Torstenssonsgatan, Östermalm, Sweden, stretches between Strandvägen and Storgatan. The street is crossed by Riddargatan. Torstenssonsgatan is a short avenue with linden trees. In the extension of the street is The Museum of National Antiquities; the street is a not a through street to Strandvägen. The street is named after Lennart Torstenson, Count of Ortala, Baron of Virestad, was a Swedish Field Marshal and military engineer
Nybroplan is a public space in central Stockholm, Sweden. Located on the border between the city districts Norrmalm and Östermalm, Nybroplan connects a number of major streets, including Birger Jarlsgatan, Strandvägen and Nybrogatan; the squares Norrmalmstorg, Östermalmstorg are located within 500 metres, as is the park Kungsträdgården. It is the location of the Royal Dramatic Theatre and Berzelii Park with the restaurant Berns Salonger. Facing the bay Nybroviken, it is public transportation hub offering ferry trips to Djurgården and the Stockholm Archipelago. At Nybroplan, the open spaces south of it, there are several monuments dedicated to various famous Swedish citizens: The diplomat Raoul Wallenberg The inventor John Ericsson The actress Margaretha KrookAdditionally, there is a bronze sculpture by K G Bejermark in the pavement facing the park. Named Humor and inaugurated in 1970, it displays a man lifting a manhole cover in the pavement; the man is modelled after humorist Hans Alfredsson.
The sawhorses surrounding the sculpture are, additions by the City Park Administration. Until the 18th century, Nybroplan was still submerged by the present-day bay Nybroviken which once stretched several hundreds metres further north; as the innermost part of the bay was transformed into Berzelii Park around 1850, quays were built around the bay. The name comes from the bridge Ladugårdslandsbron which once stretched across the old bay The streets Arsenalsgatan and Nybrogatan still indicates the location of the old bridge. Järbe, Bengt. Dofternas torg - Hur Packartorget blev Norrmalmstorg. Byggförlaget. ISBN 91-7988-100-9
The Loire Valley, spanning 280 kilometres, is located in the middle stretch of the Loire River in central France, in both the administrative regions Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire. The area of the Loire Valley comprises about 800 square kilometres, it is referred to as the Cradle of the French and the Garden of France due to the abundance of vineyards, fruit orchards, artichoke, asparagus fields, which line the banks of the river. Notable for its historic towns and wines, the valley has been inhabited since the Middle Palaeolithic period. In 2000, UNESCO added the central part of the Loire River valley to its list of World Heritage Sites; the valley includes historic towns such as Amboise, Blois, Montsoreau, Orléans and Tours. The climate is favorable most of the year, the river acting as a line of demarcation in France's weather between the northern climate and the southern; the river has a significant effect on the mesoclimate of the region, adding a few degrees of temperature. The climate can be cool with springtime frost.
Summers are hot. Temperature and average sunshine time in Angers: The Loire Valley wine region is one of the world's most well-known areas of wine production and includes several French wine regions situated along the river from the Muscadet region on the Atlantic coast to the regions of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé just southeast of the city of Orléans in north central France. Loire wines tend to exhibit a characteristic fruitiness with crisp flavors. On December 2, 2000, UNESCO added the central part of the river valley, between Chalonnes-sur-Loire and Sully-sur-Loire, to its list of World Heritage Sites. In choosing this area that includes the French départements of Loiret, Loir-et-Cher, Indre-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire, the committee said that the Loire Valley is: "an exceptional cultural landscape, of great beauty, comprised of historic cities and villages, great architectural monuments - the châteaux - and lands that have been cultivated and shaped by centuries of interaction between local populations and their physical environment, in particular the Loire itself."
The Loire Valley chansonniers are a related group of songbooks attributed to the composers of the Loire Valley and are the earliest surviving examples of a new genre which offered a combination of words and illuminations. A new Contemporary Art offer is developing all along the Loire River from Montsoreau to Orléans with such places as Château de Montsoreau-Contemporary Art Museum, CCCOD Tours, the Domaine Régional de Chaumont sur Loire and the Frac Centre Orléans, they are a rare association of Renaissance architecture with contemporary art. The architectural heritage in the valley's historic towns is notable its châteaux, such as the Château de Montsoreau, Château d'Amboise, Château d'Azay-le-Rideau, Château de Chambord, Château de Chinon, Château du Rivau, Château d'Ussé, Château de Villandry and Chenonceau; the châteaux, numbering more than three hundred, represent a nation of builders starting with the necessary castle fortifications in the 10th century to the splendour of those built half a millennium later.
When the French kings began constructing their huge châteaux here, the nobility, not wanting or daring to be far from the seat of power, followed suit. Their presence in the lush, fertile valley began attracting the best landscape designers. In addition to its many châteaux, the cultural monuments illustrate to an exceptional degree the ideals of the Renaissance and the Age of the Enlightenment on western European thought and design. Many of the châteaux were designed to be built on the top of hills, one example of this is the Château d'Amboise. Many of the châteaux had detailed and expensive churches on the grounds, or within the actual château itself; the Château de Montsoreau is the only château to have been built in the Loire riverbed, it is the only one to be dedicated to contemporary art. Loire Valley portal Loire Valley world heritage site Loire Valley Chateau du Rivau Chinon Fortress Chateau de Montsoreau-Contemporary Art Museum Western France Tourist Board
Östermalm is a 2.56 km² large district in central Stockholm, Sweden. With 71,802 inhabitants it is one of the most populous districts in Stockholm. It's an expensive area, having the highest housing prices in Sweden. During the reign of the ruler of all of Scandinavia, king Eric of Pomerania in the early 15th century, a royal cowshed/barn was erected on the lands of the village Vädla. Since the town of Stockholm had grown and started to encroach on the borders of that village, there were lots of complaints about animals causing damage in the town. In the 17th century, the inhabitants of Stockholm were allowed to keep their cattle there. In 1639, parts of the allocated land for the cowshed/barn were put up for development. In 1672 the eastern part became a military exercise field. During the following 200 years, it was the home of some higher officers but the majority of the inhabitants were poor. A new town plan presented around 1880 implied a grid of streets and avenues, to become lined with elegant houses, with 4–6 floors.
With this plan implemented it put an end to the rustic appearance of the district. The old official name "Ladugårdslandet" was replaced with "Östermalm". Since the Crown had been the owner of parts of the district for centuries a number of official buildings and higher public educational institutions were located in this area. In the 20th century, a large number of embassies, including those of America, France, Poland, Thailand and Malaysia were established in Östermalm; the Berwaldhallen, home of both the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra and the Swedish Radio Choir, is situated on Dag Hammarskjölds väg, Östermalm. Diplomatstaden Eriksberg Lärkstaden Nedre Östermalm Villastaden Övre Östermalm Karlaplan: metro 13 Stadion: metro 14 Stockholm Östra/Tekniska Högskolan: suburban railway 27, 28, 29 and metro 14 Östermalmstorg: metro 13, 14 Stureparken Geography of Stockholm
Sundsvall is a city and the seat of Sundsvall Municipality in Västernorrland County, Sweden. It has a population of 51,354 as of 2010; the town was chartered in 1621, a first urban plan for Sundsvall was created by Olof Bure in 1642, less in 1623. It has a port by the Gulf of Bothnia, is located 395 km north of Stockholm; the city has been rebuilt four times. The first time, in 1721, it was set on fire by the Russian army during the Russian Pillage of 1719-1721. According to one historian, Swedish industrialism started in Sundsvall when the Tunadal sawmill bought a steam-engine driven saw in 1849. In the early 20th century Sundsvall was an greater centre of forestry industry in Sweden than it is today; the first large Swedish strike was the "Sundsvall strike" in 1879. The industrial heritage makes social democrat and socialist sympathies more prevalent in the Sundsvall region than in Sweden as a whole. In 1888 on the 25 June, strong wind and dry conditions contributed to two city fires in Sweden on the same day.
On this day both Umeå and Sundsvall caught fire. The Sundsvall fire was the largest in Sweden's history, it is presumed. After the fire, unlike Umeå, the decision was to rebuild using stone. Sundsvall's centre was nicknamed Stenstaden. One advantage of the new construction was that within three years the town was arguing that it should be allowed reduced insurance as new rules had been brought in that applied to wooden towns. One disadvantage was. Today Sundsvall is not only dominated by the pulp and paper industry, the aluminium production but there are banks, insurance companies, telecommunications administration and a number of large public data-processing centres such as the national social insurance board; the main campus of the newly established Mid Sweden University is located in the city. The university is a collaboration between Sundsvall and Härnösand. During 1987-2013, there was a summer music festival called Gatufesten. Starting in 2014 there´s a new one called Hamnyran. There are various musical venues.
There is a small guitar festival and a larger heavy metal festival every autumn called Nordfest. Sundsvall is home to the unique festival Musikschlaget, a song contest for groups around Sweden with disabilities, its airport is Sundsvall-Timrå Airport called Midlanda. Alnö IF, association football GIF Sundsvall, association football IF Sundsvall Hockey, ice hockey IFK Sundsvall, association football Sundsvalls DFF, association football Kovlands IF, multi-sport alliance club Kovlands Ishockeyförening, ice hockey Selånger SK, multi-sport alliance club Selånger FK, association football Selånger SK Bandy, bandy Sidsjö-Böle IF, association football Sund IF, association football Sundsvall Dragons, basketball Sundsvall Flames, American football Garmarna, folk band The Same, punk band Sigrid Hjertén, painter Harry Ahlin, actor Per Arne Collinder, astronomer Gina Dirawi, television presenter, host of Melodifestivalen 2012 and 2013 Elin Ek, TV and radio personality, singer Fredrik Ericsson, extreme skier Jessica Falk, singer-songwriter and musician Anders Abraham Grafström, poet Anders Graneheim, bodybuilder Stan Hasselgård, musician Bengt Lindström, artist Kjell Lönnå, musician Fredrik Modin, ice hockey player Max Magnus Norman, artist Erik Ringmar, political scientist and author Helen Sjöholm, singer and musical theater performer Carl Strandlund, Swedish-American inventor and entrepreneur Henrik Zetterberg, ice hockey player Yohio and guitarist Kevin Walker football player for Djurgårdens IF and winner of Idol 2013 Charlotte Kalla cross-country skier Carl-Herman Tillhagen, Swedish folklorist Emil Forsberg, Swedish footballer Elias Pettersson, ice hockey player/ Son of God Sundsvall has a climate, on the border between subarctic and cold continental, leaning towards the latter in recent years.
Temperatures are made milder and regulated by the influence from the Gulf Stream. The weather station is located 20 kilometres to the north and somewhat further inland, which renders that Sundsvall's urban centre is milder in terms of low temperatures by some degree; because of the availability of snow, the Sundsvall Regional Hospital, covering 190 000m2, is cooled down year-round by stored snow, bringing down energy consumption for hospital cooling by 90%. Sundsvall - Official site article Sundsvall from Nordisk Familjebok sundsvallturism.com - Sundsvalls tourist information bureau. Sundsvalltown.se - The alternative guide to Sundsvall. Sundsvallsbilder.com - Blog with photos from Sundsvall
Geography of Stockholm
The City of Stockholm is situated on fourteen islands and on the banks to the archipelago where Lake Mälaren meets the Baltic Sea. The city centre is situated on the water; the area of Stockholm is one of several places in Sweden with a joint valley terrain. In these landscapes erosion along geological joints has split the flattish upper surfaces into low-lying plateaus. In the case of Stockholm the plateau surfaces are remnants of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain; the access to fresh water is excellent in Stockholm today, in contrast to the horrible state of things, when lakes and watercourses were used as refuse dumps and latrines, causing epidemic cholera and many other diseases. By the 1860s things changed, as water fetched from Årstaviken, the waters south of Södermalm, was treated in the first water-purifying plant at Skanstull and from there distributed through water mains. In modern times the city gets its water from Lake Mälaren purified by plants at Norsborg and Lovön, together producing 350,000 m³ per day, which means Stockholmers are consuming 200 litres per day on average.
Water is purified at three plants at Bromma and Loudden, together filtering some 400,000 m³ sewage per day from pollution, including nitrogen and phosphorus, before discharging it into the Baltic Sea. Levels of several pollutants in lakes in the central parts of the city on the western side, are far above average, including substances such as cadmium, copper and lead. Decreasing usage of several of these substances has reduced these levels in the upper sediments of the lakes; the Stockholm area used to contain a lot more lakes and watercourses than it does today, much due to post-glacial rebound, but because of lake reclaims for settlements and health. Historical lakes, such as Fatburssjön on Södermalm and Träsket on Norrmalm, were filthy and associated with the high mortality in Stockholm until the late 19th century. Other historical lakes, like Packartorgsviken and its interior part Katthavet, were filled with mud and stinky. Other lakes still present today were once much larger – such as Magelungen, Judarn, Råstasjön – while some bays of today once were proper lakes – Brunnsviken and Hammarby sjö.
Like in many other urban areas, the lakes of Stockholm are directly affected by the city's sewer system and pollution from settlements and industry. Sewers reduce the catchment areas of smaller lakes by redirecting surface water to Lake Mälaren or Lake Saltsjön. While nutritious substances such as phosphorus and nitrogen are derived from agriculture, urban areas produce high amounts of metals and organic compounds. In Stockholm, this applies to central bays – such as Klara sjö, Årstaviken, Ulvsundasjön, Riddarfjärden, Hammarby Sjö - but waters surrounded by bungalows and villas – like Långsjön in Älvsjö; the historical name for Stockholm Old Town was "The city between the bridges", a name, still used for the entire city which spans over numerous islands and hills. During the course of centuries, the city has seen many bridges relieve each other. In an urban code dated 1350, King Magnus IV prescribed the bridges leading over Norrström and Söderström to be built and maintained by the city of Stockholm together with six other cities surrounding Lake Mälaren, as they were the only land passage between the provinces Uppland and Södermanland and south of the city respectively.
In the view of the king, the city, a hundred years after its foundation, still couldn't afford to maintain its own bridges. Still, these first bridges were in no sense technically complicated or physically impressive, but rather simple wooden bridges, either floating bridges or beam bridges resting on poles or stone caissons, in either case with spans of no more than a few metres; the width corresponded to the directions for public roads, eight ell or 4,8 metres, more than enough for many centuries. The long and narrow bridges were demolished in case of siege, which besides the drawbridges necessary for the passing of ships, was an important defensive strategy; as the accounts of the city tells, spring floods and ice break-ups resulted in the frequent destruction of the bridges. By the mid 17th century, the population of the city had resulted in settlements north and south of Gamla stan, on Norrmalm and Södermalm, the number of bridges had grown if not their dimensions or quality. In a map dated 1640, three bridges connects Stadsholmen to Norrmalm passing over Helgeandsholmen, at the time still a group of islets.
Several new bridges of considerable length connected Norrmalm to the islets east of it. By the end of the 17th century, population growth resulted in an additional bridge north of Stadsholmen. One of the oldest bridges was located where today Stallbron is found south of the Riksdag Building; the first stone bridge, was built in front of the Royal Palace under Gustav III. Not until the 20th century, Stockholm was able to surpass the bays surrounding the city. Half of the about 30 bridges in central Stockholm were built most of them during the 1930s; this development was due to increasing traffic loads caused by a fivefold increase of vehicles in the 1920s. At Slussen, passing ships caused stationary rows of trams several hundreds metres long; the situatio
Nybroviken is a small bay in central Stockholm, Sweden. Nybroviken separates the city district Östermalm from the peninsula Blasieholmen. North of the bay is Norrmalmstorg. To the south Nybroviken connects to the bay Ladugårdslandsviken. Facing both these bays are the quays of Strandvägen and Nybrokajen; the name stems from the historical bridge Ladugårdslandsbron known as Nybro, which once stretched across the bay to connect to Nybrogatan. Today, Nybroviken is a used departure point for ferries of various sizes bound for Djurgården and the Stockholm Archipelago. In the 17th century, Nybroviken was still known as Ladugårdslandsviken, a name derived from Ladugårdslandet, the histocial name of Östermalm, at the time a rural area; the bay was much wider, up to 250 metres, reached north to present-day Stureplan. Two water courses emptied into the bay: Träskrännilen, a strait which connected the bay to the historical lake Träsket along the southern part of present-day Birger Jarlsgatan, it marked the border between the city districts Norrmalm and Östermalm.
Archaeological excavations in the 20th century unveiled ships and landing bridges under the present streets — today located more than 500 metres from the waterfront. Both the strait and the lake were made history by land filling around 1880; the second water course was the strait Näckströmmen which separated Blasieholmen from the mainland north of it. In the mid-17th century the strait was 20 metres wide in 10 metres at its narrowest; the bridge Näckebro stretched across it. Within a century it was consumed by land filling. Maps from the 18th century name the innermost part of the bay Packartorgsviken or Packartorgssjön after the precursor of Norrmalmstorg square. Land fillings and garbage transformed it to standing water with the surrounding quays littered with filth. A map from 1780 shows. In 1816, City Architect Carl Christopher Gjörwell was commissioned to redesign the quays of the bay, plans however only completed. Packartorgsviken became smaller and swampier, was colloquially called Katthavet, with Katt alluding to something small and false.
Fathomless to today's Stockholmers, Katthavet remained a popular spot for angling and pleasure rowing — an odd hobby as the filthy bay was used for cleaning clothes. Not the cholera pandemic of 1834, which caused the death of 4.000 Stockholmers, resulted in any sanitary actions from the city authorities. By the end of that decade, the 25th anniversary of King Charles XIV's arrival to Stockholm resulted in plans for a new bridge across the bay. On royal request, the bay north of the bridge was replaced by land filling, the bridge thus transformed into a quay; the bridge was designed by Fredrik August Lidströmer, approved by His Majesty in 1837, works, begun in 1838, were completed in 1849. In 1852 the work to transform the new open space into the present park was begun, as the statue of Jöns Jacob Berzelius was produced by the Academy of Sciences, the park got its present name, Berzelii Park. A decision by the city council in 1864 to replace the entire bay with landfills resulted in popular protests led by August Blanche, in 1867 the council backed out, instead proposing a 395 metres long quay to be built.
A statue of John Ericsson by John Börjeson was inaugurated on the quay in 1901. In 1987, part of the quay was renamed in honour of the diplomat Raoul Wallenberg. Geography of Stockholm Nybroplan Järbe, Bengt. Dofternas torg - Hur Packartorget blev Norrmalmstorg. Byggförlaget. ISBN 91-7988-100-9