The Trans-Canada Highway is a transcontinental federal-provincial highway system that travels through all ten provinces of Canada from the Pacific Ocean on the west to the Atlantic on the east. The main route spans 7,821 km across the country, one of the longest routes of its type in the world; the highway system is recognizable by its distinctive white-on-green maple leaf route markers, although there are small variations in the markers in some provinces. Throughout much of Canada, there are at least two routes designated as part of the Trans-Canada Highway. For example, in the western provinces, both the main Trans-Canada route and the Yellowhead Highway are part of the Trans-Canada system. Although the TCH, being a transcontinental route, does not enter any of Canada's three northern territories or run to the Canada–US border, the Trans-Canada Highway forms part of Canada's overall National Highway System, providing connections to the Northwest Territories and the border, although the NHS is unsigned.
Canada's national highway system is not under federal jurisdiction, as decisions about highway and freeway construction are under the jurisdiction of the individual provinces. Route numbering on the Trans-Canada Highway is handled by the provinces; the Western provinces have coordinated their highway numbers so that the main Trans-Canada route is designated Highway 1 and the Yellowhead route is designated Highway 16 throughout. East of Manitoba the highway numbers change at each provincial boundary, or within a province as the TCH piggybacks along separate provincial highways en route. In addition and Quebec use standard provincial highway shields to number the highway within their boundaries, but post numberless Trans-Canada Highway shields alongside them to identify it; as the Trans-Canada route was composed of sections from pre-existing provincial highways, it is unlikely that the Trans-Canada Highway will have a uniform designation across the whole country. The Trans-Canada Highway, uniformly designated as Highway 1 in the four western provinces, begins in Victoria, British Columbia at the intersection of Douglas Street and Dallas Road and passes northward along the east coast of Vancouver Island for 99 km to Nanaimo.
Short freeway segments of the TCH can be found near Victoria and Nanaimo, but the rest of the highway on Vancouver Island operates as a signalized low-to-limited-mobility arterial road that uniquely does not bypass any of its areas of urban sprawl Nanaimo and Duncan. The section of Highway 1 that crosses the Malahat northwest of Victoria has no stoplights yet, but is pinched by rugged terrain that prevents comprehensive widening to four lanes and sometimes forces closure for hours at a time after a traffic accident; the Departure Bay ferry is the only marine link on the Trans-Canada system that has no freeway or other high mobility highway access, instead routing TCH traffic through downtown Nanaimo streets to reach the ferry to Vancouver. The Vancouver Island TCH is one of four parts of the Trans-Canada system in which the highway runs north-south, the others being Highway 1 from Hope to Cache Creek, Ontario Highway 17 from White River to Sault Ste Marie, Ontario Highways 69 and 400 from Sudbury to Waubaushene, Autoroute 85/Route 185 from Autoroute 20 in Quebec to the New Brunswick border.
The Trans-Canada is otherwise designated as east-west from Nanaimo to St. John's. From Departure Bay, a 57 km ferry route connects the highway to Horseshoe Bay in West Vancouver. At this point, the Trans-Canada Highway becomes a high mobility freeway and passes through the Vancouver metropolitan area, crossing the Fraser River with the Port Mann Bridge, electronically tolled between December 8, 2012 and September 1, 2017. From the Port Mann Bridge, the TCH heads east through the Fraser Valley to Hope covering a total distance of 170 km from the Horseshoe Bay ferry. At Hope, the TCH exits the freeway and turns north for 186 km through the Fraser Canyon toward Cache Creek as a high mobility highway with only occasional mandatory stops east for 79 km where it re-enters a short freeway alignment through Kamloops. From there, it continues east as a two-lane expressway through Salmon Arm, Revelstoke, Rogers Pass and Kicking Horse Pass, to Field, British Columbia while passing by Yoho National Park.
Using the South Fraser Perimeter Road from Surrey to Tsawwassen Ferry Terminal, Vancouver Island or interior-bound traffic can bypass the busiest sections of Highway 1 in Metro Vancouver and the Horseshoe Bay-Departure Bay Ferry. Victoria-bound traffic can use the same highway as a shortcut that bypasses the entire circuitous Vancouver Island route of the Trans-Canada with its numerous traffic lights and bottlenecks. Speed limits on the British Columbia mainland segment of the Trans-Canada range from 80 to 110 km/h. A combination of difficult terrain and growing urbanization limits posted speeds on the Vancouver Island section to 50 km/h in urban areas, 80 km/h across the Malahat and through suburban areas, a maximum of 90 km/h in rural areas. From Field, British Columbia, the highway continues 206 km east as Alberta Highway 1 to Lake Louise, Banff and Calgary where it becomes known as 16 Avenue N an expressway and a busy street with many signalized intersections; the northwest and northeast segments of
Legislative Assembly of Alberta
The Legislative Assembly of Alberta is one of two components of the Legislature of Alberta, the other being Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, represented by the Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta. The Alberta legislature meets in the Alberta Legislature Building in the provincial capital, Edmonton; the Legislative Assembly consists of 87 members, elected first past the post from single-member electoral districts. The maximum period between general elections of the assembly, as set by the country's Constitution, is five years, but the premier controls the date of election and selects a date in the fourth or fifth year after the preceding election. Since 2011, Alberta has fixed election date legislation, fixing the election to a date between March 1 and May 31 in the fourth calendar year following the preceding election. Alberta has never had a minority government, so an election as a result of a vote of no confidence has never occurred. To be a candidate for election to the assembly, a person must be a Canadian citizen older than 18 who has lived in Alberta for at least six months before the election.
Senators, senators in waiting, members of the House of Commons, criminal inmates are ineligible. The current and 29th Alberta Legislative Assembly was elected on May 5, 2015; the first session of the first Legislature of Alberta opened on March 15, 1906, in the Thistle Rink, north of Jasper Avenue. In this arena Alberta MPs chose the provincial capital and the future site for the Alberta Legislature Building: the bank of the North Saskatchewan River. Allan Merrick Jeffers, a graduate of the Rhode Island School of Design was the architect, chosen to build the assembly building. In September 1912 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Governor General of Canada, declared the building open; the current members of the Legislature were elected in the 29th Alberta general election held on May 5, 2015. Bold indicates cabinet members, party leaders are italicized. Five byelections have been held since the last general election. Party leaders are italicized. Bold indicates cabinet minister. Official Seating Plan Legislative Assembly of Alberta web site Legislative Assembly of Alberta history - Citizens guide Canadian Governments Compared Legislative Assembly of Alberta - History
1939 royal tour of Canada
The 1939 royal tour of Canada by King George VI and Queen Elizabeth was undertaken in the build-up to World War II as a way to emphasise the independence of the Dominion from Britain. The visit lasted from May 17 to June 15, covering every Canadian province, the Dominion of Newfoundland, a few days in the United States. There had been previous royal tours of Canada; the tour was an enormous event. The king and queen arrived by ship in Quebec City and travelled west by rail, accompanied throughout their journey by Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King; the party visited most of the major cities arriving in Vancouver. They travelled through the United States; the tour ended with a visit to the Newfoundland, departing from Halifax. It was one of the first visits of a reigning monarch to Canada, the first time a British monarch had set foot in the United States; this tour marked the first time that the sovereign's official Canadian birthday was marked with the monarch himself present in the country.
In 1985, during a tour of Canada, Queen Elizabeth, by the Queen Mother, stated in a speech: "It is now some 46 years since I first came to this country with the King, in those anxious days shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War. I shall always look back upon that visit with feelings of happiness. I think I lost my heart to Canada and Canadians, my feelings have not changed with the passage of time." Governor General Lord Tweedsmuir, in an effort to foster Canadian identity, conceived of a royal tour by the country's monarchs. Tweedsmuir's desire was to demonstrate with living example the fact of Canada's status as an independent kingdom, having Canadians "see their King performing royal functions, supported by his Canadian ministers." Prime Minister Mackenzie King, while in London for the coronation in May 1937, formally consulted with the King on the matter. According to biographer Janet Adam Smith, the task for Tweedsmuir, the Canadian government, was "how to translate the Statute of Westminster into the actualities of a tour... since this was the first visit of a reigning monarch to a Dominion, precedents were being made."
The tour was designed to bolster trans-Atlantic support for Britain in the event of war, to affirm Canada's status as an independent kingdom, sharing with Britain the same person as monarch. Elizabeth's mother had died in 1938, so Norman Hartnell designed an all-white wardrobe for her delayed state visit to France that year. In Canada in 1939 she wore elements of this white mourning, which forms a distinctive feature of the black and white photographs of the tour; the first portion of the royal tour occurred from 17 May 1939, when the royal couple arrived in Quebec City, to 7 June 1939, when George VI and Mackenzie King departed Canada to conduct a state visit to the United States. The first portion of the Canadian royal tour, saw the royal couple visit every province in Canada, excluding the provinces in Atlantic Canada, toured following George VI and Mackenzie King's return from the United States on 12 June; the arrangements were made, on 17 May 1939, the royal couple arrived in Quebec City for their tour of Canada on board the Canadian Pacific liner RMS Empress of Australia.
Their Majesties took up residence at La Citadelle, where the King performed his first official tasks, amongst, the acceptance of the credentials of Daniel Calhoun Roper as the American envoy to Canada. The King held audience with Quebeckers in the Legislative Council chamber of the Legislative Assembly Building. Two Boer War veterans of Scottish heritage, in order to settle an argument, asked the Queen when presented to her: "Are you Scots, or are you English?" Elizabeth's response was reported as being: "Since I have landed in Quebec, I think we can say that I am Canadian." The royal party traveled to Ottawa on 20 May, where the Queen laid the cornerstone of the Supreme Court building, the King dedicated the National War Memorial in front of 10,000 war veterans, the couple went to Parliament. There, the King granted Royal Assent to nine bills in the traditional manner, still being used in Canada at the time - in the United Kingdom, Royal Assent has not been granted by the Sovereign in person since 1854.
Following the ceremony, His Majesty stated: "No ceremony could more symbolize the free and equal association of the nations of the Commonwealth." After two days in Ottawa, the royal couple began travelling westward. The couple travelled to Toronto on 22 May, where they attended the King's Plate horse race and dedicated Coronation Park; the couple dedicated the soon-to-be completed Rainbow Bridge at Niagara Falls, unveiled a monument at the site to mark the occasion. They inaugurated the Queen Elizabeth Way as well as various monuments along the route, including a set of decorative stone pillars on the eastern approach to the Henley Bridge in St. Catharines, each consisting of a regal lion bearing a unique shield, the Queen Elizabeth Way Monument, which had inscribed on its base words prophetically referring to the hostilities that would break out that year: The Queen
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
Area code 403
Area code 403 is a telephone area code in the Canadian province of Alberta, encompassing the southern third of the province, including the Calgary area. The 403 area code was one of the original 89 area codes assigned in 1947 in the contiguous United States and the nine-province extent of Canada, it encompassed the whole province of Alberta, the Yukon and the western half of the Northwest Territories. It was the second-largest numbering plan area in the North American Numbering Plan, spanning more than one-ninth of the circumference of the planet from the 49th parallel north to the North Pole. On October 3, 1997, 403 was cut back to Alberta, when the territories were split off as their own separate area code, 867. Within only a year, 403 was back to the brink of exhaustion due to Canada's number allocation system; every local exchange carrier is allocated blocks of 10,000 numbers–corresponding to a single three-digit prefix–for every rate centre where they plan to offer service for the smallest hamlets.
While most rate centres do not need nearly that many numbers, it is not possible to move a number from one rate centre to another. This resulted in thousands of wasted numbers, the proliferation of cell phones and pagers–especially in Calgary and Edmonton–only exacerbated this. On January 25, 1999, the northern two-thirds of Alberta, including Edmonton, was split into the new area code 780. Everything from Red Deer and Lacombe southward stayed in 403. Permissive dialing of 403 continued across the province until May 18, 1999; this was intended as a long-term solution, but within a decade 403 was close to exhaustion once again. To solve the problem, it was decided to implement area code 587 as a province-wide overlay. Optional provincewide 10-digit dialing began on June 23, 2008, became mandatory on September 12, 2008. On September 20, 2008, Telus Mobility began assigning 587 numbers to new customers in Calgary and Edmonton; the incumbent local exchange carrier in 403 is Telus. Prior to 1990, Telus was known as Alberta Government Telephones, was a department of the provincial government.
Calgary -200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 225 226 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 303 305 312 313 319 333 338 351 354 355 365 366 367 369 370 371 374 375 383 384 385 386 387 389 390 397 398 399 400 401 402 404 407 408 410 428 437 440 441 444 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 481 483 487 500 503 508 509 510 512 513 514 515 516 517 519 520 521 523 530 531 532 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 547 554 560 561 567 568 569 570 571 585 589 590 592 604 605 606 607 608 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 629 630 640 645 648 650 651 656 660 661 662 663 667 668 669 670 671 680 681 685 686 689 690 691 692 693 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 705 708 710 714 716 717 718 719 720 723 724 726 727 730 731 735 736 744 747 750 764 765 766 767 769 770 771 774 775 776 777 781 796 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 813 815 816 817 818 819 826 827 828 829 830 831 835 836 837 850 852 860 861 862 863 869 870 873 874 875 879 880 888 889 890 891 899 906 909 910 918 919 920 921 922 923 926 927 931 943 944 955 956 966 968 969 970 971 973 974 975 978 984 987 988 990 991 992 993 997 998 999 Acme -546 Airdrie -316 420 768 912 945 948 960 980 Banff -431 497 760 762 763 778 951 985 996 Beiseker -947 Black Diamond -933 Blackfalds -600 885 Brooks -362 363 376 409 427 501 633 793 794 925 Canmore -493 609 621 675 678 679 688 707 812 953 961 Cardston -653 659 Carstairs -337 940 Castor -882 Cereal -326 Claresholm -468 489 490 625 682 706 Coaldale -345 405 Cochrane -709 840 851 855 907 932 981 Cremona -637 Crossfield -941 946 Crowsnest Pass -372 459 562 563 564 582 583 623 Didsbury -335 439 518 Drumheller -321 334 436 494 820 821 823 856 East Coulee -822 Eckville -746 High River -336 422 469 498 601 602 603 649 652 841 908 Innisfail -227 Irricana -935 Irvine -834 Kananaskis Improvement District -591 Lacombe -782 786 789 Lake Louise -434 522 Langdon -936 954 Leslieville -729 Lethbridge -308 315 317 320 327 328 329 330 331 332 353 359 360 380 381 382 388 393 394 524 593 634 635 694 715 795 849 892 894 915 929 942 Longview -558 Medicine Hat -458 487 488 502 504 525 526 527 528 529 548 580 581 594 712 866 878 905 926 928 952 957 977 979 Morley -881 Okotoks -306 842 917 938 939 982 995 Olds -415 438 507 556 559 586 672 791 994 Pincher Creek -339 432 484 624 627 632 683 Ponoka -704 783 785 790 913 963 Red Deer -302 304 307 309 314 318 340 341 342 343 346 347 348 349 350 352 356 357 358 373 391 392 396 406 505 506 550 588 596 597 598 713 754 755 848 872 877 896 967 986 Rocky Mountain House -322 418 429 844 845 846 847 871 895 Stettler -323 430 740 741 742 743 916 Strathmore -324 325 361 480 499 814 901 902 934 962 983 Sylvan Lake -858 864 887 Taber -223 416 Three Hills -443 Turner Valley -933 The projected exhaust date for Area Code 403 was March 2009.
For more information see the Canadian Numbering Administrator Website. Two area codes, 587 and 825, have been reserved and the first one, 587, was introduced in September 2008; the 403 area code with area code 780, will be overlaid with the new area code, which will cover the entire
Municipal census in Canada
Four provinces and territories in Canada have legislation that allow municipalities to conduct a municipal census. These include the territories of Nunavut and Yukon. Of these four provinces and territories, municipalities in Alberta were the only ones that exercise the option to conduct a municipal census as of 2006. Alberta's Municipal Government Act is the enabling legislation that allows its municipalities to conduct their own censuses; the MGA stipulates that the Minister of Alberta Municipal Affairs may regulate how municipal populations are determined and how they are conducted. The regulation that stipulates these is the MGA's Determination of Population Regulation; the DOPR provides a three-month period for municipalities to conduct censuses, which begins on April 1 and ends on June 30, requires the municipalities to set a census date within this period relating to enumeration. It requires that censuses be conducted in accordance with a training manual approved by the Minister of AMA, submission of the results to AMA before September 1 of the same year in which the census is conducted.
The results become the populations of the submitting municipalities if they are accepted by the Minister of AMA. The conducting of municipal censuses in Alberta is widespread. Between 2007 and 2011 inclusive, the last full five-year period between Statistics Canada's releases of the last two federal censuses, 157 of its 357 municipalities conducted at least one municipal census. Of these, each of Alberta's 17 cities and 8 Metis settlements conducted censuses, as well as 64 of its 108 towns, 45 of its 93 villages, 3 of its 51 summer villages, 3 of its 5 specialized municipalities and 17 of its 64 municipal districts. In 2013, at least 40 municipalities conducted censuses. Alberta recognized censuses conducted by 38 of these municipalities. Municipalities choose to conduct their own censuses with the goal of acceptance by Alberta Municipal Affairs for multiple reasons. Municipal censuses allow for collection of important demographic data to assist in the planning and provision of community services.
They allow municipalities experiencing high levels of population growth to capitalize on increased provincial grant funding involving population per capita formulae. Some municipalities choose to conduct a census to verify it has grown since the last federal census. Municipal censuses are conducted via paper-based enumeration of households done door-to-door. More municipalities have been permitted to conduct them electronically door-to-door using wireless handheld devices or online with census question responses being entered directly into a secure census database by a representative of the household. During enumeration, only those people enumerated that are "usual residents" of that municipality may be included in the total population count. However, a municipality may enumerate those that are not "usual residents" as its "shadow population" if approved by the Minister of AMA; the Cities and Villages Act and the Hamlets Act enables Nunavut's municipalities to conduct their own censuses. As of 2006, municipalities in Nunavut were not exercising their opportunities to conduct their own censuses.
The Municipalities Act allows municipalities within Saskatchewan to conduct their own censuses. The City of Lloydminster, which straddles Saskatchewan's provincial boundary with Alberta, conducted municipal censuses in 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2013. Convinced Statistics Canada undercounted its population during the Canada 2011 Census, the Town of La Ronge conducted its own census in 2012. Municipalities in Yukon may conduct their own censuses pursuant to the Municipal Act; as of 2006, municipalities in Yukon were not exercising their opportunities to conduct their own censuses. Census in Canada Alberta Municipal Affairs Municipal Census & Population Lists