Israir Airlines Ltd. more referred to as Israir, is an Israeli airline headquartered in Tel Aviv. It operates domestic scheduled and air taxi flights from Sde Dov Airport, Ben Gurion International Airport, Eilat Airport, as well as international charter services from Ben Gurion International Airport to Europe and Asia, it operates VIP flights, is Israel's third-largest airline after El Al and Arkia Israel Airlines, employing some 350 staff. Israir Airlines was established in 1989 as Kanfei HaEmek before changing its name to Israir Airlines in 1996, it is now wholly owned by the Ganden Group. The airline began with domestic services from Eilat Airport, Ben Gurion International Airport, Sde Dov Airport, Haifa Airport in the north of the country, it expanded its operations to begin international charter flights in 1999, building up a route network that now covers much of Europe, as well as flying to other destinations in Asia and North America. The airline is said to have modeled itself on US low-cost carrier JetBlue.
The airline expanded operations across the Atlantic Ocean when regular charter service to New York City's John F. Kennedy International Airport was started in June 2004. Permission was granted to the airline to convert this to regular scheduled service by the Israeli government and the FAA on May 1, 2006; this service was discontinued in September 2008, due to escalating fuel prices and the expectation of a drop in the number of passengers due to the weakness of the dollar at the time. After Israir was granted permission to operate scheduled service on the lucrative New York-Tel Aviv route, it entered talks with both Boeing and Airbus regarding the acquisition of new aircraft to its fleet and replacement of its existing jets; the company was said to be in talks with Airbus over the A350 model. It signed a deal to acquire Airbus A320 aircraft; this was a significant milestone in Israeli aviation, as no airline had before purchased Airbus aircraft. In April 2008, the airline received an Airbus A330 for its New York flights to replace the Boeing 767 aircraft it had been wet-leasing.
Israir however meanwhile no longer flies to New York and has since phased out all long-haul aircraft. In early 2007, the airline announced plans to introduce Sky-Torah scrolls on each of its aircraft; these were Torah scrolls which would be carried on board its flight for Jewish passengers to use for prayer. This is a first for any Israeli airline and was seen by many as a means to attract many Haredi passengers to the airline at a time when they were showing great dissatisfaction with arch-rival, El Al, following their flying of aircraft on the Shabbat. On in 2007, an Israir passenger announced he was filing a lawsuit against the airline for misadvertising the legroom they offered on their aircraft. In early 2008, when restrictions were lifted on Israeli airlines' destinations, Israir applied for designated carrier status on routes from Israel to London, Berlin, Amsterdam, Budapest, Las Vegas, Miami – some of which were destinations served by the airline as charter routes back then. Israir received the first of the two ATR 72 aircraft it had on order in early July 2011 to replace the ATR 42, with the second one expected to follow that month.
In 2014, the airline posted losses of 18.4 million shekel. On 25 May 2015, an Israir Airbus A320-200 has been seized by Portuguese authorities while in Lisbon over unpaid debts to Portuguese euroAtlantic Airways for a leasing contract in 2008. In May 2015, El Al confirmed to be in talks to merge its subsidiary Sun D'Or into Israir Airlines. While Sun D'Or would be dissolved, El Al would gain shares in Israir instead; the Israir fleet consists of the following aircraft: In June 2001, one of Israir's ATR 42-320 aircraft was damaged beyond repair following a heavy landing at Ben Gurion Airport. Despite the aircraft being written off, no passengers were injured in this incident. On July 6, 2005 a loaded Israir 767 accidentally taxied onto an active runway at JFK, a Douglas DC-8 cargo aircraft narrowly avoided collision by taking off at full throttle above them, with only 45 feet of clearance over the 767; the pilots and several high-ranking Israir officials were dismissed as a result. In May 2007, an Israir Airlines aircraft on a test flight was shot down by Israeli F-16 jets after it entered a demarcation zone where airlines are expected to identify themselves.
That month, on May 23, an Israir flight had to make an emergency landing following smoke build up in the cabin on approach at Berlin-Schönefeld International Airport. No one was injured in the incident. In July 2008, an Israir Airlines aircraft flew from Eilat Airport to Ben Gurion International Airport with a small hole in its frame; the hole was discovered by mechanics at Ben Gurion and there is an ongoing probe as to whether or not Israir knew of the hole, which, as it turns out, was caused by Israir workers in Eilat when they crashed a mobile staircase into the aircraft's body. The plane was scheduled to fly to Italy from Tel Aviv, at an altitude of over 10,000 meters, the plane would most have experienced a decompression. Media related to Israir at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Marseille Provence Airport
Marseille Provence Airport or Aéroport de Marseille Provence is an international airport located 27 km northwest of Marseille, on the territory of Marignane, both communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône département in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur région of France. The airport's hinterland goes from Gap from Toulon to Avignon, it is the fifth busiest French airport by passenger traffic and third largest for cargo traffic. In 2012 the airport achieved the fourth highest European passenger traffic growth, at 12.7% with 8,295,479 passengers. Marseille Provence Airport serves as a focus city for Air France. In summer 2013, the airport served 132 regular destinations, the largest offer in France after the Parisian airports. Known as Marseille–Marignane Airport, it has been managed since 1934 by the Marseille-Provence Chamber of Commerce and Industry. In the 1920s and 1930s, Marignane was one of France's main points of operation for flying boats, it briefly served as a terminal for Pan American World Airways Clipper flying boats.
Other flying boat operators were Aéropostale and Air Union, the latter moving over from Antibes in 1931. Marignane was a production site for hydroplanes by Lioré et Olivier. Antoine de Saint-Exupery describes turning back to Marignane airport with a fuel leak in chapter 8 of “Wind and Stars”, before setting out again for Tunis, the fateful event that informed his description of the crash-landing in his best-known book, “The Little Prince”. In September 2006, the airport opened its new terminal MP2 for budget airlines. In 2013 the airport expanded its shopping and dining options, with 30 new shops and restaurants, among, the first Burger King restaurant in France since 1997. See source Wikidata query; the airport is served by the Vitrolles Marseille Provence Airport rail station on the TER network. A free shuttle bus runs between the station; the airport is the main fixed wing base of Sécurité Civile, the aerial firefighting division of the French Ministry of the Interior.** This Sécurité Civile base has now moved to nearby Nîmes-Garons.
The head office of Airbus Helicopters is located on the airport property. On 4 February 1948, SNCASE Languedoc P/7 F-BATK of Air France was damaged beyond economical repair. On 30 July 1950, SNCASE Languedoc P/7 F-BCUI of Air France was damaged beyond economic repair when its undercarriage collapsed on landing. On 6 February 1989 Inter Cargo Service Flight 3132, operated by Vickers Vanguard F-GEJE crashed on takeoff. Three crew died, no passengers were being carried. On 26 December 1994 Air France Flight 8969 with 236 people aboard arrived in Marseille after being hijacked by four young men of the Armed Islamic Group at Houari Boumediene Airport in Algiers, Algeria two days prior. After 15 hours on the ground and a breakdown in negotiations, the French special forces GIGN stormed the aircraft. In the ensuing firefight, all four hijackers were killed while 3 crew, 13 passengers, 9 GIGN Operators were injured; the Airbus A300B2-1C F-GBEC was written off. Media related to Marseille Provence Airport at Wikimedia Commons Marseille Provence Airport, official site in English and French Aéroport de Marseille-Provence page at Union des Aéroports Français Airport information for LFML at World Aero Data.
Data current as of October 2006. Current weather for LFML at NOAA/NWS Accident history for MRS: Marseille–Marignane Airport at Aviation Safety Network
Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. From 1982 to 2016, Alsace was the smallest administrative région in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. Alsatian is an Alemannic dialect related to Swabian and Swiss German, although since World War II most Alsatians speak French. Internal and international migration since 1945 has changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences; the economic and cultural capital of Alsace, as well as its largest city, is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies; the name "Alsace" can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain".
An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning "seated on the Ill", a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters. By 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land, it should be noted that Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture. To protect this valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni; the Alemanni were agricultural people, their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine.
Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis' Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized. Alsace remained under Frankish control until the Frankish realm, following the Oaths of Strasbourg of 842, was formally dissolved in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts; the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothar's son. The rest was shared between Louis the German; the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the stem duchy of Swabia. At about this time, the surrounding areas experienced recurring fragmentation and reincorporations among a number of feudal secular and ecclesiastical lordships, a common process in the Holy Roman Empire.
Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors. Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants; the idea was that such men would be more tractable and less to alienate the fief from the crown out of their own greed. The province had a central administration with its seat at Hagenau. Frederick II designated the Bishop of Strasbourg to administer Alsace, but the authority of the bishop was challenged by Count Rudolf of Habsburg, who received his rights from Frederick II's son Conrad IV. Strasbourg began to grow to become the commercially important town in the region. In 1262, after a long struggle with the ruling bishops, its citizens gained the status of free imperial city. A stop on the Paris-Vienna-Orient trade route, as well as a port on the Rhine route linking southern Germany and Switzerland to the Netherlands and Scandinavia, it became the political and economic center of the region. Cities such as Colmar and Hagenau began to grow in economic importance and gained a kind of autonomy within the "Décapole", a federation of ten free towns.
As in much of Europe, the prosperity of Alsace came to an end in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. These hardships were blamed on Jews, leading to the pogroms of 1336 and 1339. In 1349, Jews of Alsace were accused of poisoning the wells with plague, leading to the massacre of thousands of Jews during the Strasbourg pogrom. Jews were subsequently forbidden to settle in the town. An additional natural disaster was the Rhine rift earthquake of 1356, one of Europe's worst which made ruins of Basel. Prosperity returned to Alsace under Habsburg administration during the Renaissance. Holy Roman Empire central power had begun to decline following years of imperial adventures in Italian lands ceding hegemony in Western Europe to France, which had long since centralized power. France began an aggressive policy of expanding eastward, first to the riv
Air France, stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance; as of 2013 Air France serves 36 destinations in France and operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to 168 destinations in 78 countries and carried 46,803,000 passengers in 2015. The airline's global hub is at Charles de Gaulle Airport with Orly Airport as the primary domestic hub. Air France's corporate headquarters in Montparnasse, are located on the grounds of Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris. Air France was formed on 7 October 1933 from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne, Société Générale de Transport Aérien. During the Cold War, from 1950 until 1990, it was one of the three main Allied scheduled airlines operating in Germany at West Berlin's Tempelhof and Tegel airports. In 1990, it acquired the operations of French domestic carrier Air Inter and international rival UTA – Union de Transports Aériens.
It served as France's primary national flag carrier for seven decades prior to its 2003 merger with KLM. Between April 2001 and March 2002, the airline carried 43.3 million passengers and had a total revenue of €12.53bn. In November 2004, Air France ranked as the largest European airline with 25.5% total market share, was the largest airline in the world in terms of operating revenue. On 25 July 2000, a Concorde that Air France owned crashed on a hotel in Gonesse. Air France operates a mixed fleet of Airbus and Boeing widebody jets on long-haul routes, uses Airbus A320 family aircraft on short-haul routes. Air France introduced the A380 on 20 November 2009 with service to New York City's JFK Airport from Paris' Charles de Gaulle Airport; the carrier's regional airline subsidiary, HOP!, operates the majority of its regional domestic and European scheduled services with a fleet of regional jet aircraft. Air France was formed on 7 October 1933, from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne and Société Générale des Transports Aériens.
Of these airlines, SGTA was the first commercial airline company in France, having been founded as Lignes Aériennes Farman in 1919. The constituent members of Air France had built extensive networks across Europe, to French colonies in North Africa and farther afield. During World War II, Air France moved its operations to Casablanca. In 1936, Air France added French-built twin engine Potez 62 aircraft to its fleet featuring a two compartment cabin that could accommodate 14 to 16 passengers. A high wing monoplane, it had a wooden fuselage with composite coating while the wings were fabric covered with a metal leading edge. Equipped with Hispano-Suiza V-engines, they were used on routes in Europe, South America and the Far East. Although cruising at only 175 miles per hour, the Potez 62 was a robust and reliable workhorse for Air France and remained in service until the Second World War with one used by the Free French Air Force. On 26 June 1945 all of France's air transport companies were nationalised.
On 29 December 1945, a decree of the French Government granted Air France the management of the entire French air transport network. Air France appointed its first flight attendants in 1946; the same year the airline opened its first air terminal at Les Invalides in central Paris. It was linked to Paris Le Bourget Airport, Air France's first operations and engineering base, by coach. At that time the network covered 160,000 km, claimed to be the longest in the world. Société Nationale Air France was set up on 1 January 1946. European schedules were operated by a fleet of Douglas DC-3 aircraft. On 1 July 1946, Air France started direct flights between Paris and New York via refuelling stops at Shannon and Gander. Douglas DC-4 piston-engine airliners covered the route in just under 20 hours. In September 1947 Air France's network stretched east from New York, Fort de France and Buenos Aires to Shanghai. By 1948 Air France operated one of the largest fleets in the world. Between 1947 and 1965 the airline operated Lockheed Constellations on passenger and cargo services worldwide.
In 1946 and 1948 the French government authorised the creation of two private airlines: Transports Aériens Internationaux – Transports Aériens Intercontinentaux – and SATI. In 1949 the latter became part of Union Aéromaritime de Transport, a private French international airline. Compagnie Nationale Air France was created by act of parliament on 16 June 1948; the government held 70%. In subsequent years the French state's direct and indirect shareholdings reached 100%. In mid-2002 the state held 54%. On 4 August 1948 Max Hymans was appointed the president. During his 13-year tenure he would implement modernisation practices centred on the introduction of jet aircraft. In 1949 the company became a co-founder of Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques, an airline telecommunications services company. In 1952 Air France moved its operations and engineering base to the new Paris Orly Airport South terminal. By the network covered 250,000 km. Air France entered the jet age in 1953 with the original, short-lived de Havilland Comet series 1, the world's first jetliner.
During the mid-1950s it operated the Vickers Viscount turboprop, with twelve entering services between May 1953 and August 1954 on the European routes. On 26 September1953z the government instructed Air France to share long-distance
Toulouse–Blagnac Airport is an international airport located 3.6 nautical miles west northwest of Toulouse, in Blagnac, both communes of the Haute-Garonne department in the Occitanie region of France. In 2017, the airport served 9,264,611 passengers; as of April 2017, the airport features flights to 74 destinations in Europe and Northern Africa with a few additional seasonal long-haul connections. The airport resides at an elevation of 499 feet above mean sea level, it has two asphalt paved runways: 14R/32L is 3,500 by 45 metres and 14L/32R is 3,000 by 45 metres. Both Airbus and ATR test them from the airport. A Concorde operated by Air France with the registration F-BVFC is preserved at the Aeroscopia Museum near the airport. Toulouse–Blagnac Airport S. A. is a limited liability company. Toulouse–Blagnac Airport S. A. has authority to operate the airport until 2046 under a franchise agreement awarded by the French government. The current CEO is Philippe Crébassa; the following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights to and from Toulouse: Since April 2015, the tram line T2 connects Toulouse with the airport every 15 minutes.
The tram connects with metro ligne A at Arènes and metro ligne B at Palais de Justice. It takes about 35 minutes with a change to go to the town center by tram. Shuttle buses to Toulouse city centre stop outside Hall B every 20 minutes. Faster than the tram, they take 20 minutes to reach the city centre, stopping at Compans Caffarelli and Jeanne d'Arc, Jean Jaurès and at Toulouse-Matabiau railway station. Three daily coach services connect Toulouse–Blagnac Airport to Andorra, which does not have its own commercial airport. On 29 January 1988, Inter Cargo Service Flight 1004, operated by Vickers Vanguard F-GEJF crashed when take-off was attempted with only three operable engines. On 30 June 1994, an Airbus A330-300 performing a test flight crashed shortly after takeoff, due to a series of mistakes while conducting a flight test simulating an engine failure. All seven people on board died in the accident. On 15 November 2007, a brand-new Airbus A340-600 due to be delivered to Etihad Airways ran up and over the top of a concrete sloped blast-deflection wall during an engine test at the Airbus factory at the airport.
This was due to the crew not following proper test procedures, raising all four engines to maximum thrust while the wheels were un-chocked. The attempt to steer away from the wall resulted in decreased braking power. Five people were injured and the aircraft was written off. Media related to Toulouse Blagnac International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Aéroport de Toulouse – Blagnac Radar Toulouse Current weather for LFBO at NOAA/NWS Accident history for TLS at Aviation Safety Network LiveATC.net
High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks. While there is no single standard that applies worldwide, new lines in excess of 250 kilometres per hour and existing lines in excess of 200 kilometres per hour are considered to be high-speed, with some extending the definition to include lower speeds in areas for which these speeds still represent significant improvements; the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, the first such system, began operations in Japan in 1964 and was known as the bullet train. High-speed trains operate on standard gauge tracks of continuously welded rail on grade-separated right-of-way that incorporates a large turning radius in its design. Many countries have developed high-speed rail to connect major cities, including Austria, China, France, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Uzbekistan. Only in Europe does HSR cross international borders.
China had 29,000 kilometres of HSR as of December 2018, accounting for two-thirds of the world's total. Multiple definitions for high-speed rail are in use worldwide; the European Union Directive 96/48/EC, Annex 1 defines high-speed rail in terms of: Infrastructure: track built specially for high-speed travel or specially upgraded for high-speed travel. Minimum Speed Limit: Minimum speed of 250 km/h on lines specially built for high speed and of about 200 km/h on existing lines which have been specially upgraded; this must apply to at least one section of the line. Rolling stock must be able to reach a speed of at least 200 km/h to be considered high speed. Operating conditions: Rolling stock must be designed alongside its infrastructure for complete compatibility and quality of service; the International Union of Railways identifies three categories of high-speed rail: Category I – New tracks specially constructed for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 250 km/h. Category II – Existing tracks specially upgraded for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 200 km/h.
Category III – Existing tracks specially upgraded for high speeds, allowing a maximum running speed of at least 200 km/h, but with some sections having a lower allowable speed. A third definition of high-speed and high-speed rail requires simultaneous fulfilment of the following two conditions: Maximum achievable running speed in excess of 200 km/h, or 250 km/h for high-speed, Average running speed across the corridor in excess of 150 km/h, or 200 km/h for high-speed; the UIC prefers to use "definitions" because they consider that there is no single standard definition of high-speed rail, nor standard usage of the terms. They make use of the European EC Directive 96/48, stating that high speed is a combination of all the elements which constitute the system: infrastructure, rolling stock and operating conditions; the International Union of Railways states that high-speed rail is a set of unique features, not a train travelling above a particular speed. Many conventionally hauled trains are able to reach 200 km/h in commercial service but are not considered to be high-speed trains.
These include the French SNCF Intercités and German DB IC. The criterion of 200 kilometres per hour is selected for several reasons. Standard signaling equipment is limited to speeds below 200 km/h with the traditional limits of 79 mph in the US, 160 km/h in Germany and 125 mph in Britain. Above those speeds positive train control or the European Train Control System becomes necessary or mandatory. National domestic standards may vary from the international ones. Only one HSR line has been permanently closed after being put into commercial service, the KTX Incheon International Airport to Seoul Line, due to a mix of issues, including poor ridership and track sharing. Railways were the first form of rapid land transportation and had an effective monopoly on long distance passenger traffic until the development of the motor car and airliners in the early-mid 20th century. Speed had always been an important factor for railroads and they tried to achieve higher speeds and decrease journey times. Rail transportation in the late 19th Century was not much slower than non-high-speed trains today and many railroads operated fast express trains which averaged speeds of around 100 km/h.
High-speed rail development began in Germany in 1899 when the Prussian state railway joined with ten electrical and engineering firms and electrified 72 km of military owned railway between Marienfelde and Zossen. The line used three-phase current at 45 Hz; the Van der Zypen & Charlier company of Deutz, Cologne built two railcars, one fitted with electrical equipment from Siemens-Halske, the second with equipment from Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft, that were tested on the Marienfelde–Zossen line during 1902 and 1903. On 23 October 1903, the S&H-equipped railcar achieved a speed of 206.7 km/h and on 27 October the AEG-equipped railcar achieved 210.2 km
Rennes–Saint-Jacques Airport or Aéroport de Rennes–Saint-Jacques is a minor international airport about 6 kilometres southwest of Rennes, Ille-et-Vilaine, in the region of Brittany, France. Before the construction of this airport, Rennes had a small hippodrome, used as a landing strip in Gayeulles, to the northeast of the city. In 1931 work started on a proper airport to service Rennes, a plot of 380,000 square metres in Saint-Jacques-de-la-Lande to the southwest of the city was acquired and building began. On 28 July 1933, the new airport was opened by Pierre Cot. Seized by the Germans in June 1940 during the Battle of France, Rennes airport was used as a Luftwaffe military airfield during the occupation. Known units assigned: Jagdgeschwader 53 – July – 23 August 1940 – Messerschmitt Bf 109E Kampfgeschwader 27 – 27 July 1940 – April 1941 – Heinkel He 111P/H Kampfgeschwader 26 – 26 April – June 1942 – Heinkel He 111H Kampfgeschwader 77 – 30 May – 30 June 1942 – Junkers Ju 88A Schnellkampfgeschwader 10 – 10 April – 11 June 1943 – Focke-Wulf Fw 190A Jagdgeschwader 11 – 7–20 June 1944 – Focke-Wulf Fw 190AJG 53 and KG 27 took part in operations over England during the Battle of Britain.
In addition, numerous Luftwaffe Anti-Aircraft FLAK batteries were controlled from Rennes. Rennes was attacked by Eighth Air Force B-17 Flying Fortress bombers on 9 January 1944, was overflown on several night leaflet drops during the spring of 1944; the airport was attacked during the Allied invasion of Normandy during June 1944 on several occasions by B-26 Marauder medium bombers of IX Bomber Command, 323d Bombardment Group. The medium bombers would attack in coordinated raids in the mid-to-late afternoon, with Eighth Air Force heavy bombers returning from attacking their targets in Germany; the attack was timed to have the maximum effect possible to keep the Luftwaffe interceptors pinned down on the ground and be unable to attack the heavy bombers. The P-47 Thunderbolts of Ninth Air Force would be dispatched to perform fighter sweeps over Rennes after the Marauder raids meet up with the heavy bombers and provide fighter escort back to England; as the P-51 Mustang groups of Eighth Air Force began accompanying the heavy bombers all the way to their German targets by mid-1944, it was routine for them to attack Rennes on their return to England with a fighter sweep and attack any target of opportunity to be found at the airfield.
It was liberated by Allied ground forces about 7 August 1944 during the Northern France Campaign. The United States Army Air Forces IX Engineering Command 820th Engineer Aviation Battalion cleared the airport of mines and destroyed Luftwaffe aircraft. Subsequently, Rennes Airport became a USAAF Ninth Air Force combat airfield, designated as "A-27" about 10 August. Under American control, the 362d Fighter Group operated P-47 Thunderbolts from the airport from 10 August though 19 September. In addition, the 10th Reconnaissance Group operated various photo-reconnaissance aircraft during August and September, it became the headquarters of IX Air Defense Command on 25 August; the fighter planes flew support missions during the Allied campaign in Central and Eastern France, patrolling roads in front of the advancing ground forces. The combat units moved out by the end of September and Rennes Airport was used as a supply and maintenance depot for American aircraft for several months, before being returned to French civil control on 30 November 1944.
Reconstructed after the war, the airport returned to its normal civil use. Some World War II bomb craters can still be seen in grassy areas north of the main runway; the main runway can be used by planes with up to around 180 passengers, it is best fitted for middle-range flights. For cargo transportation services, it is suitable for planes like Boeing up to 757 and 767, Airbus A310, or Ilyushin IL-76, it is equipped with ILS. The secondary paved runway is suitable for light motorized planes. A controversial long-time project to build a large airport near Nantes, the Aéroport du Grand Ouest, some 80km to the south of Rennes is still in an uncertain state; that airport was planned to serve both cities. It would require the building of faster and more frequent transit services to both cities and to their existing airports, through the modernization of the existing regional Rennes–Nantes railway link through Redon, the interconnection with their fast TGV railway stations. On 17/01/2017, the French government decided to cancel the project for this new airport, allow credits to help development of Rennes airport.
Rennes airport is the 14th for the total of transported passengers in 2018: 2004: 377,325 passengers 2005: 407,678 passengers 2010: 411,841 passengers 2013: 481,271 passengers 2014: 501,218 passengers 2015: 539,000 passengers 2016: 640,768 passengers 2017: 724,566 passengers 2018: 856,791 passengersRennes airport is the 9th for the total of transported freight in 2016: 2004: 12,620 tonnes 2005: 12,250 tonnes 2012: 13,449 tonnes 2016: 11,044 tonnes Advanced Landing Ground This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Media related to Rennes – S