Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. Born in Perth, Western Australia, his family moved to Tokyo and lived there from 1907 to 1915, where his father worked as an accountant at the Salvation Army mission in Japan, Norman attended the American School in Japan where his closest friend was Gordon Bowles, a Quaker who, like him became an anthropologist; the family returned to Perth in August 1917, soon after moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a library cadet at the Adelaide Public Library, together with another cadet, the future physicist, Mark Oliphant. In 1919 he began work as an entomologist at the South Australian Museum. From his early years, he had absorbed the habit of taking notes on everything he observed, cross-indexing them before going to sleep, a practice which he continued throughout his life, which lay at the basis of the vast archive of notes he left to posterity: he was observed writing by lamplight far into the night long after others had gone to bed, during an expedition to the Pinacate.
Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in an acetylene gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologist's Assistant to the formidable Arthur Mills Lea, he had published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale's first ethnographic expedition took place over 1921-1922, his principal aim was to gather entomological specimens for the South Australian Museum, the ethnographic aspect being an accidental sideline which developed, as his curiosity was stimulated, into close observation of the indigenous people he encountered from the Cobourg Peninsula to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Tindale's family background had qualified him to be taken on by the Church Missionary Society of Australia and Tasmania, interested in proselytizing in the north, he spent half a year, accompanying the missionary Hubert E. Warren to sound out the area for an appropriate site for an Anglican mission, which as the Emerald River Mission, was subsequently established on west coast of Groote Eylandt.
He followed this up with a further 9 months nearby on the mainland around the Roper River. Tindale wrote up his observations for the South Australian Museum in two continuous reports which constitute the first detailed account we have of the Warnindhilyagwa people on that island. In 1938-39, Tindale teamed up with Joseph Birdsell of Harvard University to undertake an extensive anthropological survey of Aboriginal missions across Australia; the relationship forged between the two developed into a half century of collaboration between the two. On the outbreak of World War 2, Tindale tried to enlist, but was rejected because of his poor eyesight; when Japan precipitated war with the United States however, Tindale's knowledge of Japanese, rare in Australia at the time, made him an asset for military intelligence. In 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and, assigned the rank of Wing Commander, he was transferred to The Pentagon, where he worked with the Strategic Bombing Survey as an analyst for estimating the impact of bombing on the military and civilian population of Japan.
In 1942 an Air Technical Intelligence Unit was established under Captain Frank T. McCoy at Hangar 7, Eagle Farm airfield just outside Brisbane, and, on Tindale's initiative it was tasked with examining parts recovered from the wreckage of Japanese airplanes, shot down, working out whatever intelligence could be gathered from the manufacturing markings, reassembling them where possible. Jones states that Tindale's unit's meticulous analysis of the metallurgical débris and serial numbers enabled them to arrive at the companies responsible for producing the components, deduce production figures and infer what crucial alloys the Japan military was beginning to suffer shortfalls in. Tindale played a major intelligence role in putting a halt to Japan's balloon bombing assault on the western coast of the United States, his team's forensic analysis of the debris enabled the U. S. airforce to bomb the production facilities in Japan. Jones adds two other key contributions by Tindale to the war effort: He was instrumental in cracking the Japanese aircraft production code system, which gave the Allies reliable information as to Japanese air power.
More he and his unit deciphered the Japanese master naval code. On retirement after 49 years service with the South Australian Museum, Tindale took up a teaching position at the University of Colorado and remained in the United States until his death, aged 93, in Palo Alto, California; the Adelaide Board for Anthropological Research began a programme for filming Aboriginal life in 1926, was the first to systematically do so. Over an 11-year period they produced over 10 hours of footage concerning many aspects of Aboriginal life, from material culture to hunting and gathering practices, love-making and ceremonies of circumcision observed during their field expeditions. Tindale produced the film while the actual camera-work was undertaken by E. O. Stocker. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various tribal groupings of Indigenous Australians; this interest began with a research trip to Groote Eylandt where Tindale's helper and interpreter, a Ngandi impressed him with the importance of knowing with precision tribal boundaries.
This led Tindale to question the official orthodoxy of the time, that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region. While Tindal
Alan John Villiers was an author, adventurer and mariner. Born in Melbourne, Villiers first went to sea at age 15 and sailed on board traditionally rigged vessels, including the full-rigged ship Joseph Conrad, he commanded square-rigged ships including Moby Dick and Billy Budd. He commanded the Mayflower II on its voyage from the United Kingdom to the United States. Villiers wrote 44 books, served as the Chairman and President of the Society for Nautical Research, a Trustee of the National Maritime Museum, Governor of the Cutty Sark Preservation Society, he was awarded the British Distinguished Service Cross as a Commander in the Royal Naval Reserve during the Second World War. Alan John Villiers was the second son of Australian union leader Leon Joseph Villiers; the young Villiers grew up on the docks watching the merchant ships come in and out of the Port of Melbourne and longed for the day on which he too could sail out to sea. Leaving home at the age of 15, he joined the barque Rothesay Bay as an apprentice.
The Rothesay Bay operated in the Tasman Sea, trading between New Zealand. Villiers was a natural seaman, he learned and gained the respect of his shipmates. An accident on board the barque Lawhill beached Villiers in 1922, by a seasoned Able seaman, he sought employment as a journalist at the Hobart Mercury newspaper in Tasmania while he recovered from his wounds. The call of the sea was strong, soon Villiers was back at sea when the great explorer and whaler Carl Anton Larsen and his whaling factory ship, the Sir James Clark Ross came to port with five whale chasers in tow in late 1923, his accounts of the trip would be published as Whaling in the Frozen South. Named for the Antarctica explorer James Clark Ross, the Ross was the largest whale factory ship in the world, weighing in at 12,000 tons, she was headed for the southern Ross Sea, the last whale stronghold left. Villiers writes: "We had caught most of them blues, the biggest over 100 feet long; these yielded 17,000 barrels of oil. Villiers' passage on board the Herzogin Cecilie in 1927 would result in his publication of Falmouth for Orders.
Through it he met Captain Ruben de Cloux, who became his partner in the barque Parma. He wrote By Way of Cape Horn after his harrowing experiences on board the Grace Harwar in 1929; the full-rigged ship Grace Harwar was beautiful as the "wind in her rigging called imperiously as she lay at the pier at Wallaroo". As Villiers stood on the dock, a wharf laborer warned "Don't ship out in her! She's a killer." The warning would prove true, as Villiers' friend Ronald Walker was lost by the time Grace Harwar made Ireland. More than 40 years old at the time, the ship had algae growing along her waterline. "Dirty bottoms make slow ships, slow ships make hard passages." Villiers had a desire to document the great sailing ships before it was too late, Grace was one of the last working full-riggers. With a small ill-paid crew and no need for coal, such vessels undercut steam ships, maybe 20 ships were still involved in the trade; the ill-fated voyage took the Grace the last of the fleet for the year. The voyage was filmed in both movie and still form, serving as a record of significant images of that period.
Villiers reunited with Ruben de Cloux in 1931, becoming a partner with him in the four-masted barque Parma. With de Cloux as captain, Parma won the unofficial "grain race" between the ships of the trade in 1932, arriving in 103 days despite broaching in a gale. In 1933, the ship won in 83 days. Villiers sailed as a passenger on both voyages. After selling his shares back to de Cloux, Villiers purchased the Georg Stage in 1934. A full rigged sailing ship of 400 tons built in 1882 by Burmeister & Wain in Copenhagen, she was employed as a sailing school ship by Stiftelsen Georg Stages Minde. Saving her from the scrapyard, Villiers renamed her the Joseph Conrad, after the author of The Nigger of the'Narcissus', The Shadow-Line, an accomplished seaman. A sail training pioneer, Villiers circumnavigated the globe with an amateur crew, he used the unique environment of the sea to build character and discipline in his young crew and, with his contemporaries Irving and Exy Johnson, he helped form the modern concept of sail training.
It is used not to use the sea to teach youth for life. Returning two years Villiers sold the Joseph Conrad to George Huntington Hartford, he published Cruise of the "Conrad" and Stormalong. The Joseph Conrad is maintained and operated as a museum ship at Mystic Seaport in Connecticut, USA, where she continues to educate the youth of today in the rich history of the age of sail. In 1938 Alan Villiers embarked as a passenger on an Arab dhow for a round trip from Oman to the Rufiji delta, depicted the way of life of Arab sailors and their navigation techniques in a book called Sons of Sindbad, illustrated with his own photographs. With the outbreak of World War II, Villiers was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the Royal Naval Reserve in 1940, he was assigned to Landing craft, Infantry. Ordered to deliver them across the Atlantic, with a 40 percent loss rate expected, Villiers got all but one safely across, he commanded "flights" of LCI's on D-Day in the Battle of Normandy, the Invasion of Sicily, the Burma Campaign in the Far East.
By the end of the War, Villiers had been promoted to Commander and awarded the British Distinguished Service Cross. Married in 1940 to his second wife Nancie, Villiers settled in Oxford and continued t
James Francis Hurley, OBE was an Australian photographer and adventurer. He participated in a number of expeditions to Antarctica and served as an official photographer with Australian forces during both world wars, his artistic style produced many memorable images. He used staged scenes and photographic manipulation. Hurley was the third of five children to parents Edward and Margaret Hurley and was raised in Glebe, a suburb of Sydney, Australia, he ran away from home at the age of 13 to work on the Lithgow steel mill, returning home two years to study at the local technical school and attend science lectures at the University of Sydney. When he was 17 he bought his first camera, a 15-shilling Kodak Box Brownie which he paid for at the rate of a shilling per week, he taught himself photography and set himself up in the postcard business, where he gained a reputation for putting himself in danger in order to produce stunning images, including placing himself in front of an oncoming train to capture it on film.
Hurley married Antoinette Rosalind Leighton on 11 April 1918. The couple had four children: identical twin daughters and Toni, a one son and youngest daughter Yvonne. While living on Collaroy Plateau, Frank became involved with ABC radio, he was a frequent storyteller on the perennial children's program The Argonauts. He enjoyed more a degree of commercial success by publishing his photos on advertising calendars and tourist booklets, his most successful book was Australia: A Camera Study reprinted three times. He engaged in aerial photography with Brud Rees on his Piper Cub float plane, he travelled extensively throughout Australia commissioned on various photographic assignments. Of his lifetime, Frank Hurley spent more than four years in Antarctica. At the age of 23, in 1908, Hurley learned that Australian explorer Douglas Mawson was planning an expedition to Antarctica. Hurley asserts in his biography that he cornered Mawson as he was making his way to their interview on a train, using the advantage to talk his way into the job.
Mawson was persuaded, while Mallard, the manager of Harringtons to which Hurley was in debt, provided photographic equipment. The Expedition departed in 1911, returning in 1914. On his return, he edited and released a documentary, Home of the Blizzard, using his footage from the expedition. Hurley was the official photographer on Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition which set out in 1914 and was marooned until August 1916, he photographed in South Georgia in 1917. He compiled his records into the documentary film South in 1919, his footage was used in the 2001 IMAX film Shackleton's Antarctic Adventure. He returned to the Antarctic in 1929 and 1931 on Mawson's British Australian New Zealand Antarctic Research Expeditions. In 1917, Hurley joined the Australian Imperial Force as an honorary captain and captured many stunning battlefield scenes during the Third Battle of Ypres. In keeping with his adventurous spirit, he took considerable risks to photograph his subjects producing many rare panoramic and colour photographs of the conflict.
Hurley kept a diary in 1917-1918 chronicling his time as a war photographer. In it he describes his commitment "to illustrate to the public the things our fellows do and how war is conducted", as well as his short-lived resignation in October 1917 when he was ordered not to produce composite images, his period with the AIF ended in March 1918. For the 1918 London exhibition Australian War Pictures and Photographs he employed composites for photomurals to convey drama of the war on a scale otherwise not possible using the technology available; this brought Hurley into conflict with the AIF on the grounds that montage diminished documentary value. Charles Bean, official war historian, labelled Hurley's composite images "fake". Hurley served as a war photographer during World War II. Hurley used a movie camera to record a range of experiences including the Antarctic expeditions, the building of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, war in the Middle East during World War II; the camera was a Debrie Parvo L 35mm hand-crank camera made in France.
This camera is now in the collection of the National Museum of Australia. Hurley made several documentaries throughout his career, most notably Savages, he wrote and directed several dramatic feature films, including Jungle Woman and The Hound of the Deep. He worked as cinematographer for Cinesound Productions where his best known film credits include The Squatter's Daughter, The Silence of Dean Maitland and Grandad Rudd, his 1941 documentary short Sagebrush and Silver was nominated for an Academy Award at the 14th Academy Awards for Best Short Subject. Photographs by Hurley of the Antarctic are held by a number of institutions. Notable collections include the Australian War Memorial, National Library of Australia, State Library of New South Wales, Scott Polar Research Institute, Royal Geographical Society, State Records of South Australia, the South Australian Museum, Adelaide. National Library of Australia Frank Hurley Negative Collection, 1910–1962The collection contains 10,999 glass negatives, gelatin negatives, colour transparencies, lantern slides, stereographs that have been catalogued and digitised.
Patricia Wrightson OBE was an Australian writer of several regarded and influential children's books. Her reputation came to rest on her magic realist titles, her books, including the praised The Nargun and The Stars, were among the first Australian books for children to draw on Australian Aboriginal mythology. Her 27 books have been published in 16 languages. For her "lasting contribution" as a children's writer she received the biennial Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 1986, she was born on 19 June 1921 in New South Wales. She was educated through the State Correspondence School for Isolated Children and St Catherine's College. During World War II, she worked in a munitions factory in Sydney. After her marriage in 1943, she worked as secretary and administrator at Bonalbo District Hospital, from 1946 to 1960, Sydney District Nursing Association, from 1960 to 1964, she served as Assistant Editor and editor of the School Magazine, in Sydney, from 1964 to 1970, a literary publication for children.
She wrote 27 books during her lifetime and entwined Australian Aboriginal mythology into her writing. As her writing developed, Wrightson's work revealed two key characteristics: her use of Aboriginal folklore, with its rich fantasy and mystery, her understanding of the importance of the land. Author and academic Mark MacLeod wrote that "Wrightson thought that it might be possible to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian cultures and create a new kind of pan-Australian narrative, in which the human characters from both cultures were aware of and influenced by the metaphysical world that Indigenous Australians had known for 60 000 years." As a non-indigenous person, Wrightson's use of Aboriginal myths and legends in her fiction was questioned by other writers. She died of "natural causes" on 15 March 2010, a few days after entering a New South Wales hospital; the biennial Hans Christian Andersen Award conferred by the International Board on Books for Young People is the highest career recognition available to a writer or illustrator of children's books.
Wrightson was a runner-up for the writing award in 1984 and won it in 1986. The illustration winner that year was Robert Ingpen, who had collaborated with Wrightson on The Nargun and the Stars, her fantasy novel based on Aboriginal mythology, they remain the only Australians among more than 60 Andersen Medal recipients. Wrightson was made an officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1977 and she won the Australian Dromkeen Medal in 1984 for her cumulative service to children's literature. Many of her books made the shortlist for the annual Australian Children's Book of the Year Award, which she won four times: in 1956 for her debut novel The Crooked Snake, in 1974 for The Nargun and The Stars, in 1978 for The Ice is Coming and in 1984 for A Little Fear. Wrightson won the Ditmar Award from the annual Australian National Science Fiction Convention in 1982 for Behind the Wind, as the year's Best Long Australian Science Fiction or Fantasy; the Children's Literature section of the New South Wales Premier's Literary Awards began as a single award in 1979, but was redefined in 1999 to create the Patricia Wrightson Prize named in her honour, the Ethel Turner Prize.
Patricia Wrightson was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Letters by Southern Cross University in September, 2004. The Crooked Snake. Winner CBCA Book of the Year: Older Readers 1956; the Bunyip Hole. Commended CBCA Book of the Year 1959; the Rocks of Honey The Feather Star. Commended CBCA Book of the Year 1963. Down to Earth A Racecourse for Andy I Own the Racecourse!. Commended CBCA Book of the Year 1969. Beneath the Sun: an Australian collection for children An Older Kind of Magic. Commended CBA Book of the Year 1973; the Nargun and the Stars. Winner CBCA Book of the Year: Older Readers 1974. Emu Stew: an illustrated collection of stories and poems for children The Human Experience of Fantasy Night Outside Journey Behind the Wind A Little Fear. Winner CBCA Book of the Year: Older Readers 1984; the Haunted Rivers Moon-Dark The Song of Wirrun. Winner CBCA Book of the Year: Older Readers 1978; the Dark Bright Water Behind the Wind aka Journey Behind the Wind Highly commended CBCA Book of the Year 1982. Manmorker Balyet.
Shortlist CBCA Book of the Year: Older Readers 1990. The Old, Old Ngarang The Sugar-Gum Tree. Shortlist CBCA Book of the Year: Younger Readers 1992. Shadows of Time Rattler's Place. Honour Book CBCA Book of the Year: Younger Readers 1998 The Water Dragons Patricia Wrightson at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Patricia Wrightson at AustLit.edu.au Patricia Wrightson at Library of Congress Authorities, with 26 catalogue records
Jeronimus Cornelisz was a Frisian apothecary and Dutch East India Company merchant. In June 1629 he led one of the bloodiest mutinies in history after the merchant ship Batavia was wrecked in the Houtman Abrolhos, a chain of coral islands off the west coast of Australia. All, known of the shipwreck and aftermath stems from a book by the expedition commander Pelsaert who absented himself and reached safety, but returned to defeat the Cornelisz faction in the nick of time. Born in the Frisian capital, Cornelisz grew up in a non-conformist household, his mother and his father were Mennonites, members of an Anabaptist church. It has been speculated that they may have had links with some of the more militant Anabaptist movements, such as the Batenburgers, that flourished in the Netherlands during the sixteenth century; the young Jeronimus was well educated at the Latin School at Dokkum, followed his father into the family trade by training to become an apothecary. He qualified around the year 1623 and practiced in his home town until 1627, leaving in that year as a result of disagreements with the town council.
Cornelisz moved to the much larger Dutch city of Haarlem, where he opened up an apothecary shop near the centre of the town. In November 1627 he and his wife had a son, but the child died less than three months after being placed in the care of a wet nurse; the cause of death was established as syphilis, considered a scandal, Cornelisz became embroiled in a legal action against the nurse, seeking to prove that his child had contracted the disease from her and not from his wife. With his reputation and future business prospects destroyed, Cornelisz was forced to realize what he could by selling off his shop and assets. Whether Cornelisz was acquainted with Johannes van der Beeck, he left Haarlem within a few weeks after the painter's trial and the ruin of his own prospects. Cornelisz went to Amsterdam and took service with the Dutch East India Company, or VOC, he was posted to the new ship Batavia, which sailed for Java, in the East Indies, in October 1628. Sea voyages in this era were marked by deaths from shipboard mini epidemics of infectious and nutritional deficiency disease, with scurvy being common.
Cornelisz, whose main motive in signing on such a venture seems to have been to escape his degraded social and economic position became friendly with the Batavia's skipper, Ariaen Jacobsz, in the course of the ship's long voyage. He and Jacobsz became discontented with the leadership of the commander of the ship, the VoC commodore Francisco Pelsaert, according to the book written by Pelsaert immediately plotted a mutiny. For some reason Pelsaert stayed in his cabin for much of the voyage although he was responsible for the ship. What is certain is the Batavia ran aground in the Abrolhos archipelago and was lost. More than 200 survivors made their way ashore, where they discovered there was no shelter, food, or drinking water; as deaths from dehydration began, Pelsaert and all the officers left in the only boat, although telling the others they were taking a trip looking for water, they embarked on a month long voyage to Java. Cornelisz was left on the island with people of lower status and was able to establish himself as a leader.
This could not be considered a mutiny as no proper authority had been appointed by the officers before their hasty departure. Cornelisz's rule in the Abrolhos became criminal when he aimed at removing those who the limited food and water would have to be shared with; some were secretly killed. Others such as a group of soldiers including Wiebbe Hayes, were sent to a nearby island to search for water; the only other candidate for chief was the minister, who had his family and was intimidated thereafter. Rain ameliorated the drinking water problem. Cornelisz established a brutal personal rule in the islands, backed by men who had plotted with him on board ship; when questioned they said they had been obeying orders from the recognized leader that Cornelisz seemed to be. At first covertly more and more the survivors not in Cornelisz's faction were killed or sent away to the near islands, or escaped there. In all and his henchmen were responsible for the deaths of between 110 and 124 men and children over a two-month period.
Their victims were drowned, hacked to pieces or bludgeoned to death singly or in large groups. Seven surviving women were forced into sexual slavery; the most attractive, Lucretia Jans was reserved for Cornelisz. Cornelisz's faction began killing those dispersed on the other various other islands, who presented a threat through now being more collectively numerous than his own men. However, the group of soldiers including Wiebbe Hayes, disposed of by being sent to a nearby island to search for water, unexpectedly found it, sent a smoke signal, which drew survivors to warn of the killings They set up a hilltop stonework defense against the Cornelisz faction, which now faced a forewarned and re-enforced group in good health. After a pair of unsuccessful attacks, Cornelisz tried to negotiate with Hayes's men moved in for a final attack. According to Pelsaert's account, he ar
An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. The usual form is letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used. Electronic "documents" such as recordings and radio, e-mails have come into use; the word epistolary is derived from Latin from the Greek word ἐπιστολή epistolē. The epistolary form can add greater realism to a story, it is thus able to demonstrate differing points of view without recourse to the device of an omniscient narrator. There are two theories on the genesis of the epistolary novel; the first claims that the genre is originated from novels with inserted letters, in which the portion containing the third person narrative in between the letters was reduced. The other theory claims that the epistolary novel arose from miscellanies of letters and poetry: some of the letters were tied together into a plot. Both claims have some validity; the first epistolary novel, the Spanish "Prison of Love" by Diego de San Pedro, belongs to a tradition of novels in which a large number of inserted letters dominated the narrative.
Other well-known examples of early epistolary novels are related to the tradition of letter-books and miscellanies of letters. Within the successive editions of Edmé Boursault's Letters of Respect and Love, a group of letters written to a girl named Babet were expanded and became more and more distinct from the other letters, until it formed a small epistolary novel entitled Letters to Babet; the immensely famous Letters of a Portuguese Nun attributed to Gabriel-Joseph de La Vergne, comte de Guilleragues, though a small minority still regard Marianna Alcoforado as the author, is claimed to be intended to be part of a miscellany of Guilleragues prose and poetry. The founder of the epistolary novel in English is said by many to be James Howell with "Familiar Letters", who writes of prison, foreign adventure, the love of women; the first novel to expose the complex play that the genre allows was Aphra Behn's Love-Letters Between a Nobleman and His Sister, which appeared in three volumes in 1684, 1685, 1687.
The novel shows the genre's results of changing perspectives: individual points were presented by the individual characters, the central voice of the author and moral evaluation disappeared. Behn furthermore explored a realm of intrigue with letters that fall into the wrong hands, faked letters, letters withheld by protagonists, more complex interaction; the epistolary novel as a genre became popular in the 18th century in the works of such authors as Samuel Richardson, with his immensely successful novels Pamela and Clarissa. In France, there was Lettres persanes by Montesquieu, followed by Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Laclos' Les Liaisons dangereuses, which used the epistolary form to great dramatic effect, because the sequence of events was not always related directly or explicitly. In Germany, there was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werther and Friedrich Hölderlin's Hyperion; the first North American novel, The History of Emily Montague by Frances Brooke was written in epistolary form.
Starting in the 18th century, the epistolary form was subject to much ridicule, resulting in a number of savage burlesques. The most notable example of these was Henry Fielding's Shamela, written as a parody of Pamela. In it, the female narrator can be found wielding a pen and scribbling her diary entries under the most dramatic and unlikely of circumstances. Oliver Goldsmith used the form to satirical effect in The Citizen of the World, subtitled "Letters from a Chinese Philosopher Residing in London to his Friends in the East". So did the diarist Fanny Burney in a successful comic first novel, Evelina; the epistolary novel fell out of use in the late 18th century. Although Jane Austen tried her hand at the epistolary in juvenile writings and her novella Lady Susan, she abandoned this structure for her work, it is thought that her lost novel First Impressions, redrafted to become Pride and Prejudice, may have been epistolary: Pride and Prejudice contains an unusual number of letters quoted in full and some play a critical role in the plot.
The epistolary form nonetheless saw continued use, surviving in exceptions or in fragments in nineteenth-century novels. In Honoré de Balzac's novel Letters of Two Brides, two women who became friends during their education at a convent correspond over a 17-year period, exchanging letters describing their lives. Mary Shelley employs the epistolary form in her novel Frankenstein. Shelley uses the letters as one of a variety of framing devices, as the story is presented through the letters of a sea captain and scientific explorer attempting to reach the north pole who encounters Victor Frankenstein and records the dying man's narrative and confessions. Published in 1848, Anne Brontë's novel The Tenant of Wildfell Hall is framed as a retrospective letter from one of the main heroes to his friend and brother-in-law with the diary of the eponymous tenant inside it. In the late 19th century, Bram Stoker released one of the most recognized and successful novels in the epistolary form to date, Dracula.
Printed in 1897, the novel is compiled of letters, diary entries, newspaper clippings, doctor's notes, ship's logs, the like. There are 3 types of epistolar
Batavia was the flagship of the Dutch East India Company. It was built in Amsterdam, Dutch Republic, in 1628. Batavia sailed on her maiden voyage for the capital of Batavia; the ship wrecked on the Houtman Abrolhos off the coast of Western Australia. The wreck killed 40 of its 341 passengers. A mutiny amongst; the Western Australian Museum's Shipwreck Galleries in Fremantle displays relics recovered from the wreckage. On 27 October 1628, the newly built Batavia, commissioned by the Dutch East India Company, sailed from Texel for the Dutch East Indies, to obtain spices, it sailed under commandeur and opperkoopman Francisco Pelsaert, with Ariaen Jacobsz serving as skipper. These two had encountered each other in Surat, India; some animosity had developed between them in Surat after Jacobsz became drunk and insulted Pelsaert in front of other merchants, leading to a public dressing-down for Jacobsz by Pelsaert. On board was the onderkoopman Jeronimus Cornelisz, a bankrupt pharmacist from Haarlem, fleeing the Netherlands, in fear of arrest because of his heretical beliefs associated with the painter Johannes van der Beeck known as Torrentius.
During the voyage and Cornelisz conceived a plan to take the ship, which would allow them to start a new life somewhere, using the huge supply of trade gold and silver on board. After leaving the Cape of Good Hope, where they had stopped for supplies, Jacobsz deliberately steered the ship off course, away from the rest of the fleet. Jacobsz and Cornelisz had gathered a small group of men around them and arranged an incident from which the mutiny was to ensue; this involved molesting a high-ranking young female passenger, Lucretia Jans, in order to provoke Pelsaert into disciplining the crew. They hoped to paint his discipline as recruit more members out of sympathy. However, the woman was able to identify her attackers; the mutineers were forced to wait until Pelsaert made arrests, but he never acted, as he was suffering from an unknown illness. On 4 June 1629, the ship struck Morning Reef near Beacon Island, part of the Houtman Abrolhos off the Western Australian coast. Of the 322 aboard, most of the passengers and crew managed to get ashore, although 40 people drowned.
The survivors, including all the women and children, were transferred to nearby islands in the ship's longboat and yawl. An initial survey of the islands found no fresh water and only limited food. Pelsaert decided to search for water on the mainland. A group consisting of Captain Jacobsz, Francisco Pelsaert, senior officers, a few crew members, some passengers left the wreck site in a nine metres longboat, in search of drinking water. After an unsuccessful search for water on the mainland, they abandoned the other survivors and headed north in a danger-fraught voyage to the city of Batavia, now known as Jakarta. En route. In his journal, Pelsaert states that on 15 June 1629, they sailed through a channel between a reef and the coast, finding an opening around midday at a latitude guessed to be about 23 degrees south where they were able to land, water was found; the group spent the night on land. Pelsaert commented on the vast number of termite mounds in the vicinity and the plague of flies that afflicted them.
Drake-Brockman suggested this location is 10 kilometres north of Point Cloates where water has subsequently been located. Pelsaert states that they continued north with the intention of finding the'river of Jacob Remmessens', identified first in 1622, but owing to the wind were unable to land. Drake-Brockman suggests, it was not until the longboat reached the island of Nusa Kambangan in Indonesia that Pelsaert and the others found more water. The journey took 33 days, with everyone surviving. After their arrival in Batavia, the boatswain, Jan Evertsz, was arrested and executed for negligence and "outrageous behavior" before the loss of the ship. Jacobsz was arrested for negligence, although his position in the potential mutiny was not guessed by Pelsaert. Batavia's Governor General, Jan Coen gave Pelsaert command of the Sardam to rescue the other survivors, as well as to attempt to salvage riches from the Batavia's wreck, he arrived at the islands two months after leaving Batavia, only to discover that a bloody mutiny had taken place among the survivors, reducing their numbers by at least a hundred.
Jeronimus Cornelisz was left in charge of the survivors. He made plans to hijack any rescue ship that might return and use the vessel to seek another safe haven. Cornelisz made far-fetched plans to start a new kingdom, using the gold and silver from the wrecked Batavia. However, to carry out this plan, he first needed to eliminate possible opponents. Cornelisz's first deliberate act was to have all weapons and food supplies commandeered and placed under his control, he moved a group of soldiers, led by Wiebbe Hayes, to nearby West Wallabi Island, under the false pretense of searching for water. They were told to light signal fires when they found water and they would be rescued. Convinced that they would be unsuccessful, he left them there to die, taking complete control of the situation. Cornelisz never committed any of the murders himself, although he failed to poison a baby. Instead, he coerced others into doing it for him under the pretense that the victim had committed a crime such as theft