Agent Orange is a herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the "tactical use" Rainbow Herbicides. It is known for its use by the U. S. military as part of its herbicidal warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1971. It is a mixture of equal parts of two herbicides, 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. In addition to its damaging environmental effects, traces of dioxin found in the mixture have caused major health problems for many individuals who were exposed. Up to four million people in Vietnam were exposed to the defoliant; the government of Vietnam says as many as 3 million people have suffered illnesses because of Agent Orange. The Red Cross of Vietnam estimates that up to 1 million people are disabled or have health problems as a result of Agent Orange contamination; the United States government has challenged these figures as being unreliable. The chemical is capable of damaging genes, resulting in deformities among the offspring of exposed victims; the U. S. government has documented higher cases of leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, various kinds of cancer in exposed veterans.
Agent Orange caused enormous environmental damage in Vietnam. Over 3,100,000 hectares of forest were defoliated. Defoliants eroded tree cover and seedling forest stock, making reforestation difficult in numerous areas. Animal species diversity reduced in contrast with unsprayed areas; the aftermath of the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam resulted in massive legal consequences. The United Nations ratified United Nations General Assembly Resolution 31/72 and the Environmental Modification Convention. Lawsuits filed on behalf of both US and Vietnamese veterans sought compensation for damages. Agent Orange was to a lesser extent used outside Vietnam. Land in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia was sprayed with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War because forests on the border with Vietnam were used by the Viet Cong; some countries, such as Canada, saw testing, while other countries, such as Brazil, used the herbicide to clear out sections of land for agriculture. The active ingredient of Agent Orange was an equal mixture of two phenoxy herbicides – 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid – in iso-octyl ester form, which contained traces of the dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
TCDD was a trace, but significant contaminant of Agent Orange. TCDD is the most toxic of the dioxins, is classified as a human carcinogen by the US Environmental Protection Agency. If not bound chemically to a biological surface such as soil, leaves or grass, Agent Orange dries after spraying and breaks down within hours to days when exposed to sunlight and is no longer harmful. Due to its fat-soluble nature, TCDD enters the body through physical ingestion. Dioxin accumulates in the food chain. Dioxin enters the body by attaching to a protein called the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a transcription factor; when TCDD binds to AhR, the protein moves to the nucleus. Several herbicides were discovered as part of efforts by the US and the British to develop herbicidal weapons for use during World War II; these included 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, MCPA, isopropyl phenylcarbamate. In 1943, the U. S. Department of the Army contracted the botanist and bioethicist Arthur Galston, who discovered the defoliants used in Agent Orange, his employer University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign to study the effects of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T on cereal grains and broadleaf crops.
Galston a graduate student at the University of Illinois, in his research and 1943 Ph. D. dissertation focused on finding a chemical means to make soybeans fruit earlier. He discovered both that 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid would speed up the flowering of soybeans and that in higher concentrations it would defoliate the soybeans. From these studies arose the concept of using aerial applications of herbicides to destroy enemy crops to disrupt their food supply. In early 1945, the U. S. Army ran 2,4,5-T mixtures at the Bushnell Army Airfield in Florida; as a result, the U. S. began a full-scale production of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T and would have used it against Japan in 1946 during Operation Downfall if the war had continued. By the end of the war, the relationship between the two countries was well established. In the years after the war, the U. S. tested 1,100 compounds, field trials of the more promising ones were done at British stations in India and Australia, in order to establish their effects in tropical conditions, as well as at the U.
S.'s testing ground in Florida. Between 1950 and 1952, trials were conducted in Tanganyika, at Kikore and Stunyansa, to test arboricides and defoliants under tropical conditions; the chemicals involved were 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, endothall. During 1952–53, the unit supervised the aerial spraying of 2,4,5-T over the Waturi peninsula in Kenya to assess the value of defoliants in the eradication of tsetse fly. During the Malayan Emergency, Britain was the first nation to employ the use of herbicides and defoliants to destroy bushes and vegetation to deprive insurgents of concealment and targeting food crops as part of a starvation campaign in the early 1950s. A detailed account of how the British experimented with the spraying of herbicides was written by two scientists, E. K. Woodford of Agricultural Research Council's Unit of Experimental Agronomy and H. G. H. Kearns of the University of Brist
Anton Johannes Gerrit Corbijn van Willenswaard is a Dutch photographer, music video director and film director. He is the creative director behind the visual output of Depeche Mode and U2, having handled the principal promotion and sleeve photography for both bands over three decades; some of his works include music videos for Depeche Mode's "Enjoy the Silence", U2's "One", Bryan Adams' "Do I Have to Say the Words?", Nirvana's "Heart-Shaped Box" and Coldplay's "Talk" and "Viva la Vida", as well as the Ian Curtis biographical film Control, The American, A Most Wanted Man, based on John le Carré's 2008 novel of the same name. Anton Johannes Gerrit Corbijn van Willenswaard was born on 20 May 1955 in Strijen in the Netherlands, where his father had been appointed as parson to the Dutch Reformed Church the previous year, his father, Anton Corbijn van Willenswaard, took up the same position in Hoogland and Groningen, moving his wife and four children with him. His mother, Marietje Groeneboer, was raised in a parson's family.
Photographer and director Maarten Corbijn is a younger brother. Grandfather Anton Johannes van Willenswaard was an art teacher at Christian schools in Hilversum and an active member in the local Dutch Reformed Church in Hilversum. Corbijn began his career as a music photographer when he saw the Dutch musician Herman Brood playing in a café in Groningen around 1975, he took a lot of photographs of the band Herman Brood & His Wild Romance and these led to a rise in fame for Brood and in exposure for Corbijn. From the late 1970s the London-based New Musical Express, a weekly music paper, featured his work on a regular basis and would have a photograph by him on the front page. One such occasion was a portrait of David Bowie wearing a loincloth backstage in New York when starring in The Elephant Man.. In the early years of London-based The Face, a glossy monthly post-punk life style / music magazine, Corbijn was a regular contributor, he made his name photographing in black-and-white but in May 1989 he began taking pictures in colour using filters.
His first venture in this medium was for Siouxsie Sioux. Between 1998-2000, in collaboration with the painter Marlene Dumas, he worked on a project called "Stripping Girls", which took the strip clubs and peep shows of Amsterdam as their subject. Corbijn has photographed Bob Dylan, Joy Division, Depeche Mode, Tom Waits, Bruce Springsteen, Prāta Vētra, Peter Hammill, Miles Davis, Björk, Captain Beefheart, Kim Wilde, Marc Almond, Robert De Niro, Stephen Hawking, Elvis Costello and the Banshees, Peter Murphy, Simple Minds, Clint Eastwood, The Cramps, Herbert Grönemeyer, Annie Lennox, Eurythmics, amongst others, his most famous and longest standing association is with U2, which includes taking pictures of the band on their first US tour, taking pictures for their albums The Joshua Tree and Achtung Baby albums, directing a number of accompanying videos. Other album covers featuring work by Corbijn include those for Springsteen, Nick Cave, Siouxsie's second band The Creatures, Bryan Adams, Therapy?, The Rolling Stones, Bon Jovi, The Killers, Simple Minds, R.
E. M; the Bee Gees, Saybia and Moke. Corbijn began his music video directing career. After seeing the resulting video for Hockey, the band Propaganda had Corbijn direct Dr. Mabuse. After that he directed videos for David Sylvian, Echo & the Bunnymen, Golden Earring, Front 242, Depeche Mode, Roxette and U2, his first video in colour was made for U2 in 1984 for their single "Pride". In 2005 Palm Pictures released a DVD collection of Corbijn's music video output as part of the Director's Label series. In 1994 Corbijn directed a short film about Captain Beefheart/Don Van Vliet for the BBC called Some Yoyo Stuff, he made his feature film debut with Control, a film about the life of Joy Division frontman Ian Curtis. It premiered to rave reviews at the Cannes Film Festival on 17 May 2007; the film is based on Deborah Curtis' book Touching from a Distance about her late husband and the biography Torn Apart by Lindsay Reade and Mick Middles. Although shown outside the Palme d'Or competition, Control was the big winner of the Director's Fortnight winning the CICAE Art & Essai prize for best film, the "Regards Jeunes" Prize award for best first or second directed feature film and the Europa Cinemas Label prize for best European film in the sidebar.
It won the Michael Powell award for best new British feature at the Edinburgh International Film Festival. In 2010, Corbijn returned as a director with the character-based thriller The American, starring George Clooney. On 26 October 2011, Corbijn directed a webcast by Coldplay from the Plaza de Toros de Las Ventas in Madrid, Spain, his film A Most Wanted Man was released in 2014. The John le Carré novel of the same name, loosely based on the true War on Terror story of Murat Kurnaz, was set in part in Hamburg, as parts of the movie were. In February 2014, he started filming his next project Life about James Dean and photographer Dennis Stock. Author William Gibson refers to a fictitious portrait by Corbijn of the character Hollis Henry in his 2007 novel Spook Country. A Corbijn photograph has served as the author's portrait on many of Gibson's books, including Neuromancer. Corbijn is the subject of Josh Whiteman's 2009 documentary film Shadow Play – The making of Anton Corbijn. In May 2011 Corbijn presented Mandela Landsc
"Stripped" is a song by British electronic music band Depeche Mode. It was released as the lead single from their fifth studio album, Black Celebration, on 10 February 1986, through Mute Records. Written by the band's lead songwriter Martin Gore, "Stripped" has been described as an "ominous and intriguing pop song", it incorporates different samples into its instrumental. It was the band's sixth consecutive single to enter the UK Top 20, peaking at number 15. Elsewhere, it peaked at number 4 in Germany and reached the top 10 in Finland and Switzerland. German metal band Rammstein covered the song for the 1998 Depeche Mode tribute album For the Masses. Despite having a controversial music video, it would go on to peak at number 14 in Germany and receive praise from Depeche Mode band members. John Freeman of The Quietus described "Stripped" as an "ominous and intriguing pop song", lyrically akin to other songs written by Martin Gore featuring sensual lyrics about the human body. Parts of the song's instrumental are built off of samples.
The beginning of the song samples the sound of the ignition of lead singer Dave Gahan's Porsche automobile, while the underlying beat is the sound of an idling motorcycle engine distorted and slowed down. The ending incorporates the sound of fireworks; the 7-inch B-side for "Stripped" is "But Not Tonight", while the other two B-sides are "Breathing in Fumes" and "Black Day". "Breathing in Fumes" was a new song using samples from "Stripped", mixed by the band and Thomas Stiehler. "Black Day" is an acoustic, alternate version of "Black Celebration" sung by Martin Gore and co-written by him, Alan Wilder, producer Daniel Miller—the only Depeche Mode song where Miller receives a writing credit. The "Highland Mix" of "Stripped" was mixed by Mark Ellis, who in the future would produce Depeche Mode's Violator and Songs of Faith and Devotion records; some editions of the Black Celebration CD include the extended remix of "But Not Tonight" along with "Black Day" and "Breathing in Fumes" as bonus tracks.
The music video for "Stripped" was the last Depeche Mode video to be directed by Peter Care and was filmed outside Hansa Studios in Berlin. A music video was shot for the B-side "But Not Tonight" and was directed by Tamra Davis. Two differently cut versions of both "Stripped" and "But Not Tonight" are available on "Video Singles Collection". 7": Mute / 7Bong10 "Stripped" – 3:52 "But Not Tonight" – 4:1512": Mute / 12Bong10 "Stripped" – 6:42 "But Not Tonight" – 5:13 "Breathing in Fumes" – 6:07 "Fly on the Windscreen" – 4:24 "Black Day" – 2:37CD: Mute / CDBong10 "Stripped" – 3:52 "But Not Tonight" – 4:15 "Stripped" – 6:42 "But Not Tonight" – 5:13 "Breathing in Fumes" – 6:07 "Fly on the Windscreen" – 4:24 "Black Day" – 2:37The CD single was released in 1991 as part of the singles box set compilations. 7": Sire / 7-28564 "But Not Tonight" – 3:52 "Stripped " – 3:5912": Sire / 0-20578 "But Not Tonight" – 6:18 "Breathing in Fumes" – 6:07 "Stripped" – 6:42 "Black Day" – 2:37 The 7" and 12" versions on the US "But Not Tonight" single are different versions than used on the UK singles – they were remixed by Robert Margouleff.
The 12" mix appeared on the rare fourth disc of Depeche Mode's remix compilation, Remixes 81–04, as the "Margouleff Dance Mix." CD: Intercord / INT 826.835 "Stripped" – 6:42 "But Not Tonight" – 5:12 "Breathing in Fumes" – 6:07 "Fly on the Windscreen" – 4:24 "Black Day" – 2:37 This is the UK Extended 12" version. The German CD was released in 1986 All songs written by Martin Gore except "Black Day", written by Gore, Alan Wilder, Daniel Miller In Australia, "Stripped" missed the Kent Music Report top 100 singles chart, but was listed as one of the singles receiving significant sales reports beyond the top 100 for 6 non-consecutive weeks in May and June 1986. Neue Deutsche Härte band Rammstein released a cover of "Stripped" in 1998; this version cuts the line "Let me see you stripped down to the bone" to "Let me see you stripped", due to singer Till Lindemann's difficulty singing "down to the bone".. The song was on the tribute album For the Masses and reached number 14 in the German single charts.
The song appears as the twelfth track on some special editions of the band's sophomore release, Sehnsucht. It was the band's first song done in English; the video for the song incorporated footage from the Leni Riefenstahl Nazi propaganda film Olympia, which led to threats against the band. Members of the band praised Riefenstahl's filmmaking abilities and aesthetic choices in a 2011 documentary of the making of the video the imagery of the athletes, while disassociating themselves from Riefenstahl's politics. Members of Depeche Mode Dave Gahan, responded positively to the cover, since it was so different from any other versions of Depeche Mode's work. "Stripped" – 4:25 "Stripped" – 4:28 "Stripped" – 5:12 "Stripped" – 5:10 "Stripped" – 4:35 "Wollt ihr das bett in Flammen sehen?" – 5:01 Single information from the official Depeche Mode web site Allmusic review Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Martin Lee Gore is an English songwriter, guitarist, record producer, DJ. He is its primary songwriter. Gore is the band's keyboardist and guitar player, contributes backing vocals, provides lead vocals. In 1999, Gore received the Ivor Novello Award from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors for "International Achievement". Martin Lee Gore was born in Essex in England. Gore's biological father was an African American G. I. stationed in Britain. Gore was raised by biological mother, he believed his stepfather was his biological father until age 13, when he learned of his biological father. As an adult, Gore met his biological father in the American South, he took a job as a bank cashier. During evenings and any other spare time, he was involved with the local band Norman and the Worms with school friend Phil Burdett who went on to become a singer/songwriter himself. Gore has two younger half-sisters, born in 1967, Jacqueline, born in 1968. In 1980, Gore met Andy "Fletch" Fletcher at the Van Gogh club.
Fletcher recruited Gore into his band Composition of Sound along with Vince Clarke. Soon the band drafted Dave Gahan to be the lead singer after hearing him sing "Heroes" by David Bowie. Gahan is credited with the name "Depeche Mode" after seeing the phrase as a title of a French fashion magazine, which considered taking them to court, but thought it would be good publicity for the magazine to let the band have the name. Clarke left Depeche Mode in late 1981, shortly after the release of their debut album Spell. Clarke wrote most of the album, with Gore contributing two tracks, "Tora! Tora! Tora!" and the instrumental "Big Muff". "Any Second Now" features Gore's first lead vocals for the band. Gore sings lead vocals on several of the band's songs, notably ballads, his tenor voice providing a contrast to Gahan's dramatic baritone; when Clarke announced his departure from Depeche Mode in 1981, Gore became the principal songwriter for the band. Gore had been writing material since the age of 12. Songs Gore wrote for Depeche Mode's second album, A Broken Frame differed musically and lyrically from Clarke's.
Gore's writing became darker and more political on subsequent Depeche Mode albums. Gore sometimes plays guitar on Depeche Mode songs; the first time guitar was used as the main instrument was on "Personal Jesus", although he used small guitar parts on previous songs, such as "Behind the Wheel" and "Love, in Itself". Gore's guitar playing developed more on Songs of Faith and Devotion. However, in live performances, he switches his keyboards for his guitar on some older Depeche Mode songs, such as "Never Let Me Down Again" and "A Question of Time". In mid-1990, Gore said, "I think in a way. Gore lives in California, he started dating lingerie designer and model Suzanne Boisvert after meeting in Paris in 1989. They married in August 1994, he has three children with Boisvert: daughter Viva Lee Gore, daughter Ava Lee Gore, son Calo Leon Gore. Gore and Boisvert divorced in 2006. Gore married Kerrilee Kaski in June 2014. On 19 February 2016, Kaski gave birth to a baby girl named Johnnie Lee, his fourth child.
On 13 March 2017, she gave birth to their second daughter named Mazzy Lee, Martin Gore's fifth child. Gore suffered from stress-induced seizures during the band's 1993 Devotion tour, he has publicly acknowledged his past alcoholism. Gore became a vegetarian for health and moral reasons in 1983. Ssss Former Depeche Mode colleague Vince Clarke collaborated with Gore for the first time since 1981 as techno duo VCMG on an instrumental minimalist electronic dance album called Ssss, released on 12 March 2012; the first EP entitled Spock was first released worldwide on Beatport on 30 November 2011. The second EP Single Blip was once again first released on Beatport on 20 February 2012, their third EP Aftermaths was released on 20 August 2012. In late February 2015, several teaser images were displayed on Martin Gore's official Facebook page, citing a hashtag "MGxMG", revealed to be a promotional tool for his new solo studio album, titled MG. In a news post on his official website and various social media on 2 March, this confirmation of his new studio album announced its release would be on 27 or 28 April and previewed a track, Europa Hymn, from the new album.
Gore played keyboard on two tracks by Annette & Inga Humpe, called "Happiness Is Hard to Take" & "Don't Know Where I Belong" from their 1985 album Humpe Humpe He played guitar on the Gwen Stefani song "Wonderful Life" on her 2006 album The Sweet Escape. Gore collaborated on the band Onetwo's track "Cloud Nine" by playing the guitar and as songwriter of the song, which can be found on their 2007 album called Instead. In 2010, Tim Simenon's Bomb the Bass album Back to Light was published, which contains the instrumental "Milakia", co-written by Martin Gore during the Ultra sessions. Gore played synthesiser on the track. Compact Space's album Nameless includes the track "The Unstoppable Collision" with Gore on guitar. Compact Space is formed by Depeche Mode's collaborators Christian Eign
West Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to by historians as the Bonn Republic, was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc during the Cold War. It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in 1949 after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France, its capital was the city of Bonn. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Eastern blocs. Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin; the Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the 1871–1945 German Empire. It took the line. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not fair. From the West German perspective, the GDR was therefore illegitimate.
Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state. While not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council, West Berlin politically-aligned itself with West Germany and was represented in its federal institutions; the foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the Wirtschaftswunder of the 1950s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third-largest economy. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with NATO rather than neutrality, he not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.
Following the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990, its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land. They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany; the reunion did not result in a brand-new country. The expanded Federal Republic retained West Germany's political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like UN, NATO, OECD and the European Union; the official name of West Germany, adopted in 1949 and unchanged since is Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In East Germany, the terms Westdeutschland or westdeutsche Bundesrepublik were preferred during the 1950s and 1960s.
This changed once under its 1968 constitution, when the idea of a single German nation was abandoned by East Germany, as a result West Germans and West Berliners were considered foreigners. In the early 1970s, starting in the East German Neues Deutschland, the initialism "BRD" for the "Federal Republic of Germany" began to prevail in East German usage. In 1973, official East German sources adopted it as a standard expression and other Eastern Bloc nations soon followed suit. In reaction to this move, in 1965 the West German Federal Minister of All-German Affairs Erich Mende issued the Directives for the appellation of Germany, recommending avoiding the initialism. On 31 May 1974, the heads of West German federal and state governments recommended always using the full name in official publications. From on West German sources avoided the abbreviated form, with the exception of left-leaning organizations which embraced it. In November 1979 the federal government informed the Bundestag that the West German public broadcasters ARD and ZDF had agreed to refuse to use the initialism.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code of West Germany was "DE", which has remained the country code of Germany after reunification. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 are the most used country codes, the "DE" code is notably used as country identifier extending the postal code and as the Internet's country code top-level domain.de. Accordingly the less used ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country code of West Germany was "DEU", which has remained the country code of reunified Germany; the now deleted codes for East Germany, on the other hand, was "DD" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 and "DDR" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-3. The colloquial term "West Germany" or its equivalent was used in many languages. "Westdeutschland" was a widespread colloquial form used in German-speaking countries without political overtones. On 4–11 February 1945 leaders from the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union held the Yalta Conference where future arrangements as regards post-war Europe and strategy against Japan in the Pacific were negotiated.
The conference agreed that post-war Germany would be divided into four occupation zones: a French Zone in the far west.
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand