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In combinatorial game theory, the strategy-stealing argument is a general argument that shows, for many two-player games, that the second player cannot have a guaranteed winning strategy. The strategy-stealing argument applies to any symmetric game in which an extra move can never be a disadvantage; the argument works by obtaining a contradiction. A winning strategy is assumed to exist for the second player, using it, but roughly speaking, after making their first move – which by the conditions above is not a disadvantage – the first player may also play according to this winning strategy. The result is that both players are guaranteed to win –, absurd, thus contradicting the assumption that such a strategy exists. Strategy-stealing was invented by John Nash in the 1940s to show that the game of hex is always a first-player win, as ties are not possible in this game. However, Nash did not publish this method, Beck credits its first publication to Alfred W. Hales and Robert I. Jewett, in the 1963 paper on tic-tac-toe in which they proved the Hales–Jewett theorem.

Other examples of games to which the argument applies include the m,n,k-games such as gomoku. In the game of Sylver coinage, strategy stealing has been used to show that the first player wins, rather than that the game ends in a tie. A strategy-stealing argument can be used on the example of the game of tic-tac-toe, for a board and winning rows of any size. Suppose that the second player is using a strategy, S, which guarantees them a win; the first player places an X in an arbitrary position, the second player responds by placing an O according to S. But if they ignore the first random X that they placed, the first player finds themselves in the same situation that the second player faced on their first move; the first player may therefore make their moves according to S – that is, unless S calls for another X to be placed where the ignored X is placed. But in this case, the player may place his X in some other random position on the board, the net effect of which will be that one X is in the position demanded by S, while another is in a random position, becomes the new ignored piece, leaving the situation as before.

Continuing in this way, S is, by hypothesis, guaranteed to produce a winning position. But the second player has lost – contradicting the supposition that they had a guaranteed winning strategy; such a winning strategy for the second player, does not exist, tic-tac-toe is either a forced win for the first player or a tie. Further analysis shows; the same proof holds for any strong positional game. There is a class of chess positions called Zugzwang in which the player obligated to move would prefer to "pass" if this were allowed; because of this, the strategy-stealing argument cannot be applied to chess. It is not known whether White or Black can force a win with optimal play, or if both players can force a draw; however all students of chess consider White's first move to be an advantage and statistics from modern high-level games have White's winning percentage about 10% higher than Black's. In Go passing is allowed; when the starting position is symmetrical, this means that the first player could steal the second player's winning strategy by giving up the first move.

Since the 1930s, the second player is awarded some compensation points, which makes the starting position asymmetrical, the strategy-stealing argument will no longer work. An elementary strategy in the game is "mirror go", where the second player performs moves which are diagonally opposite those of this opponent; this approach may be defeated using ladder tactics, ko fights, or competing for control of the board's central point. The strategy-stealing argument shows that the second player cannot win, by means of deriving a contradiction from any hypothetical winning strategy for the second player; the argument is employed in games where there can be no draw, by means of the law of the excluded middle. However, it does not provide an explicit strategy for the first player, because of this it has been called non-constructive; this raises the question of how to compute a winning strategy. For games with a finite number of reachable positions, such as chomp, a winning strategy can be found by exhaustive search.

However, this might be impractical. In 2019, Greg Bodwin and Ofer Grossman proved that the problem of finding a winning strategy is PSPACE-hard in two kinds of games in which strategy-stealing arguments were used: the minimum poset game and the symmetric Maker-Maker game; the above usage of the word "constructive" does not match the definitions of constructive mathematics. According to the BHK interpretation, the most used basis for constructive interpretation of logical formulae, the fact that the second player has no winning strategy is constructive. For games where the appropriate instance of Markov's rule can be constructively established by means of bar induction, the non-constructive proof of a winning strategy for the first player can be converted into a winning strategy

Panopticon Software was a multi-national data visualization software company specializing in monitoring and analysis of real-time data. The firm was headquartered in Sweden, it partnered with several large systems integrators and infrastructure software companies, including SAP, Thomson Reuters, Kx Systems, One Market Data. The company's name is derived from the Greek:'pan' for all,'optic' for sight; the company name is derived from the word panopticon, an architectural concept intended to facilitate surveillance of prisons. In December 2018, Panopticon was acquired by Altair Engineering as part of its acquisition pf Datawatch Corporation. Panopticon Software was a key player in the data visualization sector along with for example Qliktech, Tableau Software and Tibco Software, its Swedish origins are shared with GapMinder and Spotfire, making Sweden a centre for Information Visualization research and development. Panopticon products are optimized for use with real-time data message buses, complex event processing engines, relational databases, column-oriented databases and is used to support electronic trading operations within global banks, asset managers, exchanges.

Panopticon tools are often embedded in other enterprise applications using the company's software development kit. The company was founded in 1999 as a wholly owned subsidiary of the emerging markets brokerage Brunswick Direct before being spun off as a separate entity in 2002, it was acquired by the UK based Hamsard Group, became a subsidiary of the Group. In March 2007 its competitor Spotfire undertook negotiations with Hamsard Group, to take full ownership of Panopticon; this potential deal was not completed, Spotfire pulling out of negotiations, itself subsequently being purchased by Tibco. In May 2007 the company was sold back to its founders as part of a management buyout. In May 2012, the company announced that QlikTech had partnered with Panopticon to enable QlikTech clients to embed Panopticon data visualizations into their QlikView dashboards. Panopticon supports QlikView desktop and mobile interactive dashboards and allows users to filter and interact directly with real-time data. In June 2012, the company announced that SAP was utilizing its Panopticon data visualization tools as the front end for real-time deployments of the SAP HANA in-memory appliance.

In April 2013, Panopticon was selected for inclusion in UBM Tech Channel's CRN 2013 Big Data 100 list. The Big Data 100 recognizes innovative technology vendors that help businesses manage "Big Data" — the increasing volume and velocity of information being generated today; the list covers three categories: business analytics, data management and services. The Big Data 100 includes many established vendors as well as startups and specialized suppliers of niche products that help businesses address Big Data needs. In April 2013, Panopticon was named a Gartner "Cool Vendor" in the Cool Vendors for In-Memory Computing 2013 report by Gartner, Inc; the April 23, 2013 report was co-authored by Roxane Edjlali, et al.. This is the first year that Gartner has called out In-Memory Computing as a subject for one of its Cool Vendor reports. In August 2013, Datawatch Corporation announced that it had completed its acquisition of Panopticon Software AB. In December 2018, Altair Engineering Inc announced that it had completed its acquisition of Datawatch Corporation.

Panopticon is designed to allow analysts to utilize Pre-Attentive Processing to identify anomalies and outliers in large amounts of fast-changing data. Pre-Attentive Processing is a term from the area of human cognitive psychology and refers to the ability of the low-level human visual system to identify certain basic visual properties. Examples of visual features that can be detected in this way include hue, enclosure, orientation and motion. Panopticon's technology relies on in-memory OLAP cubes, which are displayed through a series of visualizations including treemapping; this allows the user to load data, select variables and hierarchical structures, navigate through the resultant visualization, filtering and drilling, to identify outliers and trends. Its streaming OLAP implementation takes an in-memory OLAP cube and allows data to be streamed through it; this combination makes the company's products attractive to industry verticals that require live streaming data, such as financial market data, utility grid monitoring and telecommunications network traffic analysis.

This is different than the vast majority of OLAP implementations in which cubes are rebuilt periodically for new batches of data. This support for streaming data with its products has allowed financial institutions such as JPMorgan Chase, Citigroup and BlackRock to implement the Panopticon within their real-time trading and risk applications. Euromoney has stated that it provides the trader community with a way of digesting information

Sewage Pumping Station 271 is a heritage-listed sewage pumping station located adjacent to 5 Carrington Road, Inner West Council, New South Wales, Australia. It was built by the New South Wales Public Works Department, it is known as SPS 271. The property is owned by Sydney Water, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 18 November 1999. In 1889, the newly constructed Board of Water Supply and Sewerage assumed responsibility for the water and sewerage service from the City Council; this instigated a gradual move away from the practise of combining sewerage and stormwater and led to the commencement of the BOOS which discharged into the ocean at Bondi and the South Western system which drained to a sewage farm at Botany. A series of low level sewage pumping stations were constructed to transport waste against gravity by means of a series of rising mains; the Carrington Road Pumping Station was built in the late 1890s, handed over to the Metropolitan Board of Water Supply and Sewerage in 1900.

The low level portions of Marrickville, Erskineville, Alexandria and St Peters are still serviced by a low level sewer which discharges into the wells of Marrickville Pumping Station. The sewage is pumped to the high level of the Eastern Branch of the SWOOS. Marrickville SPS receives stormwater discharge from the Central stormwater channel during certain high tides in the Cooks River; the Marrickville SPS complex consists of a combined boiler house and engine room, a large chimney stack and a residence. The residence is an unadorned two storey brick building designed in Federation Queen Anne style. Masonry is English bond and the facade is accentuated by timber filgree detailing; the pumping station/ boiler house is designed in classic Federation Romanesque style. Decorative Gothic buttresses with steep copings flank its sides, round headed windows surmounted by arches of rusticated sandstone typify the window openings, the walls and gables are accentuated by machicolation motifs; the gables have sandstone copings with bracketed kneelers.

The windows are small paned figured glass with pivotal awnings typical of the Federation style. The internal doors are round headed diagonal panelled double doors and are similar in style to the external doors; the building had a slate roof with terracotta hips and finials. Both the boiler and engine house have since been clad in terracotta tile; the gable roofs have monitors, which are centrally placed and continue half the length of the roof and are fitted with fixed steel louvres. The roof truss in the engine house is a delicate hand-wrought Warren truss strengthened internally with matchboarding; the exposed rafters are rounded on the ends and this attention to detail is typical of the quality of carpentry throughout. The internal pilasters, which correspond with the buttresses, hold the overhead crane rail; the overhead crane is a simple undertrussed steel girder hand operated crane typical of the early twentieth century. The chimney stack is polychromatic brickwork on a square base which changes to an octoganal shaft some three metres above the ground.

It is finished with an ornate cap. The stack is a local landmark; the Station is intact and in good condition. The Residence building is in good condition and the fabric is intact. SPS 271 displays a high level of architectural sophistication in the execution of Federation Queen Anne and Romanesque styles, it has the highest level of aesthetic significance of pumping stations within the Sydney Water sewerage system and is the most intact example of a pair of stylistically complete Federation industrial buildings. It is technologically unique, having the dual function of carrying both stormwater, it has a high level of industrial archaeological value evidenced by the Blackstone three cylinder diesel pump which dates from c. 1920, an outstanding level of technological significance due to the manner and method in which it functioned within the SWOOS system. It had the unique capability of pumping waste from the sewage wells to either the high-level sewer or the eastern stormwater channel, it is one of the oldest SPSs still functioning, presently discharges into the SWOOS.

Sewage Pumping Station 271 was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 18 November 1999. Sydney Water Corporation. Sewage pumping stations SP0271: conservation management plan. Graham Brooks and Associates Pty Ltd. Sydney Water Heritage Study; this Wikipedia article was based on Sewage Pumping Station 271, entry number 01342 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 2 June 2018

A ropes course is a challenging outdoor personal development and team building activity which consists of high and/or low elements. Low elements take place above the ground. High elements are constructed in trees or made of utility poles and require a belay for safety. Ropes courses are referred to using several different names, including Challenge Courses, Ropes Challenge Courses, Teams Course, Low Ropes, as well as more idiosyncratic names such as the Challenging Outdoor Personal Experience course. An Aerial Adventure Park has a more recreational purpose. Other related terms include obstacle courses, assault courses and commando courses, although these terms have different meanings more associated with military training than with education and training for the general public, it is unclear when the first ropes course was created. Obstacle courses have been used by the military to train soldiers as far back as the ancient Greeks; those courses, were used for the training of fit individuals and not aimed at the development of unremarkable persons as is common practice on ropes courses today.

The use of belay and risk management systems on such courses was limited or non-existent. Many practitioners cite Georges Hébert as the originator of the "modern" ropes course. A French naval officer in the early 1900s, Hébert developed his own method of physical education and principles to train in what he called the “Natural Method,” which included the development of physical, “virile” qualities in an outdoor environment. Drawing from his naval background, Hébert patterned some of his obstacles on obstacles found on the decks of ships. “Hébertism” grew during and between the World Wars, becoming the standard for physical education training for the French military. Many ropes courses and challenge course programs in French Canada and Europe are still known as Hébertism courses today. Marble, the site of the first Colorado Outward Bound course, has been cited as the location of the first ropes course in the US, although this is unlikely. Patterned after a military obstacle course and similar to the course in use at the Outward Bound school in Aberdyfi, the course was constructed of hemp ropes.

Belay systems were non-existent. Since the 1980s, ropes course sophistication has evolved considerably. Modern ropes courses incorporate sophisticated belay and safety systems using wire rope, friction devices, climbing harnesses to manage what before were unmanaged risks. Recent technological advances in pole hardware and climbing equipment along with industry-accepted installation and design practices have reduced the risk to end users and to the natural environment. Modern courses make use of a variety of materials other than trees, including utility poles and steel structures. A recent trend of themed courses has created a whole new genre of challenge course aimed at recreational pay-to-play users. New, mobile high ropes courses and climbing walls built on flat bed trucks have made challenge courses more available to the public for recreational purposes and are generating increased publicity. Adventure Parks with a more recreational-orientation are booming in Europe and awake a great interest in the US and around the globe.

They are designed for a larger volume of visitors. They do not follow a specific educational concept, but see the individual and mental challenge as a predominantly recreational activity. Neither climbing techniques nor special/specific physical fitness experience are necessary. Typical slogans are: Have fun, Test your Courage and Overcome your Own Fears. In an Adventure Park, the participants independently run a variety of trails of increasing difficulty levels; each trail consists of several trees that are connected by different acrobatic elements. A high course can be a pre-fabricated, professionally installed course, built of utility poles and bolts, or it can be a course, hand-built in a wooded area, where ropes and wire are attached to different trees. Ropes courses can be described as static, vertical, M-Belay. With a static course, participants are attached to an upper wire, belay cable, with lanyards for safety. If the participant dangles, they will be caught by the wire. Advantages of a static course include needing fewer facilitators, being able to get more participants up on the course at one time, allowing participants to do multiple elements without having to be lowered and climb back up after each.

On a dynamic course, participants are connected to a rope, which someone on the ground will be holding onto and belaying the participant on the course. Participants on a dynamic course remain on a belay the entire time: climbing up to the element, doing the activity, being lowered to the ground after. A vertical course is similar to dynamic, except that the element is the climb up. Vertical courses can be: vertical obstacle courses with hanging logs and tires or alpine towers with their unique hour-glass shape of activities; the M-Belay is the most complicated of the two, involves two separate belays. Otherwise, it is similar to a dynamic course. Participants must sign a waiver before being allowed to participate on the course, because of the high risk of injury; some participants may have a hard time completing the course due to its height and the physical challenge. Courses range from 25 feet through 50 feet tall, though some elements can reach upwards of 150 feet plus (as

Shirataka is a town located in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. As of November 2013, the town had an estimated population of 8,278, a population density of 11.2 persons per km². The total area is 737.55 square kilometres. Shirataka is located in southern Yamagata Prefecture, with the Mogami River running through the town; the Asahi Mountains border the town to the west. Yamagata Prefecture Nagai Nan'yō Yamanobe Asahi Shirataka has a Humid continental climate with large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is heaviest from August to October; the area of present-day Shirataka was part of ancient Dewa Province. After the start of the Meiji period, the area became part of Nishiokitama District, Yamagata Prefecture; the village of Shirataka was established on April 1, 1889. It was elevated to town status on October 1, 1954 by merger with the neighboring town of Arata and villages of Higashine, Ayukai, Jūō, Koguwa; the economy of Shirataka is based on agriculture.

Yamagata Railway Company - Flower Nagai Line Koguwa - Ayukai - Shikinosato - Arato National Route 287 National Route 348 Media related to Shirataka, Yamagata at Wikimedia Commons Official Website

Muzika Poludelih is an oi!/hardcore punk band from Vrbas, Serbia. The band was formed in 1997, releasing their debut album Definicija bolesti during the same year through the independent record label ITMM. Unlike the debut album, which featured lyrics in Serbian language, their second studio album My Unity, released by One Records in 2003, featured lyrics in English language, the case with all of their following releases. Both the debut and the second album featured the guest appearance by the famous Serbian writer and journalist Raša Popov, who recorded spoken word parts on several tracks. Beside the material written by the band, My Unity featured a cover version of the Blitz single "New Age". After the album release, the band went on a promotional tour, beside Serbia, included performances in Romania and Hungary. In 2005, the band released their third studio album Hardcore Force, released under the underground record label New Age Family Organization, besides eleven songs, featured five music videos the band had recorded throughout their career as bonus material.

The album was listed as one of the albums which marked the year 2005 by the Serbian daily newspaper Blic. After the album release, from March to May 2005, the band went on a Brutal Drunk tour, with the Croatian band Stronghold, comprising ten dates in both Serbia and Croatia; the band performed as an opening act for the Seattle garage punk band The Intelligence in Zrenjanin. The following year, with the Netherlands band The Shining, the band performed in Bačka Topola and Budapest, on February, with the bands Stronghold and False Reality, the band went on the Brutal Drunk Tour 2, performing in Croatia and Slovenia. In 2009, the band released their fourth studio album The Beast Is Back, featuring six songs only and available on both compact disc, released by New Age Family records, as well in mp3 format, available for digital download at the official Myspace page; the band announced that The Beast Is Back is musically only an introduction into the upcoming studio album, featuring twice as many songs.

Definicija bolesti My Unity Hardcore Force The Beast Is Back Ulice su mrtve Brothers The Pride and the Glory Biography at the official site Muzika Poludelih official website Muzika Poludelih at Facebook Muzika Poludelih at Myspace Muzika Poludelih at Discogs Muzika Poludelih at Youtube Muzika Poludelih at Last.fm