The Bishop's Wife
The Bishop's Wife known as Cary and the Bishop's Wife, is a Samuel Goldwyn romantic comedy feature film from 1947, starring Cary Grant, Loretta Young, David Niven in a story about an angel who helps a bishop with his problems. The film was adapted by Leonardo Bercovici and Robert E. Sherwood from the 1928 novel of the same name by Robert Nathan, was directed by Henry Koster, it was remade in 1996 as The Preacher's Wife starring Denzel Washington, Whitney Houston, Courtney B. Vance. Bishop Henry Brougham, troubled with funding the building of a new cathedral, prays for divine guidance, his plea is answered by a suave angel named Dudley, who reveals his identity only to the clergyman. However, Dudley's mission is not to help construct a cathedral, but to spiritually guide Henry and the people around him. Henry has become obsessed to the detriment of his family life, his relationships with wife Julia and their young daughter are strained by his focus on the cathedral. Everyone, except for Henry, is charmed by Dudley the non-religious Professor Wutheridge.
Dudley persuades the wealthy parishioners widowed Agnes Hamilton, to contribute needed funds, but not to build the cathedral. He coaxes Mrs. Hamilton to donate her money to clothe the needy -- much to Henry's chagrin. To save time, Dudley redecorates the Broughams' Christmas tree in a few seconds, saves an old church by restoring interest in the boys' choir, dictates to a typewriter to magically produce Henry's new sermon — without Henry's knowledge; when Dudley spends time cheering up Julia, though, an unexpected development occurs: Dudley finds himself attracted to her. Sensing this, Henry becomes anxious for his unwelcome guest to finish and depart, he reveals Dudley's true identity to Professor Wutheridge, who urges him to stand up and fight for the woman he loves. Dudley indicates a willingness to stay, but Julia, sensing what he means, tells Dudley it is time for him to leave. Dudley tells the bishop. Henry wants to know. Dudley reminds the bishop. With his mission completed and knowing that Julia loves her husband, Dudley leaves, promising never to return.
All memory of him is erased, that Christmas Eve at midnight, Henry delivers the sermon that he believes he has written. Dudley observes from the street, satisfied. Niven was cast as the angel, Dana Andrews as the bishop, Teresa Wright as his wife. However, Wright had to bow out due to pregnancy. According to Robert Osborne, Andrews was lent to RKO. Koster brought in Cary Grant, but he wanted to play the angel, so the role of the bishop was given to Niven. Although not stated and not critical to understand the story, the denomination is Episcopal since this Church alone among those classified as Protestant has married bishops and cathedrals. Production was not without troubles. Producer Samuel Goldwyn replaced director William A. Seiter with Henry Koster to create a new film. In early previews, audiences disliked the film, so Billy Wilder and Charles Brackett made uncredited rewrites. So, though the premiere of The Bishop's Wife was accompanied by critical success, the film didn't do well at the box office at first.
Market research showed. So, Goldwyn decided to re-title it Cary and the Bishop's Wife for some US markets, while adding a black text box with the question "Have you heard about CARY AND THE BISHOP'S WIFE?" on posters in markets where the film kept the original title. By adding Grant's first name to the title the film's business increased by as much as 25 per cent. Location filming was done in Minnesota. In the scene in which Dudley conducts the boys' choir, the Charles Gounod composition'Noël: Montez à Dieu' was performed by the Robert Mitchell Boys Choir; the song "Lost April" featured in the film had lyrics written for it by Nat King Cole, who recorded it. The film won the Academy Award for Best Sound, was nominated for Best Director, Best Film Editing, Best Music, Scoring of a Dramatic or Comedy Picture and Best Picture; the film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2002: AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions – Nominated 2006: AFI's 100 Years...100 Cheers – Nominated The Bishop's Wife was dramatized as a half-hour radio play on the March 1, 1948 broadcast of The Screen Guild Theater with Cary Grant, Loretta Young and David Niven in their original film roles.
It was presented on Lux Radio Theater three times as an hour-long broadcast: first on December 19, 1949, with Tyrone Power and David Niven, second on May 11, 1953, with Cary Grant and Phyllis Thaxter and third on March 1, 1955, again with Grant and Thaxter. The soundtrack has been released on compact disc; the Bishop's Wife at AllMovie The Bishop's Wife at the TCM Movie Database The Bishop's Wife on IMDb Streaming audio The Bishop's Wife on Screen Guild Theater: March 1, 1948 The Bishop's Wife on Lux Radio Theater: May 11, 1953
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde and is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses, a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in a variety of literary styles, most famously stream of consciousness. Other well-known works are the short-story collection Dubliners, the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Finnegans Wake, his other writings include three books of poetry, a play, his published letters and occasional journalism. Joyce was born in Dublin into a middle-class family. A brilliant student, he attended the Christian Brothers-run O'Connell School before excelling at the Jesuit schools Clongowes and Belvedere, despite the chaotic family life imposed by his father's alcoholism and unpredictable finances, he went on to attend University College Dublin. In 1904, in his early twenties, Joyce emigrated to continental Europe with his partner Nora Barnacle.
They lived in Trieste and Zurich. Although most of his adult life was spent abroad, Joyce's fictional universe centres on Dublin and is populated by characters who resemble family members and friends from his time there. Ulysses in particular is set with precision in the alleyways of the city. Shortly after the publication of Ulysses, he elucidated this preoccupation somewhat, saying, "For myself, I always write about Dublin, because if I can get to the heart of Dublin I can get to the heart of all the cities of the world. In the particular is contained the universal." On 2 February 1882, Joyce was born at 41 Brighton Square, Dublin, Ireland. Joyce's father was John Stanislaus Joyce and his mother was Mary Jane "May" Murray, he was the eldest of ten surviving siblings. James was baptised according to the Rites of the Catholic Church in the nearby St Joseph's Church in Terenure on 5 February 1882 by Rev. John O'Mulloy. Joyce's godparents were Ellen McCann. John Stanislaus Joyce's family came from Fermoy in County Cork, had owned a small salt and lime works.
Joyce's paternal grandfather, James Augustine Joyce, married Ellen O'Connell, daughter of John O'Connell, a Cork Alderman who owned a drapery business and other properties in Cork City. Ellen's family claimed kinship with Daniel O'Connell, "The Liberator"; the Joyce family's purported ancestor, Seán Mór Seoighe was a stonemason from Connemara. In 1887, his father was appointed rate collector by Dublin Corporation. Around this time Joyce was attacked by leading to his lifelong cynophobia, he suffered from astraphobia. In 1891 Joyce wrote a poem on the death of Charles Stewart Parnell, his father was angry at the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic Church, the Irish Home Rule Party and the British Liberal Party and the resulting collaborative failure to secure Home Rule for Ireland. The Irish Party had dropped Parnell from leadership, but the Vatican's role in allying with the British Conservative Party to prevent Home Rule left a lasting impression on the young Joyce. The elder Joyce had the poem printed and sent a part to the Vatican Library.
In November, John Joyce was suspended from work. In 1893, John Joyce was dismissed with a pension, beginning the family's slide into poverty caused by his drinking and financial mismanagement. Joyce had begun his education at Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit boarding school near Clane, County Kildare, in 1888 but had to leave in 1892 when his father could no longer pay the fees. Joyce studied at home and at the Christian Brothers O'Connell School on North Richmond Street, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits' Dublin school, Belvedere College, in 1893; this came about because of a chance meeting his father had with a Jesuit priest called John Conmee who knew the family and Joyce was given a reduction in fees to attend Belvedere. In 1895, now aged 13, was elected to join the Sodality of Our Lady by his peers at Belvedere; the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas continued to have a strong influence on him for most of his life. Joyce enrolled at the established University College Dublin in 1898, studying English and Italian.
He became active in literary circles in the city. In 1900 his laudatory review of Henrik Ibsen's When We Dead Awaken was published in The Fortnightly Review. Joyce wrote a number of at least two plays during this period. Many of the friends he made at University College Dublin appeared as characters in Joyce's works, his closest colleagues included leading figures of the generation, most notably, Tom Kettle, Francis Sheehy-Skeffington and Oliver St. John Gogarty. Joyce was first introduced to the Irish public by Arthur Griffith in his newspaper, United Irishman, in November 1901. Joyce had written an article on the Irish Literary Theatre and his college magazine refused to print it. Joyce had it distributed locally. Griffith himself wrote a piece decrying the censorship of the student James Joyce. In 1901, the National Census of Ireland lists James Joyce as an English- and Irish-speaking scholar living with his mother and father, six sisters and three brothers at Royal Terrace (now Inverness Ro
Books in the United States
As of 2018, several firms in the United States rank among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: Cengage Learning, HarperCollins, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, McGraw-Hill Education, Simon & Schuster, Wiley. See also: English Short Title Catalogue, 15th-18th centuries; the American Library Association formed in 1876, the Bibliographical Society of America in 1904. The national Center for the Book began in 1977. Children's books: United States and List of American children's books American cookbooks See also: Bookselling in the US, Bookstores of the US, List of US booksellers' associations, Antiquarian book trade in the US, List of booksellers in BostonPopular books in the 19th century included Sheldon's In His Steps. 20th century bestsellers included Mitchell's Gone with the Wind, Carnegie’s How to Win Friends and Influence People, Spock’s Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, Harris’ I'm OK – You're OK, Woodward and Bernstein's All the President's Men. Recent bestsellers have included Brown's Da Vinci Code.
The influential "New York Times Best Seller list" first appeared in 1931. The online bookseller Amazon.com began business based in the state of Washington. BookExpo America, trade fair New York Antiquarian Book Fair Book of the Month Club, subscription business, est. 1926 Oprah's est.. 1996 Fellowship of American Bibliophilic Societies, est. 1993. Members include: Book Club of California, San Francisco, California. 1912 The Caxton Club, Illinois. 1895 Florida Bibliophile Society, Bayonet Point, Florida. 1983 The Grolier Club, New York, New York. 1884 The Ticknor Society, Massachusetts. 2002 Some notable collections of books of the United States include: American Antiquarian Society, Massachusetts Library of Congress, Washington DC The nonprofit Internet Archive began scanning books in 2004, in the same year that Google Inc. launched Google Book Search. In 2005, Google began scanning pages of volumes in several large research libraries in the US, as part of its new Google Books Library Project; the Open Content Alliance formed in 2005.
You've Got Mail, 1998 The Ninth Gate, 1999 Portlandia, 2011-, includes satirical sketches set in fictional "Women and Women First" bookstore, Oregon The End of the Tour, 2015, about a book tour Copyright law of the United States African-American book publishers in the United States, 1960–80 American literature Category:American writers Literacy in the United States Reading education in the United States Book censorship in the United States List of most challenged books in the United States One City One Book, initiated in Seattle in 1998 Media of the United States and Category:American media history Joseph Sabin. Bibliotheca Americana: a Dictionary of Books relating to America, from its Discovery to the Present Time. New York. OCLC 13972268. Publishers Weekly, ISSN 0000-0019 1872- G. W. Porter. K. Fortescue, eds.. "Bibliographies of Countries: United States of America". List of Bibliographical Works in the Reading Room of the British Museum. London. OCLC 3816244 – via Internet Archive; the New York Times Book Review, ISSN 0028-7806 1896- Charles Evans, American BibliographyCS1 maint: Date format Booklist, American Library Association, ISSN 0006-7385 1905-.
Alice Bertha Kroeger. "Bibliography: National and Trade: American". Guide to the Study and Use of Reference Books. American Library Association. Henry Walcott Boynton. Annals of American Bookselling, 1638-1850. J. Wiley & Sons – via HathiTrust. Lawrence C. Wroth, The Colonial Printer, Maine: Southworth-Anthoensen Press – via Internet Archive Bureau of the Census, Industry Division, Book Publishing Industry in the United States: 1945, Facts for Industry, OCLC 67889130 Hellmut Lehmann-Haupt; the book in America: a history of the making and selling of books in the United States. Bowker. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Cecil J. McHale, Guide to General Book Publishers in the United States, Ann Arbor, MI New York Review of Books, ISSN 0028-7504 1963- Charles A. Madison. Book Publishing in America. McGraw-Hill. OCLC 729685674. John Tebbel. History of Book Publishing in the United States. Bowker. ISBN 0835204898. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: Date format Allen Kent. "Printers and Printing: the United States".
Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. 23. Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0-8247-2023-0. U. S. Book Publishing Yearbook and Directory, ISSN 0193-6417 1979- Michael Hackenberg, ed. Getting the Books Out: Papers of the Chicago Conference on the Book in 19th-century America, Washington DC: Center for the Book. Chapters include: "Institutional Book Collecting in the Old Northwest, 1876-1900" by Terry Belanger "Copyright and Books in Nineteenth-century America" by Alice D. Schreyer "Dissemination of Popular Books in the Midwest and Far West during the Nineteenth-century" by Madeleine B. Stern "Getting the Books Out: trade sales, parcel sales, book fairs in the nineteenth-century United States" by Michael Winship Margaret A. Blanchard, ed.. History of the Mass Media in the United States: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-91749-4. André Schif
Gilmore Girls is an American dramedy television series, created by Amy Sherman-Palladino starring Lauren Graham and Alexis Bledel. The show became a flagship series for the network. Gilmore Girls ran for seven seasons, with the final season moving to The CW, ended its run on May 15, 2007; the show's main focus is on the relationship between single mother Lorelai Gilmore and her daughter Rory, who live in Stars Hollow, Connecticut, a small fictional town filled with colorful characters. The series explores issues of family, education, friendship and ambition, along with generational divides and social class, the latter themes manifesting through Lorelai's difficult relationship with her high society parents and Richard, Rory's experiences at an elite high school and on at Yale University. Sherman-Palladino, who served as showrunner for the majority of the series, infused Gilmore Girls with distinctive fast-paced dialogue filled with pop culture references. After season six, when the series moved to its new network, Sherman-Palladino left the show and was replaced by David S. Rosenthal for the final season.
The series was distributed by Warner Bros.. Television and filmed on the studio's lot in Burbank, California. Television critics praised Gilmore Girls for its witty dialogue, cross-generational appeal, effective mix of humor and drama, it never drew large ratings but was a relative success for The WB, peaking during season five as the network's second most-popular show. The series has been in daily syndication since 2004, while a growing and dedicated fandom has led to its status as a cult classic. Since coming off the air, Gilmore Girls has been cited in TV and Time magazine as one of the 100 greatest television shows of all time. In 2016, the main cast and Sherman-Palladino returned for a four-part miniseries revival titled Gilmore Girls: A Year in the Life, which streamed on Netflix; the series has two protagonists: witty "thirty-something" mother Lorelai Gilmore and her intellectual teenage daughter Rory. Their backstory is established early in the show: Lorelai grew up in Hartford with her old money parents and Emily, but always felt stifled by this environment.
She had an accidental pregnancy at age sixteen and ran away from home a year to raise Rory in the close-knit town named Stars Hollow. Lorelai found work and shelter at the Independence Inn as a maid, where she progressed to executive manager. Over the years and Rory develop a close relationship, living like best friends rather than a typical mother-daughter pair. Lorelai is proud of the independent life. However, in the pilot episode, she is forced to go to them for financial aid after Rory is admitted to Chilton Preparatory School because she cannot afford the tuition fees. Emily and Richard agree to provide a loan, so long as the girls join them every Friday night for dinner; this sets up the show's primary conflict: the Gilmores are forced to face their differences and complicated past. The contrasting mother–daughter relationships of Emily–Lorelai and Lorelai–Rory become a defining theme of the show. Series creator Amy Sherman-Palladino has summarized the core of Gilmore Girls: I think the theme was always family and connection.
I always felt like the underlying thing about Gilmore was that, if you happened to be born into a family that doesn't understand you, go out and make your own. That's, she went out and she made her own family. The ironic twist in her life is that this daughter that she created this half family for, likes the family that she left, it was a cycle of crazy family. The series focuses on both girls' ambition: Rory to attend an Ivy League college and become a journalist, Lorelai to open an inn with her best friend Sookie St. James; the romantic relationships of the protagonists are another key feature. Lorelai develops temporary feelings for Rory's English literature teacher, Max Medina and Jason "Digger" Stiles, who she has known since childhood. Rory has three boyfriends during the run of the show - local boy Dean Forrester, well-read bad boy Jess Mariano, wealthy charismatic Logan Huntzberger; the quirky townspeople of Stars Hollow are a constant presence. Along with series-long and season-long arcs, Gilmore Girls is episodic in nature, with mini-plots within each episode - such as town festivals, issues at Lorelai's inn, or school projects of Rory's.
Rory has a difficult time settling in at Chilton, struggling to match the demands of private school and attracting the fury of classmate Paris Geller, her academic rival. She meets her first boyfriend, but the pair break up when Rory doesn't reciprocate his, "I love you", she is pursued by arrogant Chilton student Tristin, but she has little interest. After being romantically pursued by Rory's teacher, Max Medina, Lorelai decides with a conflicted heart to give the relationship a chance; this dynamic creates some tension between Rory. At the same time, Lorelai harbours a close friendship with the local diner owner, Luke Danes, several people comment on their mutual attraction—but Lorelai is in denial and Luke doesn't act on it. Rory's father, Christopher Hayden and wants to be with Lorelai but she tells him he is too immature for a family life. All the while, Lorelai struggles to adjust to having her parents in her life on a regular basis. Emily and Richard enjoy developing a relationship with their granddaughter, but realize how much they have misse
Park Avenue is a wide New York City boulevard which carries north and southbound traffic in the borough of Manhattan. For most of the road's length in Manhattan, it runs parallel to Madison Avenue to the west and Lexington Avenue to the east. Park Avenue's entire length was called Fourth Avenue; the avenue is called Union Square East between 14th and 17th Streets, Park Avenue South between 17th and 32nd Streets. Park Avenue was known as Fourth Avenue and carried the tracks of the New York and Harlem Railroad starting in the 1830s; the railroad ran through an open cut through Murray Hill, covered with grates and grass between 34th and 40th Street in the early 1850s. A section of this "park" was renamed Park Avenue in 1860, the name was applied to the segment between Union Square and 42nd Street; the Harlem Railroad was incorporated into the New York Central Railroad, a terminal for the New York Central at 42nd Street, the Grand Central Depot, opened in 1871. But the tracks laid to the new terminal proved problematic.
There were no grade-separated crossings of the railroads between 42nd and 59th Streets. As such, they required railroad crossings along Fourth Avenue. In 1872, shortly after the opening of Grand Central Depot, New York Central owner Cornelius Vanderbilt proposed the Fourth Avenue Improvement Project; the tracks between 48th and 56th Streets were to be moved into a shallow open cut, while the segment between 56th and 97th Streets, in a rock cut, would be covered over. After the improvements were completed in 1874, the railroads, approaching Grand Central Depot from the north, descended into the Park Avenue Tunnel at 96th Street and continued underground into the new depot; as part of the project, Fourth Avenue was transformed into a boulevard with a median strip that covered the railroad's ventilation grates. Eight footbridges crossed the tracks between 45th and 56th Streets, there were vehicular overpasses at 45th and 48th Streets; the boulevard north of Grand Central was renamed Park Avenue in 1888.
A fatal collision between two trains occurred under Park Avenue in 1902, in part because the smoke coming from the steam trains obscured the signals. The New York state legislature subsequently passed a law to ban all steam trains in Manhattan. By December 1902, as part of an agreement with the city, New York Central agreed to put the approach to Grand Central Station from 46th to 59th Streets in an open cut under Park Avenue, to upgrade the tracks to accommodate electric trains. Overpasses would be built across the open cut at most of the cross-streets; the new electric-train terminal, Grand Central Terminal, was opened in 1913. After the electric trains were buried underground, the area around Park Avenue in the vicinity of Grand Central was developed into several blocks worth of prime real estate called Terminal City. Stretching from 42nd to 51st Streets between Madison and Lexington Avenues, it came to include the Chrysler Building and other prestigious office buildings. In 1929, New York Central built its headquarters in a 34-story building, straddling Park Avenue north of the terminal.
The Park Avenue Viaduct reroutes Park Avenue around Grand Central Terminal between 40th and 46th Streets, allowing Park Avenue traffic to traverse around the building and over 42nd Street without encumbering nearby streets. The western leg of the viaduct was completed in 1919, but congestion developed soon after the viaduct's opening, so an eastern leg for northbound traffic was added in 1928. In 1927, the medians on Park Avenue north of Grand Central were trimmed to add one lane of traffic in each direction; this project eliminated the pedestrian path on the medians. The median was extended by one block from 96th Street to 97th Street in 1941, creating the only median on Park Avenue with a pedestrian path and seating. In October 1937, a part of the Murray Hill Tunnel was reopened for road traffic. Efforts to promote a Grand Park Avenue Expressway to Grand Concourse in the Bronx were unsuccessful. A tradition was introduced in 1945 as a memorial to American soldiers killed in action, whereby Christmas trees are placed in the median each December.
On May 5, 1959, the New York City Council voted 20–1 to change the name of Fourth Avenue between 17th and 32nd Streets to Park Avenue South. The Pan Am Building, in between the Park Avenue Viaduct's legs north of Grand Central Terminal, was opened in 1963. On March 12, 2014, two apartment buildings near 116th Street, 1644 and 1646 Park Avenue, were destroyed in a gas explosion. Eight people were killed and many others were injured; the road that becomes Park Avenue originates as the Bowery. From Cooper Square at 8th Street to Union Square at 14th Street, it is known as Fourth Avenue, a 70-foot-wide road carrying northbound traffic. At 14th Street, it turns northeast to align with other avenues drawn up in the Commissioners' Plan of 1811. From 14th Street to 17th Street, it forms the eastern boundary of Union Square and is known as Union Square East. From 17th Street to 32nd Street, it is known as Park Avenue South. Above 32nd Street, for the remainder of its distance, it is known as Park Avenue, a 140-foot-wide boulevard.
Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center and neighborhood in the Midtown Manhattan section of New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue. It stretches from West 42nd to West 47th Streets. Brightly adorned with billboards and advertisements, Times Square is sometimes referred to as "The Crossroads of the World", "The Center of the Universe", "the heart of The Great White Way", "the heart of the world". One of the world's busiest pedestrian areas, it is the hub of the Broadway Theater District and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. Times Square is one of the world's most visited tourist attractions, drawing an estimated 50 million visitors annually. 330,000 people pass through Times Square daily, many of them tourists, while over 460,000 pedestrians walk through Times Square on its busiest days. Known as Longacre Square, Times Square was renamed in 1904 after The New York Times moved its headquarters to the newly erected Times Building – now One Times Square – the site of the annual New Year's Eve ball drop which began on December 31, 1907, continues today, attracting over a million visitors to Times Square every year.
Times Square functions as a town square, but is not geometrically a square. Broadway runs diagonally, crossing through the horizontal and vertical street grid of Manhattan laid down by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, that intersection creates the "bowtie" shape of Times Square; the southern triangle of Times Square has no specific name, but the northern triangle is called Father Duffy Square. It was dedicated in 1937 to Chaplain Francis P. Duffy of New York City's U. S. 69th Infantry Regiment and is the site of a memorial to him, along with a statue of George M. Cohan, as well as the TKTS reduced-price ticket booth run by the Theatre Development Fund. Since 2008, the booth has been backed by a red, triangular set of bleacher-like stairs, used by people to sit, talk and take photographs; when Manhattan Island was first settled by the Dutch, three small streams united near what is now 10th Avenue and 40th Street. These three streams formed the "Great Kill". From there the Great Kill wound through the low-lying Reed Valley, known for fish and waterfowl and emptied into a deep bay in the Hudson River at the present 42nd Street.
The name was retained in a tiny hamlet, Great Kill, that became a center for carriage-making, as the upland to the south and east became known as Longacre. Before and after the American Revolution, the area belonged to John Morin Scott, a general of the New York militia, in which he served under George Washington. Scott's manor house was at what is 43rd Street, surrounded by countryside used for farming and breeding horses. In the first half of the 19th century, it became one of the prized possessions of John Jacob Astor, who made a second fortune selling off lots to hotels and other real estate concerns as the city spread uptown. By 1872, the area had become the center of New York's horse carriage industry; the locality had not been given a name, city authorities called it Longacre Square after Long Acre in London, where the horse and carriage trade was centered in that city. William Henry Vanderbilt ran the American Horse Exchange there. In 1910 it became the Winter Garden Theatre; as more profitable commerce and industrialization of Lower Manhattan pushed homes and prostitution northward from the Tenderloin District, Long Acre Square became nicknamed the Thieves Lair for its rollicking reputation as a low entertainment district.
The first theater on the square, the Olympia, was built by cigar manufacturer and impresario Oscar Hammerstein I. According to Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, "By the early 1890s this once sparsely settled stretch of Broadway was ablaze with electric light and thronged by crowds of middle- and upper-class theatre and cafe patrons." In 1904, New York Times publisher Adolph S. Ochs moved the newspaper's operations to a new skyscraper on 42nd Street at Longacre Square, on the site of the former Pabst Hotel, which had existed on the site for less than a decade since it opened in November 1899. Ochs persuaded Mayor George B. McClellan Jr. to construct a subway station there, the area was renamed "Times Square" on April 8, 1904. Just three weeks the first electrified advertisement appeared on the side of a bank at the corner of 46th Street and Broadway; the north end became Duffy Square, the former Horse Exchange became the Winter Garden Theatre, constructed in 1911. The New York Times moved to more spacious offices one block west of the square in 1913 and sold the building in 1961.
The old Times Building was named the Allied Chemical Building in 1963. Now known as One Times Square, it is famed for the Times Square Ball drop on its roof every New Year's Eve. In 1913, the Lincoln Highway Association, headed by entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher, chose the intersection of 42nd Street and Broadway to be the Eastern Terminus of the Lincoln Highway; this was the first road across the United States, which spanned 3,389 miles coast-to-coast through 13 states to its western terminus in Lincoln Park in San Francisco, California. Times Square grew after World War I, it became a cultural hub full of theatres, music halls, upscale hotels. Times Square became New York's agora, a place to gather to await great tidings and to celebrate them, whether a World Series or a presidential election. Advertising grew in the 1920s, growing
Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem, it is considered one of the most elegant streets in the world. A narrower thoroughfare, much of Fifth Avenue south of Central Park was widened in 1908, sacrificing its wide sidewalks to accommodate the increasing traffic; the midtown blocks, now famously commercial, were a residential district until the start of the 20th century. The first commercial building on Fifth Avenue was erected by Benjamin Altman who bought the corner lot on the northeast corner of 34th Street in 1896, demolished the "Marble Palace" of his arch-rival, A. T. Stewart. In 1906 his department store, B. Altman and Company, occupied the whole of its block front; the result was the creation of a high-end shopping district that attracted fashionable women and the upscale stores that wished to serve them. Lord & Taylor's flagship store was once located on Fifth Avenue near the Empire State Building and the New York Public Library, but has since closed.
In the 1920s, traffic towers controlled important intersections from 14th to 59th Streets. Fifth Avenue originates at Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village and runs northwards through the heart of Midtown, along the eastern side of Central Park, where it forms the boundary of the Upper East Side and through Harlem, where it terminates at the Harlem River at 142nd Street. Traffic crosses the river on the Madison Avenue Bridge. Fifth Avenue serves as the dividing line for house numbering and west-east streets in Manhattan, just as Jerome Avenue does in the Bronx, it separates, for example, East 59th Street from West 59th Street. From this zero point for street addresses, numbers increase in both directions as one moves away from Fifth Avenue, The building lot numbering system worked on the East Side as well, before Madison & Lexington Aves. were retrofitted into the street grid, confusing the building numbers. Confusingly, an address on a cross street cannot be predicted at the intersection of Madison Ave. or Lexington Ave. as these were added decades after the building numbers.
It's. The "most expensive street in the world" moniker changes depending on currency fluctuations and local economic conditions from year to year. For several years starting in the mid-1990s, the shopping district between 49th and 57th Streets was ranked as having the world's most expensive retail spaces on a cost per square foot basis. In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Fifth Avenue as being the most expensive street in the world; some of the most coveted real estate on Fifth Avenue are the penthouses perched atop the buildings. The American Planning Association compiled a list of "2012 Great Places in America" and declared Fifth Avenue to be one of the greatest streets to visit in America; this historic street has many world-renowned museums and stores, luxury apartments, historical landmarks that are reminiscent of its history and vision for the future. By 2018 portions of Fifth Avenue had large numbers of vacant store fronts for long periods, part of a citywide trend of vacant store fronts attributed to high rental costs.
Fifth Avenue from 142nd Street to 135th Street carries two-way traffic. Fifth Avenue carries one-way traffic southbound from 135th Street to Washington Square North; the changeover to one-way traffic south of 135th Street took place on January 14, 1966, at which time Madison Avenue was changed to one way uptown. From 124th Street to 120th Street, Fifth Avenue is cut off by Marcus Garvey Park, with southbound traffic diverted around the park via Mount Morris Park West. Fifth Avenue is the traditional route for many celebratory parades in New York City; the longest running parade is the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade. Parades held are distinct from the ticker-tape parades held on the "Canyon of Heroes" on lower Broadway, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade held on Broadway from the Upper West Side downtown to Herald Square. Fifth Avenue parades proceed from south to north, with the exception of the LGBT Pride March, which goes north to south to end in Greenwich Village; the Latino literary classic by New Yorker Giannina Braschi, entitled "Empire of Dreams," takes place on the Puerto Rican Day Parade on Fifth Avenue.
Bicycling on Fifth Avenue ranges from segregated with a bike lane south of 23rd Street, to scenic along Central Park, to dangerous through Midtown with heavy traffic during rush hours. There is no dedicated bike lane along Fifth Avenue. In July 1987 New York City Mayor Edward Koch proposed banning bicycling on Fifth and Madison Avenues during weekdays, but many bicyclists protested and had the ban overturned; when the trial was started on Monday, August 24, 1987 for 90 days to ban bicyclists from these three avenues from 31st Street to 59th Street between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. on weekdays, mopeds would not be banned. On Monday, August 31, 1987, a state appeals court judge halted the ban for at least a week pending a ruling after opponents against the ban brought a lawsuit. Fifth Avenue is one of the few major streets in Manhattan along. Instead, Fifth Avenue Coach offered a service more to the taste of fashionable gentlefolk, at twice the fare. Double-decker buses were operated by the Fifth Avenue Coach Company until 1953, again by MTA Regional Bus Operations from 1976 to 1978.
Today, local bus service along Fifth Avenue is provided by the MTA's M1, M2, M3, M4 buses. The M5 and Q32 run on Fifth Avenue in Midtown, while the M55 runs on Fifth Avenue south of 44th Street