Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
A toboggan is a simple sled which is a traditional form of transport used by the Innu and Cree of northern Canada. In modern times, it is used on snow to carry one or more people down a hill or other slope for recreation, designs vary from simple, traditional models to modern engineered composites. A toboggan differs from most sleds or sleighs in that it has no runners or skis on the underside, the bottom of a toboggan rides directly on the snow. Some parks include designated toboggan hills where ordinary sleds are not allowed, the traditional toboggan is made of bound, parallel wood slats, all bent forward at the front to form a sideways J shape. A thin rope is run through the top of the loop to provide rudimentary steering, the frontmost rider places their feet in the loop and sits on the flat bed, any others sit behind them and grasp the waist of the person before them. Modern recreational toboggans are typically manufactured from wood or plastic, more rugged models are made for commercial or rescue use.
Each individual who is able to walk, is furnished with one of these, on them they stow all their goods, and their infants, which they bundle up very warm in deer-skins. The two ends of a leather thong are tied to the corners of the sled, the bight or double part of which is placed against the breast, the toboggan is a recurring prop in the Calvin and Hobbes comic. Comic author Bill Watterson uses it as a device to add some physical comedy to the strip. Bobsled Luge Pulk, a Scandinavian low, flat load-carrying sled
The Capital Pathway, known informally as the The Bike Path, is a 220-kilometre recreational pathway interlinking many parks and sites in Ottawa and Gatineau, Quebec. Most of the pathway is paved, and allows an almost continuous route through the National Capital Region, the pathway, was mostly the work of the National Capital Commission, a crown corporation created in 1959. The Capital Pathway was a project of the National Capital Commission as part of their improvements to the National Capital Region, the NCC was created by an act of parliament in 1959. The first section built was the Ottawa River Pathway in the early 1970s, the majority of the pathway continues to be maintained by the NCC. The section of the Ottawa River Pathway between Acres Road and Moodie Drive was paved in 2009 and this very long pathway is along the south bank of almost the entire length Ottawas portion of the Ottawa River. In the east it goes to the beach at Petrie Island at Tenth Line Road, going westward, it meets up with the pathway along the Aviation parkway which is at the Aviation Museum.
Further along, it goes through Rockcliffe Park to the residence of the Prime Minister at 24 Sussex Drive and it passes Majors Hill Park on towards the back side of Parliament Hill where it bypasses the pathways on the Rideau Canal. Moving westward, it bypasses the War Museum in LeBreton Flats and goes to first Westboro Beach, Brittania Beach, Moodie Drive, the most well known of all the sections of the Capital Pathway is the Rideau Canal section. Its downtown location attracts tourists and residents, frequently used for walking and running. It continues to be popular in the winter, as the Rideau Canal is widely known as one of the longest skating rinks in the world and its most northerly point is where the canal empties into the Ottawa River. Immediately beside the locks is the Bytown Museum, there actually are two separate paths, on each side of the canal. One encircles Dows Lake and path users frequently cross to the side near Carleton University. The trail extends to Hogs Back Falls which provides a crossing and this is the point where the canal meets the Rideau river and the trail continues on its east side until Mooneys Bay Park.
South of that it resumes, continuing to Ottawas south boundary and this pathway is almost unknown by tourists but frequented by residents. It starts at Rideau Falls where the Rideau River meets the Ottawa River and it goes southward through New Edinburgh along Riverside Drive until it reaches Billings Bridge. Here is a park where ducks frequent, from Billings Bridge, it continues south until it meets up with the Rideau Canal at the Hogs Back Falls. The more well known part is on the east side of the Rideau River, the bike trail becomes very steep going northwards into Gatineau Park. Pink Lake is directly on the path, other lakes such Kingsmere Lake are accessible
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, the two form the core of the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan area and the National Capital Region. The 2016 census reported a population of 934,243, making it the fourth-largest city in Canada, the City of Ottawa reported that the city had an estimated population of 960,754 as of December 2015. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, and incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city name Ottawa was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River nearby, the name of which is derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning to trade. The city is the most educated in Canada, and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, Ottawa has the highest standard of living in the nation and low unemployment. It ranked second out of 150 worldwide in the Numbeo quality of life index 2014–2015, with the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago the Ottawa Valley became habitable.
The area was used for wild harvesting, fishing, travel. The Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads, the area has three major rivers that meet, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years. The Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning Great River or Grand River, Étienne Brûlé, the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years later, Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls of the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, the early explorers and traders were followed by many missionaries. The first maps of the area used the word Ottawa to name the river, philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from Ottawa in Hull. He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create a community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City, the following year, the town would soon be named after British military engineer Colonel John By who was responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project.
Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of todays Parliament Hill and he laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named Upper Town west of the canal and Lower Town east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes, historically Upper Town was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas Lower Town was predominantly French, bytowns population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. In 1855 Bytown was renamed Ottawa and incorporated as a city, William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Years Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic, in reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock
Second Boer War
The Second Boer War, usually known as the Boer War and at the time as the South African War, started on 11 October 1899 and ended on 31 May 1902. Great Britain defeated two Boer states in South Africa, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, Britain was aided by its Cape Colony, Colony of Natal and some native African allies. The British war effort was supported by volunteers from the British Empire, including Southern Africa, the Australian colonies, India. All other nations were neutral, but public opinion in them was largely hostile to Britain, inside Britain and its Empire there was significant opposition to the Second Boer War. The British were overconfident and under-prepared, the Boers were very well armed and struck first, besieging Ladysmith and Mafeking in early 1900, and winning important battles at Colenso and Stormberg. Staggered, the British brought in numbers of soldiers and fought back. General Redvers Buller was replaced by Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener and they relieved the three besieged cities, and invaded the two Boer republics in late 1900.
The onward marches of the British Army were so overwhelming that the Boers did not fight staged battles in defense of their homeland, the British quickly seized control of all of the Orange Free State and Transvaal, as the civilian leadership went into hiding or exile. In conventional terms, the war was over, Britain officially annexed the two countries in 1900, and called a khaki election to give the government another six years of power in London. However, the Boers refused to surrender and they reverted to guerrilla warfare under new generals Louis Botha, Jan Smuts, Christiaan de Wet and Koos de la Rey. Two more years of attacks and quick escapes followed. As guerrillas without uniforms, the Boer fighters easily blended into the farmlands, which provided hiding places, the British solution was to set up complex nets of block houses, strong points, and barbed wire fences, partitioning off the entire conquered territory. The civilian farmers were relocated into concentration camps, where very large proportions died of disease, especially the children, the British mounted infantry units systematically tracked down the highly mobile Boer guerrilla units.
The battles at this stage were small operations with few combat casualties The war ended in surrender, the British successfully won over the Boer leaders, who now gave full support to the new political system. Both former republics were incorporated into the Union of South Africa in 1910, the conflict is commonly referred to as simply the Boer War, since the First Boer War is much less well known. Boer was the term for Afrikaans-speaking white South Africans descended from the Dutch East India Companys original settlers at the Cape of Good Hope. It is officially called the South African War and it is known as the Anglo-Boer War among some South Africans. In Afrikaans it may be called the Anglo-Boereoorlog, Tweede Boereoorlog, in South Africa it is officially called the South African War
Embassy Row, Ottawa
Embassy Row in Ottawa, Canada is generally considered the eastern part of the Sandy Hill and Lower Town neighbourhoods. These areas are home to buildings that serve as a chancery. Numerous foreign embassies and high commissions are found in the vicinity of Strathcona Park, many embassies are located on Range Road, Wilbrod Street, and parts of Laurier Avenue and Charlotte Street. List of embassies and high commissions in Ottawa
Parliament Hill, colloquially known as The Hill, is an area of Crown land on the southern banks of the Ottawa River in downtown Ottawa, Ontario. Its Gothic revival suite of buildings is the home of the Parliament of Canada and has elements of national symbolic importance. Parliament Hill attracts approximately 3 million visitors each year, law enforcement on parliament hill and in the parliamentary precinct is the responsibility of the Parliamentary Protective Service. Since 2002, an extensive $1 billion renovation and rehabilitation project has been underway throughout all of the precincts buildings, Parliament Hill is a limestone outcrop with a gently sloping top that was originally covered in primeval forest of beech and hemlock. After Ottawa—then called Bytown—was founded, the builders of the Rideau Canal used the hill as a location for a military base, a large fortress was planned for the site, but was never built, and by the mid 19th century the hill had lost its strategic importance.
On 7 May, the Department of Public Works issued a call for proposals for the new parliament buildings to be erected on Barrack Hill. After the entries were narrowed down to three, Governor General Sir Edmund Walker Head was approached to break the stalemate, and the winners were announced on 29 August 1859. The team of Thomas Stent and Augustus Laver, under the pseudonym of Stat nomen in umbra, won the prize for the second category, $300,000 was allocated for the main building, and $120,000 for each of the departmental buildings. Ground was broken on 20 December 1859, and the first stones laid on 16 April of the following year, the construction of Parliament Hill became the largest project undertaken in North America to that date. By early 1861, Public Works reported that $1,424,882, two years later, the unfinished site hosted a celebration of Queen Victorias birthday, further cementing the areas position as the central place for national outpouring. The site was still incomplete when three of the British North American colonies entered Confederation in 1867, with Ottawa remaining the capital of the new country, the offices of parliament spread to buildings beyond Parliament Hill even at that early date.
The British military gave a nine-pound naval cannon to the British army garrison stationed in Ottawa in 1854 and it was purchased by the Canadian government in 1869 and fired on Parliament Hill for many years as the Noonday Gun. By 1876, the structures of Parliament Hill were finished, along with the surrounding fence, fire destroyed the Centre Block on 3 February 1916. Eleven years later, the new tower was completed and dedicated as the Peace Tower, the Queen was back on Parliament Hill on 17 April 1982, to issue a royal proclamation of the enactment of the Constitution Act that year. In April 1989, a Greyhound Lines bus with 11 passengers on board travelling to New York City from Montreal was hijacked by an armed man, a standoff with police ensued and lasted eight hours, though three shots were fired, there were no injuries. The following year, Queen Elizabeth IIs Golden Jubilee was marked on 13 October, on 22 October 2014, several shooting incidents occurred around Parliament Hill. A gunman, after shooting a Canadian Army soldier mounting the ceremonial guard at the National War Memorial.
There, he was killed in a shootout with RCMP officers, the gunman injured one House of Commons constable, who was shot in the foot
The Rideau River is an Eastern Ontario river which flows north from Upper Rideau Lake and empties into the Ottawa River at Rideau Falls in Ottawa, Ontario. The Rideau Canal, which travel from Ottawa to the city of Kingston. The river diverges from the Canal at Hogs Back Falls in Ottawa and this practice has been going on for more than 100 years. The regulatory authority charged with protecting the Rideau River and its tributaries is the Rideau Valley Conservation Authority, ISBN 0-8020-2573-0 – via Google Books. Rideau Valley Conservation Authority Biodiversity of the Rideau River
Embassy of Russia in Ottawa
The Embassy of Russia in Canada is the Russian embassy in Ottawa, Canada, It is located at 285 Charlotte Street, at the eastern terminus of Laurier Avenue. To the south it looks out on Strathcona Park while to the east it looks out on the Rideau River, Russia maintains consulates in Toronto and Montreal. The site was given to the Soviet Union in 1942 and was contained in a large manor that had formerly belonged to J. Fred Booth. This manor had been the site of the marriage of Fred Booths daughter Lois to Prince Erik of Denmark, son of Prince Valdemar of Denmark. The building was expropriated by the government during the Second World War for use by the Royal Canadian Navy and it was in this building that Igor Gouzenko worked and from where he removed documents before defecting in 1945. On January 1,1956 a fire out on the third floor of the embassy. Embassy employees tried to put it out themselves and did not call the fire department and they were unsuccessful and neighbours soon noticed smoke billowing from the building.
When the fire department arrived the Soviets would not let them in, Ottawa Mayor Charlotte Whitton arrived at the blaze and demanded the fire department be let in, and threatened to have the embassy staff arrested. The dispute between the mayor and the ambassador was mediated by cabinet minister Paul Martin, who had come to the scene. Eventually, the fighters were allowed in, but only after the Soviets had removed large numbers of sensitive documents. It was too late and the building was gutted, the remains of the manor were demolished and the current stark Classic Soviet style building was erected in its place. After the fire the embassy was relocated to 24 Blackburn Avenue and they concentrated on the northwest corner of the building, the logical site for a communications centre. The Soviets, built their communications centre in a sealed chamber elsewhere in the building, with the fall of the Soviet Union the building became the Russian embassy. The massive bust of Lenin was removed from the lobby and soon after the exterior was modified to make it less imposing.
Georgy Zarubin 1941-1942 Fedor Tarasovich Gusev 1942-1943 Dimitri S. Chuvahin 1950s Boris Miroshnichenko. -1973 Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev 1973-1983 Alexey Rodionov 1983-, vitaly Churkin 1998-2003 Georgiy Mamedov 2003-2014 Since 2014, the Russian ambassador to Canada is Alexander Darchiev
William Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King OM, CMG, PC, commonly known as Mackenzie King, was the dominant Canadian political leader from the 1920s through the 1940s. He served as the tenth Prime Minister of Canada in 1921–1926, 1926–1930, a Liberal with 21 years and 154 days in office, he was the longest-serving prime minister in Canadian history. Trained in law and social work, he was interested in the human condition. King acceded to the leadership of the Liberal Party in 1919, taking the helm of a party bitterly torn apart during the First World War, he reconciled factions, unifying the Liberal Party and leading it to victory in the 1921 election. His party was out of office during the harshest days of the Great Depression in Canada, 1930–35 and he personally handled complex relations with the Prairie Provinces, while his top aides Ernest Lapointe and Louis St. Laurent skillfully met the demands of French Canadians. During the Second World War, he avoided the battles over conscription, patriotism. Though few major policy innovations took place during his premiership, he was able to synthesize, scholars attribute Kings long tenure as party leader to his wide range of skills that were appropriate to Canadas needs.
He understood the workings of capital and labour, keenly sensitive to the nuances of public policy, he was a workaholic with a shrewd and penetrating intelligence and a profound understanding of the complexities of Canadian society. A modernizing technocrat who regarded managerial mediation as essential to an industrial society, King worked to bring compromise and harmony to many competing and feuding elements, using politics and government action as his instrument. He led his party for 29 years, and established Canadas international reputation as a middle power fully committed to world order, Kings biographers agree on the personal characteristics that made him distinctive. He lacked the charisma of such contemporaries as Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and he lacked a commanding presence or oratorical skill, his best writing was academic, and did not resonate with the electorate. Cold and tactless in human relations, he had allies but very few personal friends. He never married and lacked a hostess whose charm could substitute for his chill, a survey of scholars in 1997 by Macleans magazine ranked King first among all Canadas prime ministers, ahead of Sir John A.
Macdonald and Sir Wilfrid Laurier. As historian Jack Granatstein notes, the scholars expressed little admiration for King the man but offered unbounded admiration for his political skills, on the other hand, political scientist Ian Stewart in 2007 found that even Liberal activists have but a dim memory of him. King was born in Berlin, Ontario, to John King and his maternal grandfather was William Lyon Mackenzie, first mayor of Toronto and leader of the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837. His father was a lawyer, and a professor at Osgoode Hall Law School and he attended Berlin Central School and Berlin High School. Tutors were hired to teach him more politics, math and his father was a lawyer with a struggling practice in a small city, and never enjoyed financial security. King became a lifelong practising Presbyterian with a dedication to applying Christian virtues to social issues in the style of the Social Gospel and he obtained three degrees from the University of Toronto, B. A.1895, LL. B