Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy. It may extend to control mechanisms for guiding the implementation of the strategy. Strategic planning became prominent in corporations during the 1960s and remains an important aspect of strategic management, it is executed by strategic planners or strategists, who involve many parties and research sources in their analysis of the organization and its relationship to the environment in which it competes. Strategy has many definitions, but involves setting goals, determining actions to achieve the goals, mobilizing resources to execute the actions. A strategy describes; the senior leadership of an organization is tasked with determining strategy. Strategy can be planned or can be observed as a pattern of activity as the organization adapts to its environment or competes. Strategy includes processes of implementation. However, strategic planning is analytical in nature.
As such, strategic planning occurs around the strategy formation activity. Strategic planning is a process and thus has inputs, activities and outcomes; this process, like all processes, has constraints. It may be formal or informal and is iterative, with feedback loops throughout the process; some elements of the process may be continuous and others may be executed as discrete projects with a definitive start and end during a period. Strategic planning provides inputs for strategic thinking, which guides the actual strategy formation. Typical strategic planning efforts include the evaluation of the organization's mission and strategic issues to strengthen current practices and determine the need for new programming; the end result is the organization's strategy, including a diagnosis of the environment and competitive situation, a guiding policy on what the organization intends to accomplish, key initiatives or action plans for achieving the guiding policy. Michael Porter wrote in 1980 that formulation of competitive strategy includes consideration of four key elements: Company strengths and weaknesses.
The first two elements relate to factors internal to the company, while the latter two relate to factors external to the company. These elements are considered throughout the strategic planning process. Data is gathered from a variety of sources, such as interviews with key executives, review of publicly available documents on the competition or market, primary research, industry studies, etc; this may be part of a competitive intelligence program. Inputs are gathered to help support an understanding of the competitive environment and its opportunities and risks. Other inputs include an understanding of the values of key stakeholders, such as the board and senior management; these values may be captured in an organization's mission statements. Strategic planning activities include meetings and other communication among the organization's leaders and personnel to develop a common understanding regarding the competitive environment and what the organization's response to that environment should be.
A variety of strategic planning tools may be completed as part of strategic planning activities. The organization's leaders may have a series of questions they want answered in formulating the strategy and gathering inputs, such as: What is the organization's business or interest? What is considered "value" to the customer or constituency? Which products and services should be included or excluded from the portfolio of offerings? What is the geographic scope of the organization? What differentiates the organization from its competitors in the eyes of customers and other stakeholders? Which skills and resources should be developed within the organization? The output of strategic planning includes documentation and communication describing the organization's strategy and how it should be implemented, sometimes referred to as the strategic plan; the strategy may include a diagnosis of the competitive situation, a guiding policy for achieving the organization's goals, specific action plans to be implemented.
A strategic plan may be updated periodically. The organization may use a variety of methods of measuring and monitoring progress towards the objectives and measures established, such as a balanced scorecard or strategy map. Companies may plan their financial statements for several years when developing their strategic plan, as part of the goal setting activity; the term operational budget is used to describe the expected financial performance of an organization for the upcoming year. Capital budgets often form the backbone of a strategic plan as it relates to Information and Communications Technology. Whilst the planning process produces outputs, as described above, strategy implementation or execution of the strategic plan produces Outcomes; these outcomes will invariably differ from the strategic goals. How close they are to the strategic goals and vision will determine the success or failure of the strategic plan. There will arise unintended
An after action review is a structured review or de-brief process for analyzing what happened, why it happened, how it can be done better by the participants and those responsible for the project or event. After-action reviews in the formal sense were developed by the U. S. Army. Formal AARs are used by many other non-US organizations, their use has extended to business as a knowledge management tool and a way to build a culture of accountability. An AAR occurs within a cycle of establishing the leader's intent, preparation and review. An AAR is distinct from a de-brief in that it begins with a clear comparison of intended vs. actual results achieved. An AAR is distinct from a post-mortem in its tight focus on participant's own action. Recommendations for others are not produced. AARs in larger operations can be cascaded in order to keep each level of the organization focused on its own performance within a particular event or project. Formal AAR meetings are run by a facilitator, can be chronological reviews or focused on a few key issues selected by the team leader.
Short cycle informal AARs are run by the team leader or assistant and are quick. There are two types of military AARs—formal and informal. Formal AARs require more detailed planning and resources, they are scheduled and conducted as a part of external and internal evaluations. Informal AARs require less planning and preparation than formal AARs and are on-the-spot reviews of soldier and collective training performance at crew, squad, or platoon level. Formal AARs are conducted at company level and above. However, when a training event is focused at squad or platoon level, resources are available, a formal AAR may be conducted to gain maximum training benefit. Externally evaluated lane training, small-unit ARTEPs, tank and BFV gunnery tables are prime examples. Informal crew and platoon AARs are held prior to company and higher-echelon AARs; the AAR facilitator provides a mission and task overview and leads a discussion of events and activities that focuses on the objectives. The discussion with leaders and soldiers should orient on the use of terrain integration of key BOS, leader actions.
The discussion should examine the weapons systems and doctrine used by the enemy during the exercise. At the close, the AAR leader summarizes comments from the observers, covering strengths and weaknesses discussed during the AAR and what the unit needs to do to fix the weaknesses. Informal AARs are conducted for soldier and crew-, squad-, platoon-level training or when resources are not available to conduct a formal review, they are held for lower echelons prior to a formal company- or higher-level AAR, though they may be conducted at company level. Informal AARs are important since they involve all soldiers and leaders in the participating unit; the formal company AARs for the training event depend on these informal reviews. These are sometimes referred to as a hotwash. Informal AARs may be done for large or small units, they may be scheduled. Discussion comments could be recorded to use in follow-on AARs or to apply the lessons learned as the exercise is repeated. After action report Morbidity and mortality conference US Army A Leader's Guide to After-Action Reviews.
UNICEF After Action Review, September 2015
Futures studies called futurology, is the study of postulating possible and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. In general, it can be considered as a branch of the social sciences and parallel to the field of history. Futures studies seeks to understand what is to continue and what could plausibly change. Part of the discipline thus seeks a systematic and pattern-based understanding of past and present, to determine the likelihood of future events and trends. Unlike the physical sciences where a narrower, more specified system is studied, futurology concerns a much bigger and more complex world system; the methodology and knowledge are much less proven as compared to natural science or social science like sociology and economics. There is a debate as to whether this discipline is an art or science and sometimes described by scientists as pseudoscience. Futures studies is an interdisciplinary field that aggregates and analyzes trends, with both lay and professional methods, to compose possible futures.
It includes analyzing the sources and causes of change and stability in an attempt to develop foresight. Around the world the field is variously referred to as futures studies, strategic foresight, futures thinking and futurology. Futures studies and strategic foresight are the academic field's most used terms in the English-speaking world. Foresight was the original term and was first used in this sense by H. G. Wells in 1932. "Futurology" is a term common in encyclopedias, though it is used exclusively by nonpractitioners today, at least in the English-speaking world. "Futurology" is defined as the "study of the future." The term was coined by German professor Ossip K. Flechtheim in the mid-1940s, who proposed it as a new branch of knowledge that would include a new science of probability; this term has fallen from favor in recent decades because modern practitioners stress the importance of alternative and plural futures, rather than one monolithic future, the limitations of prediction and probability, versus the creation of possible and preferable futures.
Three factors distinguish futures studies from the research conducted by other disciplines. First, futures studies examines trends to compose possible and preferable futures along with the role "wild cards" can play on future scenarios. Second, futures studies attempts to gain a holistic or systemic view based on insights from a range of different disciplines focusing on the STEEP categories of Social, Economic and Political. Third, futures studies challenges and unpacks the assumptions behind dominant and contending views of the future; the future thus is not fraught with hidden assumptions. For example, many people expect the collapse of the Earth's ecosystem in the near future, while others believe the current ecosystem will survive indefinitely. A foresight approach would seek to highlight the assumptions underpinning such views; as a field, futures studies expands on the research component, by emphasizing the communication of a strategy and the actionable steps needed to implement the plan or plans leading to the preferable future.
It is in this regard, that futures studies evolves from an academic exercise to a more traditional business-like practice, looking to better prepare organizations for the future. Futures studies does not focus on short term predictions such as interest rates over the next business cycle, or of managers or investors with short-term time horizons. Most strategic planning, which develops goals and objectives with time horizons of one to three years, is not considered futures. Plans and strategies with longer time horizons that attempt to anticipate possible future events are part of the field; as a rule, futures studies is concerned with changes of transformative impact, rather than those of an incremental or narrow scope. The futures field excludes those who make future predictions through professed supernatural means. Johan Galtung and Sohail Inayatullah argue in Macrohistory and Macrohistorians that the search for grand patterns of social change goes all the way back to Ssu-Ma Chien and his theory of the cycles of virtue, although the work of Ibn Khaldun such as The Muqaddimah would be an example, more intelligible to modern sociology.
Early western examples include Sir Thomas More’s “Utopia,” published in 1516, based upon Plato’s “Republic,” in which a future society has overcome poverty and misery to create a perfect model for living. This work was so powerful that utopias have come to represent positive and fulfilling futures in which everyone’s needs are met; some intellectual foundations of futures studies appeared in the mid-19th century. Isadore Comte, considered the father of scientific philosophy, was influenced by the work of utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, his discussion of the metapatterns of social change presages futures studies as a scholarly dialogue; the first works that attempt to make systematic predictions for the future were written in the 18th century. Memoirs of the Twentieth Century written by Samuel Madden in 1733, takes the form of a series of diplomatic letters written in 1997 and 1998 from British representatives in the foreign cities of Constantinople, Rome and Moscow. However, the technology of the 20th century is identical to that of Madden's own era - the focus is instead on the political and religious state of the world in the future.
Madden went on to write The Reign of George VI, 1900 to 1925, where (in th
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Planning is the process of thinking about the activities required to achieve a desired goal. It is the foremost activity to achieve desired results, it involves the creation and maintenance of a plan, such as psychological aspects that require conceptual skills. There are a couple of tests to measure someone’s capability of planning well; as such, planning is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior. An important further meaning just called "planning" is the legal context of permitted building developments. Planning has a specific process and is necessary for multiple occupations. In each field there are different types of plans that help companies achieve efficiency and effectiveness. An important, albeit ignored aspect of planning, is the relationship it holds to forecasting. Forecasting can be described as predicting what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future should look like for multiple scenarios. Planning combines how to react to them. Planning is one of time management techniques.
Planning is preparing a sequence of action steps to achieve some specific goal. If a person does it they can reduce much the necessary time and effort of achieving the goal. A plan is like a map; when following a plan, a person can see how much they have progressed towards their project goal and how far they are from their destination. Planning is one of the executive functions of the brain, encompassing the neurological processes involved in the formulation and selection of a sequence of thoughts and actions to achieve a desired goal. Various studies utilizing a combination of neuropsychological, neuropharmacological and functional neuroimaging approaches have suggested there is a positive relationship between impaired planning ability and damage to the frontal lobe. A specific area within the mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex located in the frontal lobe has been implicated as playing an intrinsic role in both cognitive planning and associated executive traits such as working memory. Disruption of the neural pathways, via various mechanisms such as traumatic brain injury, or the effects of neurodegenerative diseases between this area of the frontal cortex and the basal ganglia the striatum, may disrupt the processes required for normal planning function.
Individuals who were born Very Low Birth Weight and Extremely Low BirthWeight are at greater risk for various cognitive deficits including planning ability. There are a variety of neuropsychological tests which can be used to measure variance of planning ability between the subject and controls. Tower of Hanoi, a puzzle invented in 1883 by the French mathematician Édouard Lucas. There are different variations of the puzzle, the classic version consists of three rods and seven to nine discs of subsequently smaller size. Planning is a key component of the problem solving skills necessary to achieve the objective, to move the entire stack to another rod, obeying the following rules: Only one disk may be moved at a time; each move consists of taking the upper disk from one of the rods and sliding it onto another rod, on top of the other disks that may be present on that rod. No disk may be placed on top of a smaller disk. Tower of London is another test, developed in 1992 to detect deficits in planning as may occur with damage to the frontal lobe.
Test participants with damage to the left anterior frontal lobe demonstrated planning deficits. In test participants with damage to the right anterior, left or right posterior areas of the frontal lobes showed no impairment; the results implicating the left anterior frontal lobes involvement in solving the TOL were supported in concomitant neuroimaging studies which showed a reduction in regional cerebral blood flow to the left pre-frontal lobe. For the number of moves, a significant negative correlation was observed for the left prefrontal area: i.e. subjects that took more time planning their moves showed greater activation in the left prefrontal area. Public policy planning includes environmental, land use, regional and spatial planning. In many countries, the operation of a town and country planning system is referred to as "planning" and the professionals which operate the system are known as "planners", it is a conscious as well as sub-conscious activity. It is "an anticipatory decision making process".
It is deciding future course of action from amongst alternatives. It is a process that involves evaluating each set of interrelated decisions, it is selection of missions, objectives and "translation of knowledge into action." A planned performance brings better results compared to an unplanned one. A manager's job is planning and controlling. Planning and goal setting are important traits of an organization, it is done at all levels of the organization. Planning includes the plan, the thought process and implementation. Planning gives more power over the future. Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it, who should do it; this bridges the gap from. The planning function involves arranging them in logical order. A well planned organization achieve faster goals than the ones that don't plan before implementation. Patrick Montana and Bruce Charnov outline a three-step result-oriented process for planning: choosing a destination evaluating alternative routes deciding the specific course