West Frisian Dutch
The West Frisian dialect is a Dutch dialect spoken in the contemporary West Friesland region, Wieringermeer, Nieuwe Niedorp, the coastal area from Den Helder to Castricum, the island of Texel. It is a Hollandic Dutch dialect but is influenced by West Frisian, related; the dialect in itself is not a fixed one, as there is a diverse number of subdialects that consists of some spoken regional dialects, namely Wierings in Wieringen, Tessels or Texels in Texel and the dialect of Vlieland known as Vlielands, which has fallen into disuse. The smaller regions and villages, such as Zijpe, Andijk and Schagen, have some distinct differences between them. More different from the rest of the group is Derpers, the dialect of the village Egmond aan Zee; the dialect descends from an older form of the Hollandic dialect. Only about 7-9 % of the people speak a mixture of strong and light; the light dialect is much more spoken but is slowly beginning to become lighter and sound more like Dutch. Since the 1970s, there has been more interest in writing the dialect.
Little had been written before as it was a spoken language by common people. Low Franconian languages Languages of the Netherlands
Wyk auf Föhr
Wyk auf Föhr is the only town on Föhr, the second largest of the North Frisian Islands on the German coast of the North Sea. Like the entire island it belongs to the district of Nordfriesland. Wyk includes the two minor town districts of Südstrand. Wyk is situated on the southeastern edge of the island. About 4,500 inhabitants live there, but during the tourist seasons 20,000 or more people will stay there, it serves as a regional centre for the islands of Föhr and Amrum, providing shopping centres, doctors, a post office, etc. and it is the seat of the Amt Föhr-Amrum and the social care centre for the islands. The 4,200 other inhabitants of Föhr proper live in other villages on the island. Wyk's major source of income is the tourism business. In 1704, Wyk was granted the rights of a seaport, two years the rights of a market town were awarded. In 1819 a seaside spa was established. Thereby the state began to level up with the Baltic Sea region (Heiligendamm, 1794 and the East Frisian North Sea area.
In the first year, 61 guests were recorded, in 1820 there were 102, but only from 1840 on the numbers exceeded 200. From 1842 to 1847 the Danish king Christian VIII chose Wyk as his summer resort, which attracted numerous new tourists. In 1844 Hans Christian Andersen followed his king to Wyk and is known to have said about Wyk's beach: "I bathed every day and I must say it was the most remarkable water I have been in", but Andersen criticized the problems of journeying there. For example, from Hamburg, on the road, a traveller needed four days to reach Föhr, by ship via Heligoland, it took two days only but included the danger of sickness. In 1910 Wyk was granted full town rights. Wyk's promenade Sandwall does not only offer a view on the sea, but a view on the Halligen beloved by king Christian, it is counted among Germany's most beautiful seaside promenades. Not at least due to the high number of sanitoriums and recovery institutions, Wyk is a frequented spa throughout the year. In 2002 Wyk belonged to the ten most important centers of tourism in Schleswig-Holstein: 46,368 guests, 325 of which from foreign abroad, booked 492,041 overnight stays.
The town had 4,733 beds to offer. Inside Wyk's town limits, in the Olhörn area, there is a minor lighthouse. Frisian customs and the history of Wyk are documented at the Dr. Carl Haeberlin Museum, whose entrance portal is made up of two whale jaw bones; the church of St. Nicolas is a roman style building from the 13th century, situated in the Boldixum town district, it has got a amply decorated interior. Wyk is the only harbour of Föhr, providing a fisheries and freight port and a marina. From the ferry port, several sailings per day are scheduled to the mainland port of Dagebüll while other ferries depart in the opposite direction towards the island of Amrum. Most ferries to Dagebüll have a train connection from there to Hamburg via Niebüll; the ferries are operated by Wyker Dampfschiffsreederei Föhr-Amrum GmbH. Other than scheduled ferrying, foray tours are offered to the Halligen of Langeneß and Hooge and in the summer season, passenger ferries sail to Hörnum on Sylt. Wyk can moreover be reached by small planes via an airstrip, a daily flight schedule connects Föhr and Sylt during the summer season.
Bus lines connect to the villages of the island. Wyk has a high school, a Realschule with Hauptschule part, an elementary school including a special school and a Danish school; the town hosts a branch of Nordfriesland's District School of Music. A district hospital serves the population of Amrum. Moreover, a number of sanitoriums are located in town, among them a clinic for oncology, an institution for mothers with children and several other private and public clinics. There is an old people's home; the local council has 17 members. Since the municipal elections of 2013, the distribution of seats in the town council is as follows: Kommunale Gemeinschaft: 5 CDU: 5 SPD: 4 Green Party: 3 Blazon: Gules. On a base azure, wavy, a shipwrecked 17th century full rigged ship or, without sails and with broken tops. In chief a mullet of six rays or. Motto: "Incertum quo fata ferunt". From Latin it translates to "Uncertain is where fate carries us". Mittenwald, Germany Wyk is the seat of the editorial office of the daily paper Der Insel-Bote.
Stine Andresen, poet Friedrich Christiansen, fighter pilot, nazi General Knud Broder Knudsen, politician Hans von Storch, climate researcher and meteorologist Arfst Wagner, Waldorf school teacher and editor Olaf Jürgen Schmidt, German author and theater director Sidonie Werner, politician. Founded a sanitorium for Jewish children endangered by tuberculosis in Wyk. Carl Haeberlin, founder of the Frisian museum in Wyk and researcher of Frisian history. Ernst von Prittwitz und Gaffron, Prussian Lieutenant General and knight of the Order of St. John Homepage of Wyk auf Föhr
Öömrang is the dialect of the North Frisian language spoken on the island of Amrum in the German region of North Frisia. Öömrang refers to the Öömrang Frisian name of Oomram. Together with the Fering, Söl'ring, Heligolandic dialects, it forms part of the insular group of North Frisian dialects and it is similar to Fering. Öömrang is spoken by about one third of Amrum's 2300 people. Differentiation between long and short vowels by doubling of the vowel letter Use of numerous diphthongs and one triphthong, "uai" Frequent use of umlauts Final "w" is pronounced like a short "u" The "r" is rolled Personal names on Amrum are still today influenced by a Frisian element. Notably and names with two elements are common. Early borrowings were made from the Danish language and the Christianisation of the North Frisians around 1000 A. D. brought a modest influence of biblical names. In the Age of Sail and West Frisian forms became popular. Family names were patronymic, i. e. they were individually created as genitives from the father's given name.
Contrary to the Scandinavian Petersen or Petersson, meaning "Peter's son", an Öömrang name like Peters means "of Peter". This practice was prohibited by the Danish Crown in 1828. Lars von Karstedt has illustrated the ominous situation of Öömrang today; the usage of Öömrang is now restricted in home domain. It has lost its function in public communication to German and is only spoken in the households with elderly native speakers of Öömrang. One of the biggest driving forces of the language shift is the change of economic structure brought by the tourism industry; the tourists from across Germany crowded into the small island of Amrum and have taken up the limited housing. The rent increased, driving a lot of the local youngsters out to live in major cities in mainland Germany. Both the influx of English-speaking or German-speaking tourists and tourism employees and the loss of young native speakers are causing drastic decline of the dialect
Nordstrand is a peninsula and former island in North Frisia on the North Sea coast of Germany. It is part of the Nordfriesland district in the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, its area is 50 km², its population is 2,300. Nordstrand has two municipalities and smaller Elisabeth-Sophien-Koog, which are part of the Amt Nordsee-Treene. In medieval times, Nordstrand was a part of the larger island of Strand, torn into pieces in a disastrous storm tide in 1634. Over 6,000 people drowned. Before 1634, the area of the island was about 210 square miles. Other remnants of Strand are Pellworm and the Halligen islets. Nordstrand is accessible by road over a causeway which connects to the mainland and was built in 1936. In 1987, the polder Beltringharder Koog was completed, turning the former island into a peninsula; the original Nordstrand island is thought to be the ancestral homeland for the North American surname "van Nostrand". Two brothers emigrated from here to what is present day New York, USA in 1637 and 1638 after the flood.
One of the three granite panels of the Canadian van Nostrand monument, located in York Mill's Cemetery, Toronto points to Nordstrand Island. Pieter Karstense van Nortstrant was born about 1605 on the island of Norstrand. Coupled with the name of his father, Carsten or Kersten, the fact that his children were baptized in the Lutheran Church in Amsterdam, it would seem that a German, Frisian or Danish origin is probable, it is uncertain when Pieter Karstense came to Amsterdam as a child with his father, though no record of the latter has been found there. The sons of Pieter Pietersen Ostrander, were called Van Norstrande or Van Nostrande, while Van Ostrande was used in other baptisms and adopted the surname Oostrander and the spelling as it is today Ostrander. Nordstrand is the origin of a locally famous alcoholic beverage, the Pharisäer, which the islanders developed in 1872 to be able to drink alcohol in the presence of local pastor Georg Bleyer, who preached abstinence, it is made from strong hot coffee, dark rum and whipped cream.
The pastor got the only cup without rum, but one day the cups got mixed up. When he discovered the deceit he exclaimed "Ihr Pharisäer!". Hence the name. Jan Adriaanszoon Leeghwater, Dutch hydraulic engineer Integrated Landscape and Cultural Heritage Management and Development Plan for the Wadden Sea Region
Parable of the Prodigal Son
The Parable of the Prodigal Son is one of the parables of Jesus and appears in Luke 15:11–32. Jesus Christ shares it with the Pharisees and others. In the story, a father has a younger and an older; the younger son asks the father for his inheritance, the father grants his son's request. However, the younger son is prodigal and squanders his fortune becoming destitute; the younger son is forced to return home empty-handed and intends to beg his father to accept him back as a servant. To the son's surprise, he is not scorned by his father but is welcomed back with celebration and fanfare. Envious, the older son refuses to participate in the festivities; the father reminds the older son that one day he will inherit everything, that they should still celebrate the return of the younger son because he was lost and is now found. It is the third and final part of a cycle on redemption, following the Parable of the Lost Sheep and the Parable of the Lost Coin. In Revised Common Lectionary and Roman Rite Catholic Lectionary, this parable is read on the fourth Sunday of Lent.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church it is read on the Sunday of the Prodigal Son. The parable begins with a young man, the younger of two sons, who asks his father to give him his share of the estate; the implication is the son could not wait for his father's death for his inheritance, he wanted it immediately. The father divides his estate between both sons. Upon receiving his portion of the inheritance, the younger son travels to a distant country and wastes all his money in extravagant living. Thereafter, a famine strikes the land; when he reaches the point of envying the food of the pigs he is watching, he comes to his senses: But when he came to himself he said, "How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough to spare, I'm dying with hunger! I will get up and go to my father, will tell him,'Father, I have sinned against heaven, in your sight. I am no more worthy to be called your son. Make me as one of your hired servants.'" He arose, came to his father. But while he was still far off, his father saw him, was moved with compassion, ran towards him, fell on his neck, kissed him.
This implies the father was watching for the son's return. The son does not have time to finish his rehearsed speech, since the father calls for his servants to dress him in a fine robe, a ring, sandals, slaughter the "fattened calf" for a celebratory meal; the older son, at work in the fields, hears the sound of celebration, is told about the return of his younger brother. He is not impressed, becomes angry, he has a speech for his father: But he answered his father, "Behold, these many years I have served you, I never disobeyed a commandment of yours, but you never gave me a goat, that I might celebrate with my friends. But when this, your son, who has devoured your living with prostitutes, you killed the fattened calf for him." The parable concludes with the father explaining that because the younger son had returned, in a sense, from the dead, celebration was necessary: "But it was appropriate to celebrate and be glad, for this, your brother, was dead, is alive again. He was lost, is found."
Allegory is common in the Old Testament, parables are a typical rabbinical method of teaching. The older son would have the first share in the father's inheritance as his firstborn, unless his younger brother received this share from the father by redemption via presentation in the temple. In addition, the younger son would receive the older son's inheritance upon his brother's death according to the mitzvah yibbum; the younger son demanding his share in his father's inheritance before his father's or his brother's death is illegal, as it is the same as assuming they are both dead. In this parable, Jesus portrays the younger son's life of sin in a typical scriptural way: sexual immorality, like how God describes Israel as a harlot to Hosea. Again, Jesus uses a typical scriptural way of describing the consequences of sin: bondage to wicked gentiles, like the Babylonian captivity; the younger son being joyfully greeted and celebrated by the father is typical of God promising to deliver Israel from exile.
The older son not sharing in his father's joy is typical of scriptural portrayals of unrepentant sinners. The last few verses of the parable summarize the parable in accordance with the Jewish teaching of the two ways of acting: the way of life and the way of death. God, according to Judaism, rejoices over and grants more graces to repentant sinners than righteous souls who don't need repentance. With all this in mind, it is obvious what Jesus is implying with the parable: more than just teaching the Jewish leaders to rejoice as he dose over repentant sinners, he is teaching them how Israel ought to treat the righteous gentiles. In addition, Jesus is teaching them that, if they do not repent of being prodigal sons, they will forfeit their inheritance, so, not share in the world to come like the righteous gentiles; this is the last of three parables about loss and redemption, following the parable of the Lost Sheep and the parable of the Lost Coin, that Jesus tells after the Pharisees and religious leaders accuse him of welcoming and
Duchy of Schleswig
The Duchy of Schleswig was a duchy in Southern Jutland covering the area between about 60 km north and 70 km south of the current border between Germany and Denmark. The territory has been divided between the two countries since 1920, with Northern Schleswig in Denmark and Southern Schleswig in Germany; the region is called Sleswick in English. The area's traditional significance lies in the transfer of goods between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, connecting the trade route through Russia with the trade routes along the Rhine and the Atlantic coast. Roman sources place the homeland of the tribe of Jutes north of the river Eider and that of the Angles south of it; the Angles in turn bordered the neighbouring Saxons. By the early Middle Ages, the region was inhabited by three groups: Danes, who lived north of the Danevirke and the Eckernförde Bay, North Frisians, who lived in most of North Frisia, including on the North Frisian Islands, Saxons, who lived in the area south of the Danes and the Frisians.
During the 14th century, the population on Schwansen began to speak Low German alongside Danish, but otherwise the ethno-linguistic borders remained remarkably stable until around 1800, with the exception of the population in the towns that became German from the 14th century onwards. During the early Viking Age, Haithabu – Scandinavia's biggest trading centre – was located in this region, the location of the interlocking fortifications known as the Danewerk or Danevirke, its construction, in particular its great expansion around 737, has been interpreted as an indication of the emergence of a unified Danish state. In May 1931, scientists of the National Museum of Denmark announced that they had unearthed eighteen Viking graves with the remains of eighteen men in them; the discovery came during excavations in Schleswig. The skeletons indicated; each of the graves was laid out from east to west. Researchers surmised that the bodies were entombed in wooden coffins but only the iron nails remained.
Towards the end of the Early Middle Ages, Schleswig formed part of the historical Lands of Denmark as Denmark unified out of a number of petty chiefdoms in the 8th to 10th centuries in the wake of Viking expansion. The southern boundary of Denmark in the region of the Eider River and the Danevirke was a source of continuous dispute; the Treaty of Heiligen was signed in 811 between the Danish King Hemming and Charlemagne, by which the border was established at the Eider. During the 10th century, there were several wars between East Denmark. In 1027, Conrad II and Canute the Great again fixed their mutual border at the Eider. In 1115, King Niels created his nephew Canute Lavard – a son of his predecessor Eric I – Earl of Schleswig, a title used for only a short time before the recipient began to style himself Duke. In the 1230s, Southern Jutland was allotted as an appanage to Abel Valdemarsen, Canute's great-grandson, a younger son of Valdemar II of Denmark. Abel, having wrested the Danish throne to himself for a brief period, left his duchy to his sons and their successors, who pressed claims to the throne of Denmark for much of the next century, so that the Danish kings were at odds with their cousins, the dukes of Slesvig.
Feuds and marital alliances brought the Abel dynasty into a close connection with the German Duchy of Holstein by the 15th century. The latter was a fief subordinate to the Holy Roman Empire; these dual loyalties were to become a main root of the dispute between the German states and Denmark in the 19th century, when the ideas of romantic nationalism and the nation-state gained popular support. The title of Duke of Schleswig was inherited in 1460 by the hereditary kings of Norway, who were regularly elected kings of Denmark and their sons; this was an anomaly -- a king holding a ducal title of which he as king was the liege lord. The title and anomaly survived because it was co-regally held by the king's sons. Between 1544 and 1713/20, the ducal reign had become a condominium, with the royal House of Oldenburg and its cadet branch House of Holstein-Gottorp jointly holding the stake. A third branch in the condominium, the short-lived House of Haderslev, was extinct in 1580 by the time of John the Elder.
Following the Protestant Reformation, when Latin was replaced as the medium of church service by the vernacular languages, the diocese of Schleswig was divided and an autonomous archdeaconry of Haderslev created. On the west coast, the Danish diocese of Ribe ended about 5 km north of the present border; this created a new cultural dividing line in the duchy because German was used for church services and teaching in the diocese of Schleswig and Danish was used in the diocese of Ribe and the archdeaconry of Haderslev. This line corresponds remarkably with the present border. In the 17th century a series of wars between Denmark and Sweden—which Denmark lost—devastated the region economically. However, the nobility responded with a new agricultural system. In the period 1600 to 1800 the region experienced the growth of manorialism of the sort common in the rye-growing regions of eastern Germany; the manors were large holdings with the work done by feudal peasant farmers. They specialized in high quality dairy products.
Feudal lordship was combined with technical modernization, the distinct
Eiderstedt Frisian was a dialect of the North Frisian language, spoken on Eiderstedt part of the Danish Duchy of Schleswig. The Frisian language became extinct on Eiderstedt in mid-18th-Century. In contrast to the northern hundreds, Eiderstedt was economically strong and wealthy and was oriented towards the southern, Low German parts of Holstein. During the 16th century there was moreover a strong Dutch immigration. Eiderstedt Frisian is attributed to the insular dialects, but there are characteristics of the mainland dialects; the difference between the insular and the mainland dialects dates back to the Frisian immigrants during several different centuries. Dietrich Hofmann: Zum Eiderstedter Friesisch. In: Niederdeutsche Mitteilungen 14. S. 59–68. Nils Århammar: Das Nordfriesische im Sprachkontakt In: Horst Haider Munske: Handbuch des Friesischen / Handbook of Frisian Studies. Tübingen 2001, ISBN 978-3-484-73048-9, S. 328 f