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Strathcona County

Strathcona County is a specialized municipality in central Alberta, Canada between Edmonton and Elk Island National Park. It is located in Division No. 11 and is part of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region. More than half of the population lives in Sherwood Park, a large community east of Edmonton that has opted to retain hamlet status. Strathcona County was designated as a specialized municipality on January 1, 1996, in order to accommodate the specific needs of an area that includes both urban and rural territory. First recognized in 1893 by the territorial legislature as Statute Labour District #2, Strathcona County has changed immensely since its inception. In 1913 Statute Labour District #2 was renamed to Local Improvement District #517, which in 1943, merged with Local Improvement District #518 to become Municipal District #83. By joining with local school divisions in 1962, Municipal District #83 became a county. County status was subsequently revoked in 1995 when the County Act was repealed by the provincial legislature, but was returned in 1996 when the County of Strathcona #20 changed its name to Strathcona County and received Specialized Municipality status.

On March 29, 2007, Strathcona County announced plans to create an new urban community from scratch to complement Sherwood Park. This development is supposed to be more dense and pedestrian friendly, could hold up to 200,000 people. However, opponents have pointed out that the development will destroy land of high agricultural value. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Strathcona County recorded a population of 98,044 living in 35,567 of its 36,354 total private dwellings, a change of 6% from its 2011 population of 92,490. With a land area of 1,182.78 km2, it had a population density of 82.9/km2 in 2016. The population of Strathcona County according to its 2015 municipal census is 95,597, a change of 3.5% from its 2012 municipal census population of 92,403. In the 2011 Census, Strathcona County had a population of 92,490 living in 33,129 of its 34,136 total dwellings, a change of 12.1% from its 2006 population of 82,511. With a land area of 1,180.56 km2, it had a population density of 78.3/km2 in 2011.

Hwy 14 Hwy 15 Hwy 16 Hwy 21 Hwy 38 SPF Hwy 216 Hwy 628 Hwy 629 Hwy 630 Hwy 824 Hwy 830 Strathcona County is home to two public airports. Cooking Lake Airport is the county's main public airport, serving 87 per cent of its public aeronautical transportation needs, it is the oldest operating public airport in Canada and approved for international flights under the Canada Border Services Agency CANPASS program. The Warren Thomas Aerodrome, better known as the Josephburg Airport, serves the remaining 13 per cent of the county's public aeronautical transportation needs; the following localities are located within Strathcona County. Localities Strathcona County has over $12.0 billion worth of industrial projects completed, announced, or under construction. This is aided in part by the concentration of oil refineries on the west side of Sherwood Park; this district, known as Refinery Row, includes some of the largest industrial facilities in Western Canada, such as Imperial's Strathcona Refinery. Built in the 1940s, a new refinery was constructed in 1976 and is one of the largest refining facilities in Canada.

As well, the Suncor's Edmonton Refinery produces 142,000 barrels per day of gasoline, jet fuel, aviation gasoline. This refinery has been operating for over 65 years. A founding member of Alberta's Industrial Heartland, Strathcona County is home to Canada's largest hydrocarbon refining cluster; the leading industries in Strathcona County as of 2020 are extraction, scientific, construction and engineering. Strathcona County is home to more than 11,000 businesses, with 3,500 of those businesses comprising employees. A market area population of 1.4 million has resulted in household spending power of $5.6 billion. Strathcona County has over 15,800 highly-skilled graduates available with 94% of residents holding a diploma, certificate, or degree. Within the active business community, there are several resources available to local entrepreneurs to help support their businesses: Small Business Week and Conference Business Visitation Program Business Startup Seminars and Support Business Planning and Site Selection Resources Unlike most Albertan municipal districts, where council appoints a reeve, Strathcona County elects a mayor.

Rod Frank was elected in 2017, replacing Roxanne Carr, elected in 2013. List of communities in Alberta Specialized municipalities of Alberta Strathcona County Transit Strathcona County Library Official website


Sparaxis is a genus of flowering plants called the harlequin flowers. It belongs to the iris family Iridaceae with about 13 species endemic to Cape Province, South Africa. All are perennials that grow during the wet winter season, flower in spring and survive underground as dormant corms over summer, their conspicuous flowers have six tepals, which in most species are equal in shape. Sparaxis bulbifera is the most cultivated of the genus, with flowers from cream to yellow or purple. Sparaxis grandiflora is a similar but larger plant. In cultivation in the UK it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit. Sparaxis tricolor has bright red flowers with black centres. Many named hybrid cultivars were bred from S. tricolor. A group of species with asymmetrical flowers marked in mauve and yellow, including Sparaxis variegata and Sparaxis villosa, was treated as the genus Synnotia; the genus name is derived from the Greek word sparasso, meaning "to tear", alludes to the shape of the floral bracts.

Goldblatt, P.. Sparaxis. Flora of Southern Africa 7: 151-169. Flora of North America

Rafe Stefanini

Rafe Stefanini is an old-time banjo player, guitarist, teacher, violin maker, restorer. He grew up in Bologna, he first visited the United States in the late 1970s and came to live in the U. S. in 1983. He is a permanent resident of the U. S. and lives in Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia. In addition to playing music, he is trained in violin making and restores violins, he has performed with the Wildcats (along with Carol Elizabeth Jones and Stefan Senders. Along with Dirk Powell and Bruce Molsky he has performed with a trio called the L-7s, he has performed with Molsky and guitarist Beverly Smith in a group called Big Hoedown, a group that disbanded in 2000. Along with Meredith McIntosh, John Hermann, Bev Smith, he has performed in the Rockinghams, he has recorded with Bob Herring. He performs with his wife Nikki and daughter Clelia as "Nine Pound Hammer." He has recorded for the Rounder, Marimac, Yodel-ay-hee, 5-String Productions, World Music Network labels. Stefanini has performed at the Mount Airy Fiddlers Convention.

He has performed throughout the United States as well as in Finland, Singapore, Indonesia and Brunei. His brothers Gianni and Bruno play old-time music and the three performed in The Moonshine Brothers, which formed in the late 1970s and remained together until Stefanini moved to the U. S. in 1983. 1999 - Hell and Scissors 2001 - Glory on the Big String 2006 - Bluegrass Meadows 2006 - Ladies Fancy 1995 - Old Paint 2004 - Fresh Coat 1997 - Bruce Molsky & Big Hoedown 2009 - Never Seen the Like... Old Time Music On Our Knees Galax International 5th Annual Galax Fiddlers Convention 1985 2002 - Rough Guide to the Music of the Appalachians 2003 - The Art Of Old-Time Mountain Music The Rockinghams Shout Lulu Old Time Friends The Young Fogies Mike Seeger's 3rd Annual Farewell Reunion A Tribute to the Appalachian String Band Music Festival The Marimac Anthology Young Fogies Vol. 2 Red Prairie Dawn Official site MySpace page Allmusic entry Rafe & Clelia Stefanini MySpace page Video documentary from the Pennsylvania Cable Network

Equal Treatment in Goods and Services Directive 2004

The Equal Treatment in Goods and Services Directive 2004 of 13 December 2004 is a directive which prohibits both direct and indirect sexual discrimination in the provision of goods and services in the European Union. As enacted Article 5 of the directive allowed member states to permit sexual discrimination in the provision of insurance services for renewal periods of five years; however in Test-Achats ASBL v Conseil des ministres, the European Court of Justice invalidated this provision on the basis that it permitted the indefinite continuance of discrimination in the provision of insurance contrary to Articles 21 and 23 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights. According to Article 5 of Directive 2004/113/EC, member states must ensure that "the use of sex as a factor in the calculation of premiums and benefits for the purposes of insurance and related financial services shall not result in differences in individuals' premiums and benefits"; however insurers could use Article 5 as an opt-out clause, allowing them to decide whether or not to use gender as a determining factor when assessing risk, providing this decision was based on "relevant and accurate actuarial and statistical data".

Using the car insurance industry as an example, statistically speaking, men are involved in a higher number of serious traffic accidents and make more expensive claims than women. As a result, insurers were justified in using this exemption when calculating the price of an applicant’s policy. Therefore, women traditionally received cheaper car insurance quotes than their male counterparts. On 1 March 2011, the European Court of Justice issued its judgement into the Test-Achats case; the ECJ agreed with Test-Achats, a Belgian consumer group, ruled Article 5 was invalid. Insurers were no longer able to use gender as a risk factor when pricing policies. Following the ruling, insurers had until 21 December 2012 to comply with this decision and begin selling gender neutral car insurance; as of November 2012, no-one knew how the ECJ’s decision would impact the insurance industry. However, in the case of car insurance, many analysts expected the price of women’s vehicle cover to increase while men would see a slight reduction in the cost of their premiums.

Although some believed the decision would lead to a fairer system, the Association of British Insurers opposed the decision. Commenting on the matter in 2012, Director General Otto Thoresen stated, "Insurers and the UK Government fought for nearly a decade to retain the right to offer premiums and benefits priced as as possible by considering risks linked to gender, but now that the battle is over, the industry is focused on preparing to give customers ‘gender-neutral’ rates that are as fair as possible." As of April 2015, UK journalists have suggested that, but is now driven by career / profession declared within the insurance application. Six professions were selected as examples of male dominated professions, female dominated professions and gender-neutral professions. Clear results show. EU law List of European Union directives Text of the Directive European Commission Anti-discrimination DRAFT The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 Regulations 2007 which implement the Directive in the United Kingdom Telegraph Men are still-charged-more-than-women-for-car-insurance-despite-EU-rule-chang

Caterpillar D10

The Caterpillar D10 is a track-type tractor manufactured by Caterpillar Inc.. It was the first modern tractor to use the elevated drive sprocket to improve durability, operator comfort, ease of maintenance; the Caterpillar D10 was the result of a need for a tractor larger than the Caterpillar D9. At this time, competitors were building bulldozers that were more powerful than the D9. Allis Chalmers introduced at Conexpo 69 in Chicago a 524 hp HD-41, the largest crawler in the world. In 1974 after AC and Fiat merged their construction equipment divisions the 524 hp 41-B was introduced. For example, the Fiat-Allis 41-B track-type tractor had 524 hp at the time, while the D9H had 410 hp. In 1976 Japanese company Komatsu came out with an larger bulldozer called the D455A at 620 hp and 167,000 lb; the first pilot D10 was shown in July 1973 at a big Caterpillar corporate meeting. Other prototypes would follow in 1975 and 1977. In March 1977, prototypes P-1 through P-10 would appear and be subsequently dispatched to different job sites.

The D10 was introduced at a dealer meeting by Caterpillar in the fall of 1977. Between 1978 and 1986 nearly 1,000 D10s were made at Caterpillar's East Peoria plant; the D10 had sales of their Fiat-Allis/Komatsu competitive sized bulldozers combined. With the introduction of the N-Series tractors in 1986-87 their model numbers were pushed up. For example, the D9N replaced the D8L, the D10N replaced the D9L and the D11N replaced the D10; the D10 was so big that it could do about 50 percent more production than the D9H. Among modern tractors, the High Drive design is unique to Caterpillar products; the concept originated in 1914 with Caterpillar predecessor C. L. Best Tractor's 30 Humpback; the elevated sprocket system was first applied to a 10-machine test run of the D10 in 1977. It separated the suspension from the tractor's drive train reducing stress on both and increasing their durability. Prior to this, the combined system, which put the drive axle under constant strain of the vehicle's load and terrain beneath it, was prone to frequent failure.

Elevating the drive sprocket allowed for a more absorbent suspension, which provided better traction, reduced component wear and operator fatigue, isolated the drive sprocket in a flexible section of the machine's tracks. It allowed for the relocation of the transmission behind and beneath the operator, providing better weight distribution and improved traction, permitting more compact location of both the blade and rear implements; the high-drive system eliminates the traditional geared final drive in favor of modular system employing a hydraulic planetary final drive, which withstands engine torque better, since it distributes the forces over multiple gear teeth instead of a single tooth as in the traditional system. The disadvantage is. Caterpillar claims to have alleviated this with the SALT, a permanently lubricated track system, introduced on their track-type tractors in the early 1970s; when the D10 was introduced in 1977, it was the most powerful track-type tractor built at 700 horsepower.

The Cat D10 could be ordered with up to a 19-foot U-blade, weighed in at 180,000 lb. Versions weighed in at 190,000 lb; the U-blade could push 35 cu yd according to Caterpillar's literature. The November 1977 issue of Excavating Contractor magazine had a 2-page story on the bulldozer titled "Cat Uncorks The New D10". One of the first D10s is sitting in front of the East Peoria, Ill plant where it was made. A picture of this D10 can be found on pages of a book titled "The Caterpillar Century" on pages 298-297. Caterpillar put the 1,786 cid V-12 twin turbocharged D348 in the D10 to power it; this had proven itself in the 777 off-highway hauler and the 550 hp 10 yard 992/992B wheel loaders from 1968 on. The early D10s came with a single big black exhaust stack up front, but some engine problems came up with exhaust system routing which resulted in two exhaust stacks up front to correct this problem. This new look took root in 1980. At the time Caterpillar's bulldozer lineup was the 62 hp D3, 75 hp D4E, 105 hp D5B, 140 hp D6D, 200 hp D7G, 300 hp D8K, 410 hp D9H with the addition of the 700 hp D10.

In 1986 an larger dozer, the 770 hp Caterpillar D11N was introduced to replace the D10. The D11 carried on the success of the elevated drive sprocket system in large bulldozers; the available D10T model, preceding D10R and D10N variants, are not the original D10's successors but the D11N, D11R and the current D11T are. Heavy equipment Caterpillar D11 Caterpillar D9 List of Caterpillar Inc. machines Caterpillar D-Series Track-Type Tractors — Official Caterpillar website

Emperor Suzaku

Emperor Suzaku was the 61st emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Suzaku's reign spanned the years from 930 through 946. Before his ascension of the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name was Hiroakira-shinnō, he was known as Yutaakira-shinnō. Hiroakira-shinnō was the 11th son of Emperor Daigo and Empress Consort Onshi, a daughter of the regent and great minister of the council of state, Fujiwara no Mototsune. Suzaku had one Imperial daughter. Suzaku's older brother died unexpectedly young; these untimely deaths opened the way for Suzaku to accede to the throne. October 16, 930: In the 33rd year of the reign of Daigo-tennō, the emperor abdicated. December 14, 930: Emperor Suzaku, only 8 years old, acceded to the throne. May 16, 931: The era name was changed to mark the beginning of the new emperor's reign. August 5, 931: The former-Emperor Uda died at the age of 65. 932: The udaijin Fujiwara no Sadakata died at the age of 65. 933: The dainagon Fujiwara no Nakahira is named udaijin.

Nakahira is the brother of sesshō Fujiwara Tadahira. 933: Ten of the chief dignitaries of the empire went falcon-hunting together in Owari Province. Each of them was magnificent in his formal hunting attire. 935: The Great Fundamental Central Hall on Mt. Hiei burned down. September 7, 936: Fujiwara no Tadahira was named daijō-daijin. 937: The former-Emperor Yōzei celebrated his 70th birthday. 938: Serial intermittent ground-tremors were felt in Heian-kyō from the 10th through the 29th days of this month. 940: During his reign Taira no Masakado raised a great insurrection in the Kantō region and declared himself the "New Emperor", but his forces were defeated by Fujiwara no Hidesato and Taira no Sadamori, he was decapitated. 941: Fujiwara no Sumitomo staged a rebellion, having made a secret agreement with Taira no Masakado, but his army was defeated by Tachibana Tōyasu. May 23, 946: Suzaku abdicates, having ruled for 16 years; the emperor was succeeded by his younger brother. 952: Suzaku took ordination as a Buddhist monk at Ninna-ji.

September 6, 952: Suzaku died at the age of 30. The actual site of Suzaku's grave is known; this emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Kyoto. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Suzaku's mausoleum, it is formally named Daigo no misasagi in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto near Daigo-ji. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Suzaku's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Sesshō, Fujiwara no Tadahira, 880–949. Kampaku, Fujiwara no Tadahira. Daijō-daijin, Fujiwara no Tadahira. Sadaijin, Fujiwara no Tadahira. Sadaijin, Fujiwara no Nakahira. Udaijin, Fujiwara no Sadakata . Udaijin, Fujiwara no Nakahira. Udaijin, Fujiwara no Tsunesuke . Udaijin, Fujiwara no Saneyori, 900–970. Naidaijin Dainagon, Fujiwara no Nakahira.

The years of Suzaku's reign are more identified by more than one era name or nengō. Enchō Jōhei Tengyō Consort: Princess Hiroko/Kishi, Imperial crown Prince Yasuakira's daughter First Daughter: Imperial Princess Masako Kanon'in taigō, married Emperor ReizeiConsort: Fujiwara no Yoshiko, Fujiwara no Saneyori's daughter Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.