South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Goose Creek, South Carolina
Goose Creek is a city in Berkeley County in the U. S. state of South Carolina. The population was 35,938 at the 2010 census. Most of the Naval Weapons Station Charleston is in Goose Creek; as defined by the U. S. Office of Management and Budget, used only by the U. S. Census Bureau and other Federal agencies for statistical purposes, Goose Creek is included within the Charleston-North Charleston-Summerville metropolitan area and the Charleston-North Charleston Urbanized Area. Goose Creek is located in southern Berkeley County at 33°0′N 80°2′W, it is bordered to the east by the Cooper River and the Back River, to the southeast by an outer portion of the city of Charleston, to the southwest by the city of Hanahan and the city of North Charleston in Charleston County, to the west by the unincorporated community of Ladson. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 40.8 square miles, of which 40.1 square miles is land and 0.77 square miles, or 1.88%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 35,938 people, 8,947 households, 7,443 families residing in the city.
The population density was 921.6 people per square mile. There were 9,482 housing units at an average density of 299.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.50% White, 14.22% African American, 0.59% Native American, 2.66% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 1.56% from other races, 2.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.05% of the population. There were 8,947 households out of which 49.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.9% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.8% were non-families. 12.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.22. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.6% under the age of 18, 18.2% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 15.4% from 45 to 64, 4.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 115.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,919, the median income for a family was $47,937. Males had a median income of $31,965 versus $23,754 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,905. About 5.8% of families and 6.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under the age of 18 and 7.3% of those 65 and older. Although the city of Goose Creek was established in 1961, its history dates back many centuries. In the 1670s the Etiwan moved to the area to escape the Westo, seeking protection among the plantations of early colonists who were referred to as the "Goose Creek men" settled a few miles north of Charleston near a stream called Goose Creek, a tributary of the Cooper River; the Goose Creek men became leaders of the early Indian trade, by the 1690s many held important offices in the colonial government. At first the Goose Creek men dealt in Indian slaves, while the deerskin trade dominated.
Several colonial governors were Goose Creek men, such as Robert Daniell. The Otranto Plantation Indigo Vats and St. James Church are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Portions of the Charleston, South Carolina metropolitan area are home to branches of the United States military. During the Cold War, the Naval Base became the third largest U. S. homeport serving over 80 submarines. In addition, the Charleston Naval Shipyard repaired frigates, cruisers, sub tenders, submarines; the shipyard was equipped for the refueling of nuclear subs. During this period, the Weapons Station was the Atlantic Fleet's loadout base for all nuclear ballistic missile submarines. Two SSBN "Boomer" squadrons and a sub tender were homeported at the Weapons Station, while one SSN attack squadron, Submarine Squadron 4, a sub tender were homeported at the Naval Base. At the 1996 closure of the Station's Polaris Missile Facility Atlantic, over 2,500 nuclear warheads and their UGM-27 Polaris, UGM-73 Poseidon, UGM-96 Trident I delivery missiles were stored and maintained, guarded by a U.
S. Marine Corps security force company. In 2010, the Air Force base and Naval Weapons Station merged to form Joint Base Charleston. Today, Joint Base Charleston, encompassing over 20,877 acres and supporting 53 military commands and federal agencies, provides service to over 79,000 airmen, soldiers, Coast Guardsmen, DOD civilians and retirees. Naval Weapons Station, Joint Base Charleston, Goose Creek and Hanahan Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Atlantic Naval Nuclear Power Training Command Nuclear Power School Nuclear Power Training Unit Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS Daniel Webster Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS Sam Rayburn Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS La Jolla, 2015 delivery Moored Training Nuclear Submarine, USS San Francisco, After 2015 delivery Naval Consolidated Brig, East Coast Mobile Mine Assembly Unit Eleven Naval Operations Support Center Charleston Navy Reserve Center Navy Munitions Command CONUS, Detachment Charleston Explosive Ordnance Detachment Naval Health Clinic Charleston Navy Dental Clinic Marine Corps Reserve Center, Naval Weapons Station South Carolina Army National Guard Army Reserve Training Center 841st Army Transportation Battalion 1182nd Army Deployment & Distributi
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Matthew Richard Wieters is an American professional baseball catcher for the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball, he played for the Baltimore Orioles and Washington Nationals. Wieters played college baseball for Georgia Tech and was drafted by the Baltimore Orioles with the fifth overall selection in the 2007 MLB draft, he made his MLB debut in 2009. Wieters has won two Gold Glove Awards. Wieters played for the Orioles through the 2016 season before becoming a free agent. Wieters was born on May 1986 in Goose Creek, South Carolina, he played high school baseball at Stratford High School in South Carolina. He played under Coach John Chalus, where he and the Knights made it to the AAAA state championship series. Wieters attended the Georgia Institute of Technology and played college baseball for the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets, he is one of just three players in Georgia Tech history to earn first-team All-America honors on at least two occasions. He was named a first-team All-America by Rivals.com and first-team All-Atlantic Coast Conference in 2007, first-team All-America by Baseball America and second-team All-ACC in 2006, the ACC Rookie of the Year, Freshman All-America and first-team All-ACC in 2005.
In the summer of 2006, Wieters played for the Orleans Cardinals in the Cape Cod Baseball League. Wieters finished his junior season ranked tied for sixth in the Yellow Jacket record books with 54 career doubles with 198 runs batted in along with 16 saves in his three years on the Flats, he ranked 13th with a.359 career batting average and 418 total bases, tying for 16th with 35 home runs and 18th with 253 hits in his college career. He finished 2007 having played in 169 consecutive games. Wieters served as Tech's primary closer for his first two years and as one of two closers his junior season. Wieters was drafted by the Baltimore Orioles with the 5th overall pick of the 2007 amateur draft and signed a contract with a $6 million signing bonus on August 15, 2007; that winter, he played for the Honolulu Sharks, hitting.283 in 31 games with one home run, 17 runs batted in, nine doubles, one triple, 44 total bases, 12 walks. Going into the 2008 season, he was ranked 12th by Baseball America on their 2008 Top 100 Prospects List and was the highest ranked catcher on the list.
He attended 2008 spring training with the Orioles, starting the season with their Class A affiliate the Frederick Keys. He gained a midseason promotion to the Double-A Bowie Baysox. In 130 games for the Keys and Baysox, hit a combined.355 BA/.454 OBP/.600 SLG with 27 home runs and 91 RBI. Wieters earned the 2008 Minor League Player of the Year honors from Baseball America. According to Clay Davenport's measure EqA, Wieters had one of the single best seasons in recorded minor league history, his EqAs of.301 and.349 were the highest marks in their respective leagues in the last 40 years. Wieters participated in the 2008 Arizona Fall League season, he was selected to play in the Fall League's Rising Stars game. Wieters hit.343 in 35 spring training at bats for the Orioles in 2009, but was sent down to Triple-A Norfolk to start the season. He was named the No. 2 prospect in MiLB by Minor League News in the MLN FAB50 Baseball 2009 rankings. Wieters made his major league debut on May 2009, against the Detroit Tigers.
Wieters' first major league hit came a triple, off of Detroit's Justin Verlander. Wieters hit his first career home run June 17 against the Mets, a two-run home run off of Mets starter Tim Redding. Wieters changed his jersey number after his rookie season from 15 to 32, what he wore in college at Georgia Tech. Although Wieters disappointed some observers because of his difficulties handling the Baltimore pitching staff, he established himself as a solid defensive catcher in 2010, throwing out many runners, while hitting for power and a good average at the plate. Wieters earned a Fielding Bible Award and a Gold Glove in 2011 as the best defensive catcher in MLB, American League, respectively. On April 16, 2012, Wieters helped the Orioles rally to beat the Chicago White Sox in 10 innings by hitting his first career grand slam. On May 29, Wieters was ejected for the first time in his career for arguing that two pitches thrown by Miguel Gonzalez were strikes, not balls, as ruled by home plate umpire Doug Eddings.
The Orioles lost the game against the Blue Jays, 8–6. On July 1, 2012, Wieters was selected to represent the Orioles in the All Star Game for the second consecutive year. On October 30 it was announced. On Opening Day, April 2, 2013, Wieters became the first Oriole to hit a home run against Tampa Bay Rays starter David Price, a two run shot in the top of the first. On April 18, Wieters helped to beat the Rays again by hitting a walk off grand slam in the bottom of the 10th. Wieters was the first Oriole to hit a walk off grand slam since Harold Baines in 1999. While Wieters did finish 2013 with a career-low batting average of.235, he hit 22 home runs and a career-high 29 doubles, as well as leading all MLB hitters with 12 sacrifice flies. On May 11, 2014, Wieters was hitting over.300 when an elbow injury of his throwing arm put him on the 15-day disabled list. He was still on the disabled list on June 11, when he was the leading American League catcher in the vote to determine the All Star Game starters.
Orioles broadcaster Gary Thorne reported that Wieters was unlikely to play in the All Star Game if he won the vote. On June 16, the Orioles announced that Wieters would undergo Tommy John elbow reconstruction surgery the next day, ending his 2014 ca
Justin Kyle Smoak is an American professional baseball first baseman for the Toronto Blue Jays of Major League Baseball. Smoak played baseball for the University of South Carolina, he made his debut with the Texas Rangers in 2010, was traded to the Seattle Mariners that season. He was claimed by the Blue Jays off waivers in 2014. Smoak graduated after four years of high school baseball, it wasn't until his junior year that scouts began to notice his talent, as they were there to scout his teammate and friend, Matt Wieters. He was named by ABCA, Baseball America, Collegiate Baseball as a 2005 high school All-American, he was one of 36 high school players in the nation to play in the 2005 high school All-American baseball game, named South Carolina AAAA Player of the Year in 2004 and 2005, named co-Mr. Baseball for 2005 in South Carolina, made the 2004 and 2005 South Carolina AAAA All-State team, a member of the 2005 South Carolina AAAA state championship team while with the Stratford Knights, he was drafted by the Oakland Athletics as a 16th-round pick in 2005 upon graduation, but instead attended the University of South Carolina.
Smoak went on to play college baseball for the South Carolina Gamecocks for three years. After batting.303 with 17 home runs and 63 RBI, Smoak earned Freshman All-American honors. He followed up with a.315 batting average, 22 home runs, 72 RBI in his sophomore year, good enough to be tabbed as a third-team All-American. For his junior year, Smoak batted.383, with 23 home runs and 72 RBI. Smoak is South Carolina's all-time home run king with 62, having broken Hank Small's record of 48, which stood for over 30 years, he is South Carolina's career leader in RBIs and walks. Smoak was a semi-finalist for the Golden Spikes Award in 2007 and 2008. In the summer of 2006, Smoak played for the Cotuit Kettleers in the Cape Cod Baseball League, he led all hitters with 11 home runs, a.565 slugging percentage, 21 extra-base hits, en route to the MVP award. In the summer of 2007, Smoak was a representative for Team USA. During the 2007 Pan American Games, Smoak struggled, he won a silver medal there. He competed with Team USA again in the 2007 World Port Tournament.
However, he didn't fare much better, as he finished with a.208 average, though he did lead the tournament with three doubles. In all, Smoak had a. 380 slugging percentage for Team USA over the summer. In 2009, Smoak again represented his country in the IBAF Baseball World Cup. Smoak hit nine home runs and drove in 22 runs, was named to the 2009 IBAF World Cup All-Tournament Team along with fellow Team USA players Terry Tiffee and Jon Weber, he was named the 2009 Baseball World Cup's Most Valuable Player. He won the USA Baseball Richard W. "Dick" Case Player of the Year Award in 2009. Smoak was the 11th overall selection in the 2008 Major League Baseball draft by the Texas Rangers. USA Today commented that "getting Smoak at No. 11 may be the best-value pick of the first round."Several scouting reports wrote that Smoak's biggest strength was his ability to hit for both power and average on both sides of the plate. Some scouts compared Smoak to fellow switch hitters Mark Chipper Jones. Smoak's defense was described by mlb.com as follows: "He's got an average arm, but it's good enough for first base...
He's not bad around the base with good hands.... The lack of footspeed and heavy lower half provide limited range." Baseball America wrote that, as a first baseman, Smoak had "Gold Glove-caliber actions and soft hands", as well as "advanced footwork and instincts at first base", though they wrote that he had adequate arm strength. As to his running speed, mlb.com wrote: "He's with heavy legs. He's a bit stiff and knock-kneed." Smoak did not sign a professional contract until 15 minutes before MLB's deadline for teams to sign draft picks, with Texas general manager Jon Daniels saying: "This is a day we would have liked to have seen happen two months ago, but we think 10 or 15 years from now that will be irrelevant." The Rangers gave Smoak a $3.5 million signing bonus and assigned him to one of their Class-A affiliates, the Clinton Lumberkings. Smoak began play in the 2009 season for the Class AA Frisco RoughRiders, he was promoted on July 2009 to the Triple-A Oklahoma City RedHawks. Smoak entered 2010 ranked among the best prospects in baseball.
Smoak was called up by the Rangers on April 22, 2010, made his Major League debut the following evening in a game against the Detroit Tigers. He recorded his first hit against the Tigers. Smoak set a franchise record by drawing at least one walk in each of his first four games. Smoak got his first Major League home run against the White Sox on April 29 off Gavin Floyd, hit his first home run while batting right-handed on May 3, against Oakland off Jerry Blevins. On June 13, playing in Milwaukee, Smoak became the first player in Rangers history to strike out five times in a nine-inning game. In 2010 for Texas, he batted.209/.316/.353. On July 9, 2010, Smoak was traded to the Seattle Mariners with prospects Blake Beavan, Josh Lueke, Matt Lawson, for Cliff Lee and Mark Lowe. Smoak was sent down to Triple-A Tacoma on July 31, he returned to the Mariners on September 18 and batted.340 with three home runs in the final 14 games of his rookie season. Former Seattle SuperSonics announcer Kevin Calabro gave him the nickname "The Freak From Goose Creek".
In 2010, he batted.239/.287/.407 for Seattle, with five home runs and 14 RBI. In 2011, Smoak appeared in 123 games and hit.234/.323/.396 with 15 home runs and 55 RBI. On July
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
A knight is a man granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political or religious leader for service to the monarch or a Christian church in a military capacity. In Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. A knight was a vassal who served as an elite fighter, a bodyguard or a mercenary for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings; the lords trusted the knights. Knighthood in the Middle Ages was linked with horsemanship from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century; this linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry and related terms. The special prestige accorded to mounted warriors in Christendom finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, the Greek hippeis and Roman eques of classical antiquity.
In the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations. The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, the Matter of Britain, relating to the legend of King Arthur and his Round Table. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in Christian Churches, as well as in several Christian countries and their former territories, such as the Roman Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre and Order of Malta, the Protestant Order of Saint John, as well as the English Order of the Garter, the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav; each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is granted by a head of state, monarch, or prelate to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement, as in the British honours system for service to the Church or country.
The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht; this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight; the meaning of cniht changed over time from its original meaning of "boy" to "household retainer". Ælfric's homily of St. Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht. While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands. In his will, King Æthelstan leaves his cniht, eight hides of land. A rādcniht, "riding-servant", was a servant on horseback. A narrowing of the generic meaning "servant" to "military follower of a king or other superior" is visible by 1100; the specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years' War.
The verb "to knight" appears around 1300. An Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire; this class is translated as "knight". In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier: Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, Romanian cavaler; the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider: German Ritter, Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, "to ride", in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-. In ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris; some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, some armies, such as those of the Ostrogoths, were cavalry.
However, it was the Franks who fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry, with an infantry elite, the comitatus, which rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours in 732, the Frankish forces were still infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight. In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin; the first knights appeared during the reign of Charlemagne in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Age progressed, the Franks were on the attack, larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted in