Nash. Clemson, a founder of Clemson Bros. Inc of Middletown, New York, United States. Clemson conducted tests which involved changing the dimensions, shapes of teeth, styles of set, variable heat treatments of blades.
Clemson claimed enormous improvements to the cutting ability of blades and built a major industrial operation manufacturing hacksaw blades sold under the trade name Star Hack Saw. In 1898, Clemson was granted US Patent 601947. Standard hacksaw blade lengths are 10 to 12 in. Blades can be as small as 6 in. Powered hacksaws may use large blades in a range of sizes, or small machines may use the same hand blades; the pitch of the teeth can be from fourteen to thirty-two teeth per inch for a hand blade, with as few as three TPI for a large power hacksaw blade. The blade chosen is based on the thickness of the material being cut, with a minimum of three teeth in the material; as hacksaw teeth are so small, they are set in a "wave" set. As for other saws they are set from side to side to provide a kerf or clearance when sawing, but the set of a hacksaw changes from tooth to tooth in a smooth curve, rather than alternate teeth set left and right. Hacksaw blades are quite brittle, so care needs to be taken to prevent brittle fracture of the blade.
Early blades were of carbon steel, now termed'low alloy' blades, were soft and flexible. They avoided breakage, but wore out rapidly. Except where cost is a particular concern, this type is now obsolete.'Low alloy' blades are still the only type available for the Junior hacksaw, which limits the usefulness of this otherwise popular saw. For several decades now, hacksaw blades have used high speed steel for their teeth, giving improved cutting and tooth life; these blades were first available in the'All-hard' form which cut but were brittle. This limited their practical use to benchwork on a workpiece, clamped in a vice. A softer form of high speed steel blade was available, which wore well and resisted breakage, but was less stiff and so less accurate for precise sawing. Since the 1980s, bi-metal blades have been used to give the advantages of both forms, without risk of breakage. A strip of high speed steel along the tooth edge is electron beam welded to a softer spine; as the price of these has dropped to be comparable with the older blades, their use is now universal.
The most common blade is 300 mm length. Hacksaw blades have a hole at each end for mounting them in the saw frame and the 12 inch / 300 mm dimension refers to the center to center distance between these mounting holes; the kerf produced by the blades is somewhat wider than the blade thickness due to the set of the teeth. It varies between 0.030 and 0.063 inches / 0.75 and 1.6 mm depending on the pitch and set of the teeth. Hacksaws were and principally made for cutting metal, but can cut various other materials, such as plastic and wood. A panel hacksaw has a frame made of a deep, thin sheet aligned behind the blade's kerf, so that the saw could cut into panels of sheet metal without the length of cut being restricted by the frame; the frame follows the blade down the kerf into the panel. Junior hacksaws are a small version with a half-size blade. Like coping saws, the blade has pins. Although a useful tool for a toolbox or in confined spaces, the quality of blades in the Junior size is restricted and they are only made in the simple low alloy steels, not HSS.
This restricts their usefulness. A power hacksaw is a type of hacksaw, powered either by its own electric motor or connected to a stationary engine. Most power hacksaws are stationary machines but some portable models do exist. Stationary models have a mechanism to lift up the saw blade on the return stroke and some have a coolant pump to prevent the saw blade from overheating. Power hacksaws are not as used in the metalworking industries as they once were. Bandsaws and cold saws have displaced them. While stationary electric hacksaws are not common, they are still produced. Power hacksaws of the type powered by stationary engines and line shafts, like other line-shaft-powered machines, are now rare. Coping saw Fretsaw Piercing saw
A counterbore is a cylindrical flat-bottomed hole that enlarges another coaxial hole, or the tool used to create that feature. A counterbore hole is used when a fastener, such as a socket head cap screw, is required to sit flush with or below the level of a workpiece's surface. Whereas a counterbore is a flat-bottomed enlargement of a smaller coaxial hole, a countersink is a conical enlargement of such. A spotface takes the form of a shallow counterbore; as mentioned above, the cutters that produce counterbores are also called counterbores. A counterbore hole is used when the head of a fastener, such as a hex head or socket head capscrew, is required to be flush with or below the level of a workpiece's surface. For a spotface, material is removed from a surface to make it flat and smooth for a fastener or a bearing. Spotfacing is required on workpieces that are forged or cast. A tool referred to as a counterbore is used to cut the spotface, although an endmill may be used. Only enough material is removed to make the surface flat.
A counterbore is used to create a perpendicular surface for a fastener head on a non-perpendicular surface. If this is not feasible a self-aligning nut may be required. By comparison, a countersink is used to seat a flathead screw. Standards exist for the sizes of counterbores for fastener head seating areas; these standards can vary between standards organizations. For example, in Boeing Design Manual BDM-1327 section 3.5, the nominal diameter of the spotfaced surface is the same as the nominal size of the cutter, is equal to the flat seat diameter plus twice the fillet radius. This is in contrast to the ASME Y14.5-2009 definition of a spotface, equal to the flat seat diameter. Counterbores are made with standard dimensions for a certain size of screw or are produced in sizes that are not related to any particular screw size. In either case, the tip of the counterbore has a reduced diameter section referred to as the pilot, a feature essential to assuring concentricity between the counterbore and the hole being counterbored.
Counterbores matched to specific screw sizes have integral pilots that fit the clearance hole diameter associated with a particular screw size. Counterbores that are not related to a specific screw size are designed to accept a removable pilot, allowing any given counterbore size to be adapted to a variety of hole sizes; the pilot matters little when running the cutter in a milling setup where rigidity is assured and hole center location is achieved via X-Y positioning. The uppermost counterbore tools shown in the image are the same device; the smaller top item is an insert, the middle shows another three-fluted counterbore insert, assembled in the holder. The shank of this holder is a Morse taper, although there are other machine tapers that are used in the industry; the lower counterbore is designed to fit into a drill chuck, being smaller, is economical to make as one piece. Countersink Degarmo, E. Paul. Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, Wiley, ISBN 0-471-65653-4