Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan was a United States naval officer and historian, whom John Keegan called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." His book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 won immediate recognition in Europe, with its successor, The Influence of Sea Power Upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812, made him world-famous and the most influential American author of the nineteenth century. Mahan was born on September 27, 1840, at West Point, New York, to Dennis Hart Mahan and Mary Helena Okill Mahan, daughter of John Okill and Mary Jay. Mahan's middle name honors Sylvanus Thayer. Mahan attended an Episcopal college preparatory academy in western Maryland, he studied at Columbia for two years, where he was a member of the Philolexian Society debating club. Against the better judgment of his father, Mahan entered the Naval Academy, where he graduated second in his class in 1859. Commissioned as a lieutenant in 1861, Mahan served the Union in the American Civil War as an officer on USS Worcester, Congress and James Adger, as an instructor at the Naval Academy.
In 1865, he was promoted to lieutenant commander, to commander, captain. As commander of the USS Wachusett he was stationed at Callao, protecting US interests during the final stages of the War of the Pacific. While in actual command of a ship, his skills were not exemplary, he had an affection for old square-rigged vessels rather than the smoky, noisy steamships of his time. In 1885, he was appointed as a lecturer in naval history and tactics at the Naval War College. Before entering on his duties, College President Rear Admiral Stephen B. Luce pointed Mahan in the direction of writing his future studies on the influence of sea power. During his first year on the faculty, he remained at his home in New York City researching and writing his lectures. Though he was prepared to become a professor in 1886, Luce was given command of the North Atlantic Squadron, Mahan became President of the Naval War College by default. There, in 1888, he met and befriended future president Theodore Roosevelt a visiting lecturer.
Mahan's lectures, based on secondary sources and the military theories of Jomini, became his sea-power studies: The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783. Mahan stressed the importance of the individual in shaping history and extolled the traditional values of loyalty and service to the state. Mahan sought to resurrect Horatio Nelson as a national hero in Britain and used his biography as a platform for expressing his views on naval strategy and tactics. Mahan was criticized for so condemning Nelson's love affair with Lady Emma Hamilton, but it remained the standard biography until the appearance of Carola Oman's Nelson, 50 years later. Mahan struck up a friendship with pioneering British naval historian Sir John Knox Laughton, the pair maintaining the relationship through correspondence and visits when Mahan was in London. Mahan was described as a "disciple" of Laughton, but the two were at pains to distinguish between each other's line of work. Laughton saw Mahan as a theorist while Mahan called Laughton "the historian".
Mahan's views were shaped by 17th-century conflicts between the Dutch Republic, England and Spain, by the nineteenth-century naval wars between France and Great Britain. British naval superiority defeated France preventing invasion and an effective blockade. Mahan emphasized that naval operations were chiefly to be won by decisive blockades. In the 19th-century the United States sought greater control over its seaborne commerce in order to protect its economic interests which relied on exports bound for Europe. Mahan's emphasis on sea power as the most important cause of Britain's rise to world power neglected diplomacy and land arms. Furthermore, theories of sea power do not explain the rise of land empires, such as Bismarck's Germany or the Russian Empire. Mahan believed that national greatness was inextricably associated with the sea, with its commercial use in peace and its control in war. Mahan's framework derived from Antoine-Henri Jomini, emphasized strategic locations, as well as quantifiable levels of fighting power in a fleet.
Mahan believed that in peacetime, states should increase production and shipping capacities and acquire overseas possessions, though he stressed that the number of coal fueling stations and strategic bases should be limited to avoid draining too many resources from the mother country. The primary mission of a navy was to secure the command of the sea, which would permit the maintenance of sea communications for one's own ships while denying their use to the enemy and, if necessary supervise neutral trade. Control of the sea could be achieved not by destruction of commerce but only by destroying or neutralizing the enemy fleet; such a strategy called for the
Rita Gunther McGrath
Rita Gunther McGrath is an American strategic management scholar and professor of management at the Columbia Business School. She is known for her work on strategy and entrepreneurship, including the development of discovery-driven planning. McGrath is the founder of the innovation consultancy Valize. McGrath graduated Magna Cum Laude from Barnard College in 1981, earned a Masters of Public Administration from the School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University in 1982. In 1993, she completed her Ph. D. at The Wharton School with the dissertation, entitled Developing New Competence in Established Organizations consistent with her longstanding interest in corporate ventures and innovation. McGrath started her career working in government and the political arena and founded two entrepreneurial startups. After her graduation in 1993, she joined Columbia as assistant professor of management, was promoted to associate professor of management in 1998, became a full professor in the Faculty of Executive Education.
In 2014, she was elected Deputy Dean of the Strategic Management Society FellowsIn 1999, McGrath received the "Best Paper" Academy Of Management Review, in 2001 the Maurice Holland "best paper" award from the Industrial Research Institute, the McKinsey'best paper' award from the Strategic Management Society for McGrath and Nerkar, Real options reasoning and a new look at the R&D strategy of pharmaceutical firms. In 2009, she was elected fellow of the Strategic Management Society, in 2013 of the International Academy of Management. In 2013 she received the Thinkers50 Distinguished Achievement Award in Strategy, she was named one of the top 20 thinkers in 2011, one of the top 10 thinkers in 2013 by Thinkers50. In 2017, McGrath was ranked the #10 most influential leadership thinker in the world by Thinkers50. McGrath is the bestselling author of five books and is one of the most published authors in the Harvard Business Review, including “Discovery Driven Planning”, recognized as an early articulation of today’s “lean” startup philosophy and has been cited by Clayton Christensen as “one of the most important ideas in management—ever.”
2016 Theory to Practice award from the Vienna Strategy Forum 2013 Distinguished Achievement Award in Strategy from Thinkers50 In both 2011 and 2013, she was named one of the top 20 thinkers by Thinkers 50, one of the world's most prestigious rankings of management thinkers In 2017, she was ranked the #10 most influential leadership thinker in the world by Thinkers50 McGrath, Rita Gunther, Ian C. MacMillan; the entrepreneurial mindset: Strategies for continuously creating opportunity in an age of uncertainty. Vol. 284. Harvard Business School Press, 2000. McGrath, Rita Gunther, Ian C. MacMillan. MarketBusters: 40 Strategic moves that drive exceptional business growth. Harvard Business School Press, 2005. McGrath, Rita Gunther, Ian C. MacMillan. Discovery Driven Growth: A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity. Harvard Business Review Press, 2009. McGrath, Rita Gunther The End of Competitive Advantage. How to keep your strategy moving as fast as your business. Harvard Business Review Press, 2013.
McGrath, Rita Gunther. Seeing Around Corners. How to spot inflection points in business before they happen. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2019. McGrath, Rita Gunther, Ian C. MacMillan. “Discovery-driven planning.” Harvard Business Review McGrath, Rita Gunther, Ian C. MacMillan, Sankaran Venkataraman. "Defining and developing competence: a strategic process paradigm." Strategic Management Journal 16.4: 251-275. McGrath, Rita Gunther. "A real options logic for initiating technology positioning investments." Academy of Management Review 22.4: 974-996. McGrath, Rita Gunther, Ian C. MacMillan. “Discovering new points of differentiation.” Harvard Business Review McGrath, Rita Gunther. "Falling forward: Real options reasoning and entrepreneurial failure." Academy of Management review 24.1: 13-30. McGrath, Rita Gunther. "Exploratory learning, innovative capacity, managerial oversight." Academy of Management Journal 44.1: 118-131. McGrath, Rita Gunther, Ian C. MacMillan. “MarketBusting: strategies for exceptional business growth.”
Harvard Business Review McGrath, Rita Gunther, Ian C. MacMillan. “How to get unstuck.” Harvard Business Review McGrath, Rita Gunther. “Failing by design.” Harvard Business Review McGrath, Rita Gunther. “Transient advantage.” Harvard Business Review Official website Columbia directory page
Vladimir Kvint is an economist and strategist, the President of the International Academy of Emerging Markets. In parallel, since 2007, he has been the Chair of the Department of Financial Strategy at the Moscow School of Economics of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. Dr. Kvint is a Head of the Center for Strategic Studies at Institute of Complex Systems Mathematical Research of this University, he is a Foreign Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 2010 Vladimir L. Kvint has been elected as a Fellow of The World Academy of Science, he is a U. S. Fulbright Scholar and had been professor of Fordham, New York and American Universities and Adjunct Professor of LaSalle University as well as Babson College. In addition to his professorship, he is and has been a consultant to governments of several countries, he was the Global Head of Emerging Markets at one of the largest in the world and oldest architectural and planning company RMJM, was Director for Emerging Markets at Arthur Andersen in NYC.
Kvint's work appeared among others. He has been a contributor to Forbes magazine in which he published his most profound forecast on February 5, 1990, predicting the exact year - 1991- of the fall of the Soviet Union. In addition, he is a member of the Editorial Boards of several professional publications. Vladimir Kvint was born in Siberia into a family of engineers, he studied in junior high school. He moved to Norilsk, the most northern city in the world, located 1,000 miles above the Arctic Circle, he began his 14-year career in the non-ferrous metals industry at the age of 14 as a construction and metal worker. Most of Kvint's education was completed in parallel with athletic activities. By the age of 27 Kvint had established himself as the Chief Economist and Vice Chairman of a major Russian high-tech company in addition to earning his Ph. D. in Economics and being well educated in the fields of Mining-Electrical Engineering and Law. Despite an invitation to work as an associate professor in Moscow, Kvint returned north to Norilsk, the most Northern city in the world, located above the Arctic Circle.
Between 1975 and 1978, he continued his work in the mining-metallurgical industry. He founded and was Chief of the Department of Organization Management at the Norilsk Mining –Metallurgical Concern renamed MMC Norilsk Nickel, the largest Russian enterprise and still the largest producer worldwide of nickel, platinum and osmium. Under his leadership, the company’s first General Organizational Structure, focusing on the strategic improvement of final products was developed; the theoretical results of his work were published in Moscow in 1976, "The Acceleration of the Industrial-Technical Development". This book received the U. S. S. R. Annual Award “Best Popular Scholarly Book of the Year”. In 1976, Kvint was promoted to the position of Deputy Director General and Deputy Chairman of “SibTsvemetAutomatica,” a scientific-technological company, which automated the non-ferrous metals industry throughout the former U. S. S. R.. He was responsible for economic policy, business planning, the organization of compensation systems, accounting departments in this company of 5,000 employees.
Under Kvint’s economic strategy, this company became one of the first self-sufficient firms in the U. S. S. R. despite the Soviet command planning system. In addition, he was Chief of the Forecasting Economics Laboratory of the Non-ferrous Metals and Gold Industry, prepared strategies and forecasts for the non-ferrous and precious metals and diamond industries. In 1978, he was invited to join the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, was elected as the Chief of the Department of Regional Problems of Scientific-Technological Progress at the Institute of Economy and Industrial Organization of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences; the Siberian School of Economics was at that time under the leadership of the world-renowned economists Abel Aganbegyan and Nobel Laureate in Economics Leonid Kantorovich. In the Academy, Kvint found a lack of economic information; as a result, many economic studies based on this incorrect information had no practical use. With Kvint’s business experience, he recognized this serious problem and developed the methods of studying economic situations, natural resources, strategic business opportunities through the organization of Complex Economic Expeditions.
In 1979 the Chairman of the Siberian branch of the Academy appointed him to head these expeditions. Several of these major expeditions were unprecedented. For example, in 1980 the academicians ventured across the entire eight seas of the Arctic Seaway by ship, helicopter and SUV. Another economic expedition traveled through three seas along the entire Pacific Coast of Russia to evaluate the area’s natural resources and productive forces. In 1982, Kvint was elected as a Senior Researcher and as the Head of Department and a Leading Scholar at the Institute of Economics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. During these nine years he discovered and developed the concept of two new global trends: Regionalization and Technologization, he defined the category of regional scientific-technological policy and the role of this policy in the reduction of poverty and ecological protection. In the late 1980s he came up with the theory of global emerging markets. In 1986, he wrote the report on the organization of strategic development of scientific-technological process which he brought to the attention of the Counc
Clayton M. Christensen
Clayton Magleby Christensen is an American academic, business consultant, religious leader who serves as the Kim B. Clark Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School of Harvard University, he is best known for his theory of "disruptive innovation"—first introduced in his first book, The Innovator's Dilemma—which has been called the most influential business idea of the early 21st century. Christensen is a co-founder of Rose Park Advisors, a venture capital firm, Innosight, a management consulting and investment firm specializing in innovation. Clayton M. Christensen was born on April 6, 1952, in Salt Lake City, the second of eight children born to Robert M. Christensen and his wife Verda Mae Christensen, he grew up in the Rose Park neighborhood of Salt Lake City and attended the nearby West High School, where he was student body president. Christensen and his siblings were raised as members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. After graduating from high school in 1970, Christensen matriculated at Brigham Young University.
While at BYU, he took a two-year leave of absence from 1971 to 1973 to serve as a volunteer full-time missionary for the LDS Church. He became a fluent speaker of Korean. Christensen returned to BYU after completing his missionary service, in 1975 graduated with an Honors B. A. summa cum laude in economics. Upon graduating, he received a Rhodes Scholarship and spent two years studying applied econometrics at Oxford University, receiving an M. Phil. in 1977. Christensen returned to the United States and moved to Harvard University to pursue an MBA at the Harvard Business School, which he earned with high distinction in 1979. After receiving his MBA in 1979, Christensen began working for the Boston Consulting Group as a consultant and project manager. In 1982, he was named a White House Fellow and took a one-year leave of absence from BCG to work in Washington, D. C. as an assistant to the U. S. Secretary of Transportation, serving under Drew Lewis and Elizabeth Dole. In 1984, he and several professors from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded an advanced ceramics company called Ceramics Process Systems Corporation.
Christensen served as its president and CEO through the late 1980s decided to leave the company and become a university professor. He returned to Harvard for doctoral study in business, receiving a Doctor of Business Administration degree in 1992. After completing his doctorate, Christensen joined the Harvard Business School faculty and set a record by achieving the rank of "full" professor in only six years. In 2000, he founded a consulting and training firm. In 2005, together with his colleagues at Innosight, he launched Innosight Ventures, a venture firm focused on investing in South Asia, Southeast Asia, East Asia. In 2007, he co-founded Rose Park Advisors LLC, an investment company which applies his research as an investment strategy, he serves on the board of directors of Tata Consultancy Services, Franklin Covey, the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty. At HBS, he teaches an elective course he designed called "Building and Sustaining a Successful Enterprise", which teaches how to build and manage an enduring, successful company or transform an existing organization, in many of the school's executive education programs.
Christensen was awarded a full professorship with tenure in 1998, holds eight honorary doctorates and an honorary chaired professorship at the National Tsinghua University in Taiwan. Christensen is the best-selling author of ten books, including his seminal work The Innovator's Dilemma, which received the Global Business Book Award for the best business book of the year. One of the main concepts depicted in this book is his most disseminated and famous one: disruptive innovation; the concept has been growing in interest over time according to Google Trends' data. However, due to constant misinterpretation, Christensen still writes articles trying to explain the concept further; some of his other books are focused on specific industries and discuss social issues such as education and health care. Disrupting Class looks at the root causes of why schools struggle and offers solutions, while The Innovator's Prescription examines how to fix the American healthcare system; the latter two books have received numerous awards as the best books on education and health care in their respective years of publication.
The Innovator's Prescription was awarded the 2010 James A. Hamilton Award, by the College of Healthcare Executives. Christensen lives in Massachusetts with his wife, Christine, they have five children, including Matthew Christensen, who played college basketball at Duke University and was a member of the 2001 National Championship team. Christensen himself is an avid basketball player who stands 6 ft 8 in tall, was the starting center on the men's basketball team during his time at Oxford. Christensen is a member of the LDS Church. From 1971 to 1973 he speaks fluent Korean, he has served in several leadership positions in the LDS Church. He served as an area seventy from 2002 to 2009, he has served as a counselor in the presidency of the Massachusetts Boston Mission and as a bishop. In February 2010, Christensen announced. In July 2010, he had an ischemic stroke. Despite Christensen’s health setbacks, he is once again teaching and writing. In 2011, C
Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction between rational decision-makers. It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in computer science, it addressed zero-sum games, in which one person's gains result in losses for the other participants. Today, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans and computers. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. Von Neumann's original proof used the Brouwer fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics, his paper was followed by the 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, co-written with Oskar Morgenstern, which considered cooperative games of several players. The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of expected utility, which allowed mathematical statisticians and economists to treat decision-making under uncertainty.
Game theory was developed extensively in the 1950s by many scholars. It was explicitly applied to biology in the 1970s, although similar developments go back at least as far as the 1930s. Game theory has been recognized as an important tool in many fields; as of 2014, with the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences going to game theorist Jean Tirole, eleven game theorists have won the economics Nobel Prize. John Maynard Smith was awarded the Crafoord Prize for his application of game theory to biology. Early discussions of examples of two-person games occurred long before the rise of modern, mathematical game theory; the first known discussion of game theory occurred in a letter written by Charles Waldegrave, an active Jacobite, uncle to James Waldegrave, a British diplomat, in 1713. In this letter, Waldegrave provides a minimax mixed strategy solution to a two-person version of the card game le Her, the problem is now known as Waldegrave problem. In his 1838 Recherches sur les principes mathématiques de la théorie des richesses, Antoine Augustin Cournot considered a duopoly and presents a solution, a restricted version of the Nash equilibrium.
In 1913, Ernst Zermelo published Über eine Anwendung der Mengenlehre auf die Theorie des Schachspiels. It proved that the optimal chess strategy is determined; this paved the way for more general theorems. In 1938, the Danish mathematical economist Frederik Zeuthen proved that the mathematical model had a winning strategy by using Brouwer's fixed point theorem. In his 1938 book Applications aux Jeux de Hasard and earlier notes, Émile Borel proved a minimax theorem for two-person zero-sum matrix games only when the pay-off matrix was symmetric. Borel conjectured that non-existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games would occur, a conjecture, proved false. Game theory did not exist as a unique field until John von Neumann published the paper On the Theory of Games of Strategy in 1928. Von Neumann's original proof used Brouwer's fixed-point theorem on continuous mappings into compact convex sets, which became a standard method in game theory and mathematical economics, his paper was followed by his 1944 book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior co-authored with Oskar Morgenstern.
The second edition of this book provided an axiomatic theory of utility, which reincarnated Daniel Bernoulli's old theory of utility as an independent discipline. Von Neumann's work in game theory culminated in this 1944 book; this foundational work contains the method for finding mutually consistent solutions for two-person zero-sum games. During the following time period, work on game theory was focused on cooperative game theory, which analyzes optimal strategies for groups of individuals, presuming that they can enforce agreements between them about proper strategies. In 1950, the first mathematical discussion of the prisoner's dilemma appeared, an experiment was undertaken by notable mathematicians Merrill M. Flood and Melvin Dresher, as part of the RAND Corporation's investigations into game theory. RAND pursued the studies because of possible applications to global nuclear strategy. Around this same time, John Nash developed a criterion for mutual consistency of players' strategies, known as Nash equilibrium, applicable to a wider variety of games than the criterion proposed by von Neumann and Morgenstern.
Nash proved that every n-player, non-zero-sum non-cooperative game has what is now known as a Nash equilibrium. Game theory experienced a flurry of activity in the 1950s, during which time the concepts of the core, the extensive form game, fictitious play, repeated games, the Shapley value were developed. In addition, the first applications of game theory to philosophy and political science occurred during this time. In 1979 Robert Axelrod tried setting up computer programs as players and found that in tournaments between them the winner was a simple "tit-for-tat" program that cooperates on the first step on subsequent steps just does whatever its opponent did on the previous step; the same winner was often obtained by natural selection. In 1965, Reinhard Selten introduced his solution concept of subgame perfect equilibria, which further refined the Nash equilibrium. In 1994 Nash and Harsanyi became Economics Nobel Laureates for their contributi
A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower
A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower is the United States' maritime strategy. It was presented by the U. S. Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandants of the U. S. Marine Corps and U. S. Coast Guard at the International Seapower Symposium at the U. S. Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island on October 17, 2007; the new maritime strategy explains the comprehensive role of the sea services in an era marked by globalization and uncertainty. The development of a new strategy began in June 2006 at the direction of former Chief of Naval Operations and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral Mike Mullen; the last maritime strategy was published at the height of the Cold War in 1986 and needed to be updated to reflect the challenges of the 21st century. This was the first maritime strategy to be signed by the leaders of all three U. S. sea services, the Navy and Coast Guard. A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower is not infused with typical military-focused language; the strategy makes a case for the value of seapower in preserving the American way of life by maintaining safe, global commerce operations across the seas.
It acknowledges that there is a global system of connected economies which depends on the freedom of movement across the maritime commons. With such a global interconnection of economies, shocks to the system caused by regional conflicts, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, war all have potential global impact; the strategy states that U. S. vital interests are best served by having forward positioned maritime forces around the globe, postured in a way to prevent, deter and localize conflicts and disruptions to the global system that all rely upon. International from beginning to end, the strategy describes the necessity to forge global partnerships to establish a resilient peace. During testimony before the House Armed Services Committee on December 13, 2007, General James T. Conway, Commandant of the U. S. Marine Corps said: The basic premise of our newly published maritime strategy is that the United States is a force for good in the world-that while we are capable of launching a clenched fist when we must- offering the hand of friendship is an essential and prominent tool in our kit.
That premise flows from the belief. A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower articulates that U. S. maritime forces be able to operate across the full spectrum of operations, raising the prevention of war to a level equal to the conduct of war. The strategy delineates the following six expanded core capabilities for U. S. Seapower to achieve a balance of peacetime engagement and major combat operations capabilities: Forward presence Deterrence Sea control Power projection Maritime security Humanitarian assistance/disaster responseThe first four core elements listed have always been fundamental to U. S. maritime forces and were essential elements to the United States and its allies and partners during the Cold War. The last two, Maritime Security and Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Response, were elevated to core elements by the new maritime strategy; the U. S. sea services have traditionally done these types of missions but they will seek to be more proactive and purposeful in training and resourcing the missions and capabilities associated with them.
The new maritime strategy reaffirms the need for regionally concentrated, forward deployed combat power. The new maritime strategy states that: Regionally concentrated, credible combat power: The U. S.sea services will maintain credible combat power forward "in the Western Pacific and the Arabian Gulf/Indian Ocean to protect vital interests, assure friends and allies of the continuing U. S. commitment to regional security, deter and dissuade potential adversaries and peer competitors." The maritime strategy states that the U. S. does not seek adversaries, nor single out any one nation, but will be best postured to maintain security and freedom of movement across the maritime domain. Globally distributed, mission-tailored maritime forces: The U. S. sea services will establish a persistent global presence using distributed forces that are organized by mission, comprising integrated U. S. Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard capabilities. Aircraft carrier and Expeditionary Strike Groups will continue to deploy much as they do now, but they will use smaller groups or units to provide this presence across the globe, such as the Global Fleet Station.
In signing a cooperative strategy, the U. S. sea services raise the importance of cooperative relationships as the basis for global maritime security – a common goal of all maritime nations regardless of political differences. Maritime nations have always shared common interests on the sea and land-locked nations rely on the safety of those seas to maintain and enhance their way of life; the challenge for the United States is how to apply seapower in a manner that protects U. S. vital and domestic interests as it promotes greater collective security and trust across the globe. During the presentation of the new strategy to nearly 100 chiefs of navies and coast guards from around the world at the Naval War College on October 17, 2007, Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Gary Roughead, the Navy's top uniformed officer, said humanitarian and disaster aid is built on, "peace-time relationships to help mitigate human suffering by working together with other agencies and other nations responding to crises."While presenting the U.
S. Coast Guard perspective on the new U. S. maritime strategy at the same symposium, Admiral Thad Allen, Commandant of the U. S. Coast
The Art of War
The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Late Spring and Autumn Period. The work, attributed to the ancient Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu, is composed of 13 chapters; each one is devoted to an aspect of warfare. For 1,500 years it was the lead text in an anthology that would be formalised as the Seven Military Classics by Emperor Shenzong of Song in 1080; the Art of War remains the most influential strategy text in East Asian warfare and has influenced both Eastern and Western military thinking, business tactics, legal strategy and beyond. The book contained a detailed explanation and analysis of the Chinese military, from weapons and strategy to rank and discipline. Sun Tzu stressed the importance of intelligence operatives and espionage to the war effort; because Sun Tzu has long been considered to be one of history's finest military tacticians and analysts, his teachings and strategies formed the basis of advanced military training for centuries to come.
The book was translated into French and published in 1772 by the French Jesuit Jean Joseph Marie Amiot. A partial translation into English was attempted by British officer Everard Ferguson Calthrop in 1905 under the title The Book of War; the first annotated English translation was completed and published by Lionel Giles in 1910. Military and political leaders such as the Chinese communist revolutionary Mao Zedong, Japanese daimyō Takeda Shingen, Vietnamese general Vo Nguyen Giap, American military general Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. have drawn inspiration from the book. The Art of War is traditionally attributed to a military general from the late 6th century BC known as "Master Sun", though its earliest parts date to at least 100 years later. Sima Qian's 1st century BC work Records of the Grand Historian, the first of China's 24 dynastic histories, records an early Chinese tradition stating that a text on military matters was written by a "Sun Wu" from the State of Qi, that this text had been read and studied by King Helü of Wu.
This text was traditionally identified with the received Master Sun's Art of War. The conventional view—which is still held in China—was that Sun Wu was a military theorist from the end of the Spring and Autumn period who fled his home state of Qi to the southeastern kingdom of Wu, where he is said to have impressed the king with his ability to train dainty palace ladies in warfare and to have made Wu's armies powerful enough to challenge their western rivals in the state of Chu; the prominent strategist and warlord Cao Cao in the early 3rd century AD authored the earliest known commentary to the Art of War. Cao's preface makes clear that he edited the text and removed certain passages, but the extent of his changes were unclear historically; the Art of War appears throughout the bibliographical catalogs of the Chinese dynastic histories, but listings of its divisions and size varied widely. In the early 20th century, the Chinese writer and reformer Liang Qichao theorized that the text was written in the 4th century BC by Sunzi's purported descendant Sun Bin, as a number of historical sources mention a military treatise he wrote.
Around the 12th century, some scholars began to doubt the historical existence of Sunzi on the grounds that he is not mentioned in the historical classic The Commentary of Zuo, which mentions most of the notable figures from the Spring and Autumn period. The name "Sun Wu" does not appear in any text prior to the Records of the Grand Historian, has been suspected to be a made-up descriptive cognomen meaning "the fugitive warrior": the surname "Sun" is glossed as the related term "fugitive", while "Wu" is the ancient Chinese virtue of "martial, valiant", which corresponds to Sunzi's role as the hero's doppelgänger in the story of Wu Zixu. Unlike Sun Wu, Sun Bin appears to have been an actual person, a genuine authority on military matters, may have been the inspiration for the creation of the historical figure "Sunzi" through a form of euhemerism. In 1972, the Yinqueshan Han slips were discovered in two Han dynasty tombs near the city of Linyi in Shandong Province. Among the many bamboo slip writings contained in the tombs, sealed around 134 and 118 BC were two separate texts, one attributed to "Sunzi", corresponding to the received text, another attributed to Sun Bin, which explains and expands upon the earlier The Art of War by Sunzi.
The Sun Bin text's material overlaps with much of the "Sunzi" text, the two may be "a single, continuously developing intellectual tradition united under the Sun name". This discovery showed that much of the historical confusion was due to the fact that there were two texts that could have been referred to as "Master Sun's Art of War", not one; the content of the earlier text is about one-third of the chapters of the modern The Art of War, their text matches closely. It is now accepted that the earlier The Art of War was completed sometime between 500 and 430 BC; the Art of War is divided into 13 chapters. Detail assessment and planning explores the five fundamental factors and seven elements that determine the outcomes of military engagements. By thinking and comparing these points, a commander can calculate his chances of victory. Habitual deviation from these calculations will ensure failure via improper action; the text stresses that war is a ver