Clayton M. Christensen
Clayton Magleby Christensen is an American academic, business consultant, religious leader who serves as the Kim B. Clark Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School of Harvard University, he is best known for his theory of "disruptive innovation"—first introduced in his first book, The Innovator's Dilemma—which has been called the most influential business idea of the early 21st century. Christensen is a co-founder of Rose Park Advisors, a venture capital firm, Innosight, a management consulting and investment firm specializing in innovation. Clayton M. Christensen was born on April 6, 1952, in Salt Lake City, the second of eight children born to Robert M. Christensen and his wife Verda Mae Christensen, he grew up in the Rose Park neighborhood of Salt Lake City and attended the nearby West High School, where he was student body president. Christensen and his siblings were raised as members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. After graduating from high school in 1970, Christensen matriculated at Brigham Young University.
While at BYU, he took a two-year leave of absence from 1971 to 1973 to serve as a volunteer full-time missionary for the LDS Church. He became a fluent speaker of Korean. Christensen returned to BYU after completing his missionary service, in 1975 graduated with an Honors B. A. summa cum laude in economics. Upon graduating, he received a Rhodes Scholarship and spent two years studying applied econometrics at Oxford University, receiving an M. Phil. in 1977. Christensen returned to the United States and moved to Harvard University to pursue an MBA at the Harvard Business School, which he earned with high distinction in 1979. After receiving his MBA in 1979, Christensen began working for the Boston Consulting Group as a consultant and project manager. In 1982, he was named a White House Fellow and took a one-year leave of absence from BCG to work in Washington, D. C. as an assistant to the U. S. Secretary of Transportation, serving under Drew Lewis and Elizabeth Dole. In 1984, he and several professors from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded an advanced ceramics company called Ceramics Process Systems Corporation.
Christensen served as its president and CEO through the late 1980s decided to leave the company and become a university professor. He returned to Harvard for doctoral study in business, receiving a Doctor of Business Administration degree in 1992. After completing his doctorate, Christensen joined the Harvard Business School faculty and set a record by achieving the rank of "full" professor in only six years. In 2000, he founded a consulting and training firm. In 2005, together with his colleagues at Innosight, he launched Innosight Ventures, a venture firm focused on investing in South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia. In 2007, he co-founded Rose Park Advisors LLC, an investment company which applies his research as an investment strategy, he serves on the board of directors of Tata Consultancy Services, Franklin Covey, the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty. At HBS, he teaches an elective course he designed called "Building and Sustaining a Successful Enterprise", which teaches how to build and manage an enduring, successful company or transform an existing organization, in many of the school's executive education programs.
Christensen was awarded a full professorship with tenure in 1998, holds eight honorary doctorates and an honorary chaired professorship at the National Tsinghua University in Taiwan. Christensen is the best-selling author of ten books, including his seminal work The Innovator's Dilemma, which received the Global Business Book Award for the best business book of the year. One of the main concepts depicted in this book is his most disseminated and famous one: disruptive innovation; the concept has been growing in interest over time according to Google Trends' data. However, due to constant misinterpretation, Christensen still writes articles trying to explain the concept further; some of his other books are focused on specific industries and discuss social issues such as education and health care. Disrupting Class looks at the root causes of why schools struggle and offers solutions, while The Innovator's Prescription examines how to fix the American healthcare system; the latter two books have received numerous awards as the best books on education and health care in their respective years of publication.
The Innovator's Prescription was awarded the 2010 James A. Hamilton Award, by the College of Healthcare Executives. Christensen lives in Massachusetts with his wife, Christine, they have five children, including Matthew Christensen, who played college basketball at Duke University and was a member of the 2001 National Championship team. Christensen himself is an avid basketball player who stands 6 ft 8 in tall, was the starting center on the men's basketball team during his time at Oxford. Christensen is a member of the LDS Church. From 1971 to 1973 he speaks fluent Korean, he has served in several leadership positions in the LDS Church. He served as an area seventy from 2002 to 2009, he has served as a counselor in the presidency of the Massachusetts Boston Mission and as a bishop. In February 2010, Christensen announced. In July 2010, he had an ischemic stroke. Despite Christensen’s health setbacks, he is once again teaching and writing. In 2011, C
Dr. Gary P. Hamel is an American management expert, he is a founder of an international management consulting firm based in Chicago. Hamel is a graduate of Andrews University and the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan. Hamel has been a Visiting Professor of International Business at the University of Michigan and at Harvard Business School, he is a visiting Professor of Strategic Management at London Business School. Gary Hamel is the originator of the concept of core competencies, he is the director of the Woodside Institute, a nonprofit research foundation based in Woodside, California. He was a founder of the consulting firm Strategos, serving as chairman until 2003; the UTEK Corporation acquired Strategos in 2008 in an all-stock transaction as reported by the SEC. In 2012 Strategos became an independent strategy and innovation consultancy once again through a management buy-out; the Wall Street Journal ranked Gary Hamel as one of the world's most influential business thinkers, Forbes magazine has called him "the world's leading expert on business strategy".
In 2013, his name was not present on an updated version of the Wall Street Journal list. He is a member of the Reliance Innovation Council formed by Reliance Industries Limited, India. Competing for the Future ISBN 978-0-87584-716-0 Alliance Advantage: The Art of Creating Value Through Partnering ISBN 978-0-87584-616-3 Strategic Flexibility: Managing in a Turbulent Environment ISBN 978-0-471-98473-3 Leading the Revolution ISBN 978-0-452-28324-4 The Future of Management ISBN 978-1-4221-0250-3 What Matters Now: How to Win in a World of Relentless Change, Ferocious Competition, Unstoppable Innovation ISBN 978-1-118-12082-8 Competence Based Competition ISBN 0-471-94397-5Articles, a selectionThe Core Competence of the Corporation Strategic Intent (with C. K. Prahalad. Official site Management Innovation Exchange is one of Gary Hamel's newest projects where he talks about the need to reinvent management for the next century MLab website Gary Hamel Biography on the World Business Forum where Hamel is a featured speaker for the 2011 event
A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower
A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower is the United States' maritime strategy. It was presented by the U. S. Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandants of the U. S. Marine Corps and U. S. Coast Guard at the International Seapower Symposium at the U. S. Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island on October 17, 2007; the new maritime strategy explains the comprehensive role of the sea services in an era marked by globalization and uncertainty. The development of a new strategy began in June 2006 at the direction of former Chief of Naval Operations and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral Mike Mullen; the last maritime strategy was published at the height of the Cold War in 1986 and needed to be updated to reflect the challenges of the 21st century. This was the first maritime strategy to be signed by the leaders of all three U. S. sea services, the Navy and Coast Guard. A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower is not infused with typical military-focused language; the strategy makes a case for the value of seapower in preserving the American way of life by maintaining safe, global commerce operations across the seas.
It acknowledges that there is a global system of connected economies which depends on the freedom of movement across the maritime commons. With such a global interconnection of economies, shocks to the system caused by regional conflicts, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, war all have potential global impact; the strategy states that U. S. vital interests are best served by having forward positioned maritime forces around the globe, postured in a way to prevent, deter and localize conflicts and disruptions to the global system that all rely upon. International from beginning to end, the strategy describes the necessity to forge global partnerships to establish a resilient peace. During testimony before the House Armed Services Committee on December 13, 2007, General James T. Conway, Commandant of the U. S. Marine Corps said: The basic premise of our newly published maritime strategy is that the United States is a force for good in the world-that while we are capable of launching a clenched fist when we must- offering the hand of friendship is an essential and prominent tool in our kit.
That premise flows from the belief. A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower articulates that U. S. maritime forces be able to operate across the full spectrum of operations, raising the prevention of war to a level equal to the conduct of war. The strategy delineates the following six expanded core capabilities for U. S. Seapower to achieve a balance of peacetime engagement and major combat operations capabilities: Forward presence Deterrence Sea control Power projection Maritime security Humanitarian assistance/disaster responseThe first four core elements listed have always been fundamental to U. S. maritime forces and were essential elements to the United States and its allies and partners during the Cold War. The last two, Maritime Security and Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Response, were elevated to core elements by the new maritime strategy; the U. S. sea services have traditionally done these types of missions but they will seek to be more proactive and purposeful in training and resourcing the missions and capabilities associated with them.
The new maritime strategy reaffirms the need for regionally concentrated, forward deployed combat power. The new maritime strategy states that: Regionally concentrated, credible combat power: The U. S.sea services will maintain credible combat power forward "in the Western Pacific and the Arabian Gulf/Indian Ocean to protect vital interests, assure friends and allies of the continuing U. S. commitment to regional security, deter and dissuade potential adversaries and peer competitors." The maritime strategy states that the U. S. does not seek adversaries, nor single out any one nation, but will be best postured to maintain security and freedom of movement across the maritime domain. Globally distributed, mission-tailored maritime forces: The U. S. sea services will establish a persistent global presence using distributed forces that are organized by mission, comprising integrated U. S. Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard capabilities. Aircraft carrier and Expeditionary Strike Groups will continue to deploy much as they do now, but they will use smaller groups or units to provide this presence across the globe, such as the Global Fleet Station.
In signing a cooperative strategy, the U. S. sea services raise the importance of cooperative relationships as the basis for global maritime security – a common goal of all maritime nations regardless of political differences. Maritime nations have always shared common interests on the sea and land-locked nations rely on the safety of those seas to maintain and enhance their way of life; the challenge for the United States is how to apply seapower in a manner that protects U. S. vital and domestic interests as it promotes greater collective security and trust across the globe. During the presentation of the new strategy to nearly 100 chiefs of navies and coast guards from around the world at the Naval War College on October 17, 2007, Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Gary Roughead, the Navy's top uniformed officer, said humanitarian and disaster aid is built on, "peace-time relationships to help mitigate human suffering by working together with other agencies and other nations responding to crises."While presenting the U.
S. Coast Guard perspective on the new U. S. maritime strategy at the same symposium, Admiral Thad Allen, Commandant of the U. S. Coast
Sun Tzu was a Chinese general, military strategist and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China. Sun Tzu is traditionally credited as the author of The Art of War, an influential work of military strategy that has affected Western and East Asian philosophy and military thinking, his works focus much more on alternatives to battle, such as stratagem, the use of spies and alternatives to war itself, the making and keeping of alliances, the uses of deceit and a willingness to submit, at least temporarily, to more powerful foes. Sun Tzu is revered in Chinese and East Asian culture as a legendary military figure, his birth name was Sun Wu and he was known outside of his family by his courtesy name Changqing. The name Sun Tzu by which he is best known in the Western World is an honorific which means "Master Sun". Sun Tzu's historicity is uncertain; the Han dynasty historian Sima Qian and other traditional Chinese historians placed him as a minister to King Helü of Wu and dated his lifetime to 544–496 BC.
Modern scholars accepting his historicity place the extant text of The Art of War in the Warring States period based on its style of composition and its descriptions of warfare. Traditional accounts state that the general's descendant Sun Bin wrote a treatise on military tactics titled The Art of War. Since Sun Wu and Sun Bin were referred to as Sun Tzu in classical Chinese texts, some historians believed them identical, prior to the rediscovery of Sun Bin's treatise in 1972. Sun Tzu's work has been employed in East Asian warfare since its composition. During the twentieth century, The Art of War grew in popularity and saw practical use in Western society as well, it continues to influence many competitive endeavors in the world, including culture, politics and sports, as well as modern warfare. The oldest available sources disagree as to; the Spring and Autumn Annals states that Sun Tzu was born in Qi, while Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian states that Sun Tzu was a native of Wu. Both sources agree that Sun Tzu was born in the late Spring and Autumn period and that he was active as a general and strategist, serving king Helü of Wu in the late sixth century BC, beginning around 512 BC.
Sun Tzu's victories inspired him to write The Art of War. The Art of War was one of the most read military treatises in the subsequent Warring States period, a time of constant war among seven ancient Chinese states – Zhao, Qi, Chu, Han and Yan – who fought to control the vast expanse of fertile territory in Eastern China. One of the more well-known stories about Sun Tzu, taken from Sima Qian, illustrates Sun Tzu's temperament as follows: Before hiring Sun Tzu, the King of Wu tested Sun Tzu's skills by commanding him to train a harem of 360 concubines into soldiers. Sun Tzu divided them into two companies, appointing the two concubines most favored by the king as the company commanders; when Sun Tzu first ordered the concubines to face right, they giggled. In response, Sun Tzu said that the general, in this case himself, was responsible for ensuring that soldiers understood the commands given to them, he reiterated the command, again the concubines giggled. Sun Tzu ordered the execution of the king's two favored concubines, to the king's protests.
He explained that if the general's soldiers understood their commands but did not obey, it was the fault of the officers. Sun Tzu said that, once a general was appointed, it was his duty to carry out his mission if the king protested. After both concubines were killed, new officers were chosen to replace them. Afterwards, both companies, now well aware of the costs of further frivolity, performed their maneuvers flawlessly. Sima Qian claimed that Sun Tzu proved on the battlefield that his theories were effective, that he had a successful military career, that he wrote The Art of War based on his tested expertise. However, the Zuozhuan, a historical text written centuries earlier than the Shiji, provides a much more detailed account of the Battle of Boju, but does not mention Sun Tzu at all. Beginning around the 12th century, some scholars began to doubt the historical existence of Sun Tzu on the grounds that he is not mentioned in the historical classic Zuo zhuan, which mentions most of the notable figures from the Spring and Autumn period.
The name "Sun Wu" does not appear in any text prior to the Shiji, may have been a made-up descriptive cognomen meaning "the fugitive warrior": the surname "Sun" can be glossed as the related term "fugitive", while "Wu" is the ancient Chinese virtue of "martial, valiant", which corresponds to Sun Tzu's role as the hero's doppelgänger in the story of Wu Zixu. The only historical battle attributed to Sun Tzu, the Battle of Boju, has no record of him fighting in that battle. Skeptics cite possible historical inaccuracies and anachronisms in the text, that the book was a compilation from different authors and military strategists. Attribution of the authorship of The Art of War varies among scholars and has included people and movements including Sun. Sun Bin appears to have been an actual person, a genuine authority on military matters, may have been the inspiration for the creation of the historical figure "Sun Tzu" through a form of euhemerism; the name Sun Wu does appear in sources such as the Shiji and the Wu Yue Chunqiu, but were written centuries after Sun Tzu's era.
The use of the strips in other works however, such as The Methods of the Sima is considered proof of Sun Tzu's historical priority. Accordin
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan was a United States naval officer and historian, whom John Keegan called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." His book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 won immediate recognition in Europe, with its successor, The Influence of Sea Power Upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812, made him world-famous and the most influential American author of the nineteenth century. Mahan was born on September 27, 1840, at West Point, New York, to Dennis Hart Mahan and Mary Helena Okill Mahan, daughter of John Okill and Mary Jay. Mahan's middle name honors Sylvanus Thayer. Mahan attended an Episcopal college preparatory academy in western Maryland, he studied at Columbia for two years, where he was a member of the Philolexian Society debating club. Against the better judgment of his father, Mahan entered the Naval Academy, where he graduated second in his class in 1859. Commissioned as a lieutenant in 1861, Mahan served the Union in the American Civil War as an officer on USS Worcester, Congress and James Adger, as an instructor at the Naval Academy.
In 1865, he was promoted to lieutenant commander, to commander, captain. As commander of the USS Wachusett he was stationed at Callao, protecting US interests during the final stages of the War of the Pacific. While in actual command of a ship, his skills were not exemplary, he had an affection for old square-rigged vessels rather than the smoky, noisy steamships of his time. In 1885, he was appointed as a lecturer in naval history and tactics at the Naval War College. Before entering on his duties, College President Rear Admiral Stephen B. Luce pointed Mahan in the direction of writing his future studies on the influence of sea power. During his first year on the faculty, he remained at his home in New York City researching and writing his lectures. Though he was prepared to become a professor in 1886, Luce was given command of the North Atlantic Squadron, Mahan became President of the Naval War College by default. There, in 1888, he met and befriended future president Theodore Roosevelt a visiting lecturer.
Mahan's lectures, based on secondary sources and the military theories of Jomini, became his sea-power studies: The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783. Mahan stressed the importance of the individual in shaping history and extolled the traditional values of loyalty and service to the state. Mahan sought to resurrect Horatio Nelson as a national hero in Britain and used his biography as a platform for expressing his views on naval strategy and tactics. Mahan was criticized for so condemning Nelson's love affair with Lady Emma Hamilton, but it remained the standard biography until the appearance of Carola Oman's Nelson, 50 years later. Mahan struck up a friendship with pioneering British naval historian Sir John Knox Laughton, the pair maintaining the relationship through correspondence and visits when Mahan was in London. Mahan was described as a "disciple" of Laughton, but the two were at pains to distinguish between each other's line of work. Laughton saw Mahan as a theorist while Mahan called Laughton "the historian".
Mahan's views were shaped by 17th-century conflicts between the Dutch Republic, England and Spain, by the nineteenth-century naval wars between France and Great Britain. British naval superiority defeated France preventing invasion and an effective blockade. Mahan emphasized that naval operations were chiefly to be won by decisive blockades. In the 19th-century the United States sought greater control over its seaborne commerce in order to protect its economic interests which relied on exports bound for Europe. Mahan's emphasis on sea power as the most important cause of Britain's rise to world power neglected diplomacy and land arms. Furthermore, theories of sea power do not explain the rise of land empires, such as Bismarck's Germany or the Russian Empire. Mahan believed that national greatness was inextricably associated with the sea, with its commercial use in peace and its control in war. Mahan's framework derived from Antoine-Henri Jomini, emphasized strategic locations, as well as quantifiable levels of fighting power in a fleet.
Mahan believed that in peacetime, states should increase production and shipping capacities and acquire overseas possessions, though he stressed that the number of coal fueling stations and strategic bases should be limited to avoid draining too many resources from the mother country. The primary mission of a navy was to secure the command of the sea, which would permit the maintenance of sea communications for one's own ships while denying their use to the enemy and, if necessary supervise neutral trade. Control of the sea could be achieved not by destruction of commerce but only by destroying or neutralizing the enemy fleet; such a strategy called for the
A strategist is a person with responsibility for the formulation and implementation of a strategy. Strategy involves setting goals, determining actions to achieve the goals, mobilizing resources to execute the actions. A strategy describes; the senior leadership of an organization is tasked with determining strategy. Strategy can be intended or can emerge as a pattern of activity as the organization adapts to its environment or competes, it involves activities such as strategic thinking. The strategy role exists in a variety of fields of study. In large corporations, strategic planners or corporate financial planning and analysis personnel are involved in the formulation and implementation of the organization's strategy; the strategy is set by business leaders such as the Chief Executive Officer and key business or functional leaders and is reviewed by the Board of Directors. An AI strategist uses evidence and reason to make circumstance-dependent decisions that shape the development of AI towards a set of desired outcomes.
The scope of AI development can range from within small organizations to global landscape. A design strategist has the ability to combine the innovative and holistic insights of a designer with the pragmatic and systemic skills of a planner to guide strategic direction in context of business needs, brand intent, design quality and customer values. An economic strategist is a person who can create a sustainable commercial advantage by applying innovative and quantitative ideas and systems at a sell side financial institution. A political strategist is a multi-discipline strategist. Known as political consulting, the political strategist will advise a campaign on a range of activities such as media, opposition research, opinion polling and engagement strategy. A sport strategist is a professional that performs scouting and analysis of the players involved in an upcoming competitive match. Sports strategists analyze film footage, organize video libraries, recommend attacks and defensive strategies in order to capitalize on an opponents' weaknesses.
Working with investment managers, a principal investment strategist contributes revenue by providing principal investment analytics and alternative product structuring. A sales strategist develops innovative trade ideas and assists in the marketing of those trades to buy side clients. A banking strategist partners with investment bankers and capital market experts on corporate finance and capital structure analyses to identify and execute banking transactions. A trading strategist contributes revenue to the business in which his team is embedded by developing and delivering innovative trade ideas and analytic systems to the trading desk. Within the financial services industry, strategists are known as “strats”. A military strategist develops strategies in the field of warfare with the objective of outmaneuvering their opponent. An IT Strategist develops an IT strategy, aligned with the business strategy to implement systems to give business processes efficiency and productivity gains and therefore a possible competitive advantage.
Strategists are known to have an INTJ personality trait, based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. The MBTI was derived from Psychiatrist Carl Jung theory of psychological types enabling us to have a better understanding of people’s personality traits and what their strengths are as a person, it is found that strategists are more prone to possess a combination of 4 specific personality traits, which includes Introversion, Intuition and Judgment. However, this combination of personality traits is known to be rare among people, making strategists to be sought after by major firms. Dr. Vladimir Kvint defined strategist as a wise and optimistic professional with a strategic mindset, a vision of the future, intuition, it is possible at times to find that the vision or ideas of a strategist may not be align with conventional ideas which can make it difficult for others to accept or envision. People who possess a strategist mindset are capable of doing well in any possible field due to the various traits that they own.
Strategists tend to follow a career path that challenges them mentally in terms of development, seek to work with people who are in the same caliber in terms of intelligence and competency. As it is likely that people with a strategist mindset tend to be more single-minded and may not be appreciative of others' effort, it is crucial for them to work in a suitable working environment. Common careers that strategists tend to choose are: Academia Computing Engineering Sciences Project Management Research and development Management Born around the 5th century BC, Sun-Tzu is said to be the “father of strategy”, notable as the author of a treatise on military strategy, known as “The Art of War” in English, which revolutionized military strategy throughout the Far East, it is rumored that Sun-Tzu managed to convince the King of that era that he knew how to train soldiers and proceeded to demonstrate by training the King’s concubines. One reason "The Art of War" has become so famous is. By understanding the concepts given, businessmen can better understand the way businesses are managed in countries such as China and Korea.
Furthermore, Sun Tzu’s work is shorter and uses less jargon than the works of other strategists such as Clausewitz. Carl Von Clausewitz was a Prussian military theorist and strategist, known for his originality in terms of ideas, influenced by t
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a particular purpose. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means tool or instrument, musical instrument, organ. There are a variety of legal types of organisations, including corporations, non-governmental organisations, political organisations, international organisations, armed forces, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships and educational institutions. A hybrid organisation is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. A voluntary association is an organisation consisting of volunteers; such organisations may be able to operate without legal formalities, depending on jurisdiction, including informal clubs. Organisations may operate secretly or illegally in the case of secret societies, criminal organisations and resistance movements. Compare the concept of social groups, which may include non-organizations.
The study of organisations includes a focus on optimising organisational structure. According to management science, most human organisations fall into four types: Committees or juries Ecologies Matrix organisations Pyramids or hierarchies These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group by voting; the difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of the committee are assigned to perform or lead further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members of a jury come to a decision. In common law countries, legal juries render decisions of guilt and quantify damages. Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. In the Middle Ages, juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus among local notables. Committees are the most reliable way to make decisions. Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote.
The problem is that if the average member is subsequently worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow worse, not better. Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without reaching decisions; this organisational structure promotes internal competition. Inefficient components of the organisation starve. Everybody is paid for what they do, so runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired. Companies who utilise this organisation type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology, it is the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not, in general, compete with one another in any way, but are autonomous. The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline talks about functioning as this type of organisation in this external article from The Guardian. By:Bastian Batac De Leon; this organisational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies. One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organisation is well-trained, measured by a boss, super-expert in the same field.
The other direction tries to get projects completed using the experts. Projects might be organised by products, customer types, or some other schemes; as an example, a company might have an individual with overall responsibility for products X and Y, another individual with overall responsibility for engineering, quality control, etc. Therefore, subordinates responsible for quality control of project X will have two reporting lines. A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads other individual members of the organisation; this arrangement is associated with basis that there are enough imagine a real pyramid, if there are not enough stone blocks to hold up the higher ones, gravity would irrevocably bring down the monumental structure. So one can imagine that if the leader does not have the support of his subordinates, the entire structure will collapse. Hierarchies were satirised in The Peter Principle, a book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence."
In the social sciences, organisations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociology, political science, psychology and organisational communication. The broader analysis of organisations is referred to as organisational structure, organisational studies, organisational behaviour, or organisation analysis. A number of different perspectives exist, some of which are compatible: From a functional perspective, the focus is on how entities like businesses or state authorities are used. From an institutional perspective, an organisation is viewed as a purposeful structure within a social context. From a process-related perspective, an organisation is viewed as an entity is being organised, the focus is on the organisation as a set of tasks or actions. Sociology can be defined as the science of the institutions of modernity. In the social and political sciences in general, an "organisation" may be more loosely understood as the planned and purposeful action of human beings working through collective action to reach a common goal or construct a tangible product.
This action is framed by formal membership and form (in