Sir Melville Leslie Macnaghten CB KPM was Assistant Commissioner of the London Metropolitan Police from 1903 to 1913. A regarded and famously affable figure of the late Victorian and Edwardian eras he played major investigative roles in cases that led to the establishment and acceptance of fingerprint identification, he was a major player in the pursuit and capture of Dr. Crippen, of the exoneration of a wrongly convicted man, Adolph Beck, which helped lead to the creation of the Court of Criminal Appeal in 1907; when he prematurely retired in 1913 due to illness, Macnaghten claimed to journalists that he knew the exact identity of Jack the Ripper, the nickname of the unknown serial killer of poor prostitutes in London's impoverished East End during the late Victorian era. The police chief called the killer "that remarkable man", but refused to name him or divulge details that might identify him, except to reveal that he had taken his own life at the end of 1888. Macnaghten further claimed that he had destroyed the relevant papers to keep forever secret the deceased killer's identity.
Since 1965 the public has known that Macnaghten's suspect was Montague John Druitt, a country doctor's son and young barrister who inexplicably drowned himself in the River Thames in early December 1888. The source of Macnaghten's alleged "private information" about Druitt has two candidates, both only uncovered in the early 21st Century. One is a Tory politician, H. R. Farquharson, who lived near the Druitts and went to Eton with Macnaghten, the other is Colonel Sir Vivian Majendie, a close friend of the police chief and whose clan was related to the Druitt family, it is both men, in succession, were the unnamed sources of information for the police chief regarding the drowned barrister being suspected of being the Ripper by his closest relations. Since 1959 Macnaghten has been known for a major report written in the 1890s on the Ripper case, naming three possible Jack the Ripper suspects. There are two versions of this document, one, filed in the archives of Scotland Yard, it was, however, a copy of the held version in the possession of his daughter, Lady Aberconway – the version which advocated "M. J. Druitt" as the likeliest suspect to have been the Whitechapel assassin –, revealed in 1959.
Macnaghten's opinion that the case was solved, that it was a "Protean" maniac who had taken his own life, had been confirmed in his 1914 memoir, "Days of My Years" though Druitt was not named. More French writer Sophie Herfort has argued that Macnaghten himself was responsible for the Jack the Ripper murders; the youngest of fifteen children of Elliot Macnaghten, the last Chairman of the British East India Company, Macnaghten was educated at Eton. In his memoirs he describes his schooldays as the happiest of his life going so far as to write that he knew this to be so as he lived them. After leaving school in 1872, he went to India to run his father's tea estates in Bengal and remained there until 1888, albeit with occasional visits back home. In 1881 he was assaulted by Indian land rioters and as a result, became friends with James Monro, District Judge and Inspector-General in the Bombay Presidency at the time. On 3 October 1878 he married the daughter of a canon from Chichester. Upon his return to England, Macnaghten was offered the post of first Assistant Chief Constable in the Metropolitan Police by Monro, who by that time had become the first Assistant Commissioner.
Warren's rejection of Macnaghten widened the rift between the two men, resulting in Monro's resignation and his transfer to Special Branch by the Home Secretary, Henry Matthews. However, due to the continuous disagreements with Home Secretary Matthews, Commissioner Warren chose to resign on 9 November 1888. Monro was brought in to succeed him as Commissioner. With this turn of events, Macnaghten was brought in with the position of Assistant Chief Constable in June 1889. Though he missed being on the police force during the Ripper killings of 1888, Macnaghten was involved in the investigation of the murders of Whitechapel prostitutes between 1889 and 1891. Crimes that were believed by some at Scotland Yard, by the tabloid press, to be by the same perpetrator. In his memoir, Macnaghten claimed that information received "some years after" the final murder of 1888 led him to the belief that Jack the Ripper was a man who had taken his own life at the end of that year; the source of these "certain facts" that led to this "conclusion" is unidentified, though he implies in his book that it was the murderer's "own people", e.g. his relations who lived with him) who must have briefed the Chief Constable.
Macnaghten titles his chapter on the Whitechapel murders: "Laying the Ghost of Jack the Ripper". In February 1891 a Conservative MP, Henry Richard Farquharson, the member for West Dorset, was telling people in London that he knew the murderer to have been a surgeon's son who had co
Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis
The Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis is the head of London's Metropolitan Police Service. Cressida Dick was appointed to the post in 2017, assumed office on 10 April; the Commissioner is regarded as the highest ranking police officer in the United Kingdom, although their authority is confined to the Metropolitan Police Service's area of operation, the Metropolitan Police District. However, unlike other police forces the Metropolitan Police has certain national responsibilities such as leading counter-terrorism policing and the protection of the Royal Family and senior members of Her Majesty's Government. Furthermore, the postholder is directly accountable to the Home Secretary and the public nationally amongst many others whereas smaller police forces are only accountable to residents and their local Police and Crime Commissioner or police authority; the rank is referred to as the Metropolitan Police Commissioner, the Met Commissioner or just "Commissioner". The Commissioner's annual salary without pension contributions or allowances from 1 September 2016 is £270,648 + £2,373.
The rank of Commissioner was created by the Metropolitan Police Act 1829. The Commissioners were Justices of the Peace and not sworn constables until 1 April 1974; the title Commissioner was not used until 1839. The insignia of rank is a crown above a Bath Star, known as "pips", above crossed tipstaves within a wreath similar to the insignia worn by a full general in the British Army; this badge is all but unique within the British police, shared only with the Commissioner of the City of London Police, the smallest territorial police force, HM Chief Inspector of Constabulary. Like all chief officer ranks in the British police, commissioners wear gorget patches on the collars of their tunics; the gorget patches are similar to those worn by generals, aside from being of silver-on-black instead of the Army's gold-on-red. At one time, the commissioners were either civil servants. Sir John Nott-Bower, who served as Commissioner from 1953 to 1958, was the first career police officer to hold the post, despite several previous Commissioners having served in senior administrative positions in colonial forces, the Metropolitan Police itself.
Nott-Bower's successor Sir Joseph Simpson was the first Commissioner to have started his career as the lowest rank of Constable. However, Sir Robert Mark, appointed in 1972, was the first to have risen through all the ranks from the lowest to the highest, as all his successors have done; as of 2008, the post of Commissioner is appointed for a period of five years. Applicants are appointed to the post by the Queen, following a recommendation by the Home Secretary under the Police Act 1996; as of 2010 the salary of the Commissioner of the Metropolis is £260,088. Applicants to the post of Commissioner had to be British citizens, be "serving UK chief constables or of equivalent UK ranks and above, or have recent experience at these levels"; the post of Commissioner is "accountable to the Home Secretary. In August 2011, Prime Minister David Cameron wanted former Los Angeles Police Department Chief Bill Bratton to become the new Met Police Commissioner, but this was blocked by the Home Office pointing out that the Commissioner has to be British.
This changed with an amendment to the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 whereby a person, or has been "a police officer in an approved overseas police force, of at least the approved rank" could be appointed, in addition to "a constable in any part of the United Kingdom". The selection process in 2017 to select Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe's successor involved the candidates undergoing psychometric testing in addition to interviews with the Home Secretary, Mayor of London and Policing Minister; the process is conducted in private and the Home Office has called for a "news blackout." The discussion and public profile of the candidates was limited to speculation and rumour, with the Home Office refusing to confirm the shortlisted candidates covered in the media. The Centre for Public Safety has recommended the selection process be reformed, to provide opportunities for greater public and workforce engagement in the process. In particular, suggesting a series of community interview panels and a public candidate forum - though they maintain that the final decision should still rest with the Home Secretary.
UK police ranks Metropolitan Police Service timeline Commissioner Hogan-Howe in full ceremonial dress leading crowds up the Mall during the Queen's Diamond Jubilee 2012
Henry Faulds was a Scottish physician and scientist, noted for the development of fingerprinting. Faulds was born in North Ayrshire, into a family of modest means. Aged 13, he was forced to leave school, went to Glasgow to work as a clerk to help support his family, he studied medicine at Anderson's College, graduated with a physician's licence. Following graduation, Faulds became a medical missionary for the Church of Scotland. In 1871, he was sent to British India, where he worked for two years in Darjeeling at a hospital for the poor. On 23 July 1873, he received a letter of appointment from the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland to establish a medical mission in Japan, he married Isabella Wilson that September, the newlyweds departed for Japan in December. Faulds established the first English mission in Japan in 1874, with a hospital and a teaching facility for Japanese medical students, he helped introduce Dr. Joseph Lister's antiseptic methods to Japanese surgeons. In 1875, he helped found the Rakuzenkai, Japan's first society for the blind, set up lifeguard stations to prevent drowning in nearby canals.
He halted a rabies epidemic that killed small children who played with infected mice, he helped stop the spread of cholera in Japan. He cured a plague infecting the local fishmonger's stock of carp. In 1880 he helped. By 1882, his Tsukiji Hospital in Tokyo treated 15,000 patients annually. Faulds became fluent in Japanese, in addition to his full-time work as a doctor, he wrote two books on travel in the Far East, many academic articles, started three magazines. Whilst accompanying a friend to an archaeological dig he noticed how the delicate impressions left by craftsmen could be discerned in ancient clay fragments. Examining his own fingertips and those of friends, he became convinced that the pattern of ridges was unique to each individual. Shortly after these observations his hospital was broken into; the local police arrested a member of staff whom Faulds believed to be innocent. Determined to exonerate the man, he compared the fingerprints left behind at the crime scene to those of the suspect and found them to be different.
On the strength of this evidence the police agreed to release the suspect. In an attempt to promote the idea of fingerprint identification he sought the help of the noted naturalist Charles Darwin. Darwin declined to work on the idea, but passed it on to his relative Francis Galton, who forwarded it to the Anthropological Society of London; when Galton returned to the topic some eight years he paid little attention to Faulds' letter. As a result of this interchange some controversy has arisen about the inventor of modern forensic fingerprinting. However, there can be no doubt that Faulds' first paper on the subject was published in the scientific journal Nature in 1880; the following month Sir William Herschel, a British civil servant based in India, wrote to Nature saying that he had been using fingerprints to identify criminals since 1860. However, Herschel did not mention their potential for forensic use. Over the years, Faulds conducted a bitter controversy with Herschel over the use of fingerprints, demanding proof in 1894 that Herschel had used fingerprints which Herschel duly provided, writing a series of books and pamphlets many years containing variations of the argument that he had been cheated his due credit.
These books were published from 1905 onward. Returning to Britain in 1886, after a quarrel with the missionary society which ran his hospital in Japan, Faulds offered the concept of fingerprint identification to Scotland Yard but he was dismissed, most because he did not present the extensive evidence required to show that prints are durable and classifiable. Subsequently, Faulds returned to the life of a police surgeon, at first in London, in the Stoke-on-Trent town of Fenton. In 1922 he sold his practice and moved to James Street in nearby Wolstanton where he died in March 1930 aged 86, bitter at the lack of recognition he had received for his work. In 2007 a plaque acknowledging Faulds' work was unveiled at Bank House, near to Wolstanton's St Margaret's churchyard where his grave can be seen. In 2011, a plaque was unveiled at his former James Street residence. On 12 November 2004 a memorial was dedicated to his memory in Beith town centre close to the site of the house in New Street where he was born.
The method of identifying criminals by their fingerprints had been introduced in the 1860s by Sir William James Herschel in India, their potential use in forensic work was first proposed by Dr. Henry Faulds in 1880. Galton, following the idea written by Faulds, which he failed to credit, was the first to place the study on a scientific footing, which assisted its acceptance by the courts; the Japanese police adopted the fingerprinting system in 1911. His clinic in Tokyo became St. Luke's International Hospital. Francis Galton's complete works on fingerprints Overview of the Faulds/Herschel/Galton controversy with extensive primary materials The Faulds Memorial in Japan The Faulds Memorial in Scotland Papers relating to Dr Henry Faulds Works by Henry Faulds at LibriVox
HM Prison Wandsworth
HM Prison Wandsworth, is a Category B men's prison at Wandsworth in the London Borough of Wandsworth, South West London, England. It is the largest prison in the United Kingdom; the prison was built in 1851. It was designed according to the humane separate system principle: a number of corridors radiate from a central control point with each prisoner having toilet facilities; the toilets were subsequently removed to increase prison capacity and the prisoners had to engage in the humiliating process of "slopping out", until 1996. In 1930, inmate James Edward Spiers, serving a 10-year sentence for armed robbery, committed suicide in front of a group of Justices of the Peace who were there to witness his receiving 15 lashes a form of judicial corporal punishment. In 1951, Wandsworth was the holding prison for a national stock of the birch and the cat o' nine tails, implements for corporal punishment inflicted as a disciplinary penalty under the prison rules. An example of a flogging with the "cat" carried out in Wandsworth Prison itself was reported in July 1954.
On 8 July 1965, Ronnie Biggs escaped from the prison, where he was serving a 30-year sentence for his part in the Great Train Robbery. Two years he fled to Brazil and remained on the run until 2001, when he returned to the UK. Wandsworth was the site of 135 executions, between 1878 and 1961. Built in 1878, the gallows was located near the A wing. In 1911 a new gallows was built between the E and F wings, in 1938 a new facility was built at the E wing. Among those executed by hanging were: On 25 April 1951, a double execution took place at Wandsworth, when Edward Smith and Joseph Brown stood on the gallows together and were executed simultaneously; the final executions at Wandsworth were those of Francis Forsyth on 10 November 1960, Victor John Terry on 25 May 1961 and Henryk Niemasz on 8 September 1961. With the exceptions of Scott-Ford and Amery, who were convicted of treachery, all executions were for the crime of murder; the gallows were tested every six months. In 1994, they were dismantled and the condemned suite is now used as a tea room for the prison officers.
The gallows' trapdoor and lever were sent to the Prison Service Museum in Warwickshire. After this museum permanently closed in 2004, they were sent to the Galleries of Justice in Nottingham, where those and an execution box may be seen. In October 2009, gross misconduct charges were brought against managers of Wandsworth Prison, after an investigation found that prisoners had been temporarily transferred to HMP Pentonville before inspections; the transfers, which included vulnerable prisoners, were made in order to manipulate prison population figures. In March 2011, an unannounced follow-up inspection was conducted by Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons, which found that "... Wandsworth compared badly with similar prisons facing similar challenges and we were concerned by what appeared to be unwillingness among some prison managers and staff to acknowledge and take responsibility for the problems the prison faced."In May 2015 a prisoner was found dead in his cell, prompting a murder investigation.
The prison has made good progress since the inspection in 2009 and has received praise from the MQPL Survey, undertaken in March 2011, which demonstrated progress over the same survey results in 2009. Wandsworth Prison contains eight wings on two units; the smaller unit, containing three wings, was designed for women but is closed for refurbishment. It is planned to reopen as a Category C unit focusing on resettlement services. Education and training courses are offered at Wandsworth. Facilities at the prison include a sports hall; the large prison chaplaincy offers chaplains from the Roman Catholic, Methodist, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist and Jehovah's Witness faiths. A BBC investigation showed large scale drug abuse and cannabis being smoked and harder drugs found. There are allegations of staff corruption of staff bringing drugs into the prison. Wandsworth has lost its status as a reform prison. Glyn Travis of the Prison Officers Association said, "Wandsworth staff had bought into the reform process and worked well with the governor to implement the reforms.
Now, the prison has lost its reform status and once again and prisoners have been left high and dry as this government’s agenda seems to change at the drop of a hat." Wandsworth is the most overcrowded prison in England and body scanners were not used on visitors to prevent contraband being brought into the prison due to shortage of staff. Peter Clarke said, "In essence, there were too many prisoners, many with drug-related or mental health issues, with not enough to do." Not all staff carried anti ligature knives despite six suicides since 2015. Bat Khurts, head of Mongolia's counter-terrorism agency, 2010. Bruce Reynolds, the man who organised the Great Train Robbery, he spent time in Wandsworth for breaking and entering and robbery. Charles Bronson, notorious long-term inmate and artist. Chris Huhne, former Energy Secretary jailed for perverting the course of justice in relation to swapping fixed penalty points with his wife, Vicky Pryce. Christopher Tappin, businessman convicted in the US for selling weapons parts to Iran in violation of international sanctions and jailed 33 months in January 2013.
David Chaytor, first MP to be convicted for his part in the United Kingdom Parli
Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property, by means of force or fear. Precise definitions of the offence may vary between jurisdictions. Robbery is differentiated from other forms of theft by its inherently violent nature. Under English law, most forms of theft are triable either way, whereas robbery is triable only on indictment; the word "rob" came via French from Late Latin words of Germanic origin, from Common Germanic raub -- "theft". Among the types of robbery are armed robbery, which involves the use of a weapon, aggravated robbery, when someone brings with them a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon. Highway robbery or mugging takes place outside or in a public place such as a sidewalk, street, or parking lot. Carjacking is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force.
Extortion is the threat to do something illegal, or the offer to not do something illegal, in the event that goods are not given using words instead of actions. Criminal slang for robbery includes "blagging" or "stick-up", "steaming". In Canada, the Criminal Code makes robbery an indictable offence, subject to a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. If the accused uses a restricted or prohibited firearm to commit robbery, there is a mandatory minimum sentence of five years for the first offence, seven years for subsequent offences. Robbery is a statutory offence in the Republic of Ireland, it is created by section 14 of the Criminal Justice Act, 2001, which provides: A person is guilty of robbery if he or she steals, before or at the time of doing so, in order to do so, uses force on any person or puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being and there subjected to force. Robbery is a statutory offence in Wales, it is created by section 8 of the Theft Act 1968 which reads: A person is guilty of robbery if he steals, before or at the time of doing so, in order to do so, he uses force on any person or puts or seeks to put any person in fear of being and there subjected to force.
Aggravated theft Robbery is the only offence of aggravated theft. Aggravated robbery There are no offences of aggravated robbery; this requires evidence to show a theft as set out in section 1 of the Theft Act 1968. In R v Robinson the defendant threatened the victim with a knife in order to recover money which he was owed, his conviction for robbery was quashed on the basis that Robinson had an honest, although unreasonable, belief in his legal right to the money. See R v Skivington 1 QB 166, 2 WLR 655, 131 JP 265, 111 SJ 72, 1 All ER 483, 51 Cr App R 167, CA. In R v Hale the application of force and the stealing took place in different locations, it was not possible to establish the timing, it was argued that the theft should be regarded as complete by this time, R v Gomez, should apply. The threat or use of force must take place before or at the time of the theft. Force used after the theft is complete will not turn the theft into a robbery; the words "or after" that appeared in section 23 of the Larceny Act 1916 were deliberately omitted from section 8.
The book "Archbold" said that the facts in R v Harman, which did not amount to robbery in 1620, would not amount to robbery now. It was held in R v Dawson and James that "force" is an ordinary English word and its meaning should be left to the jury; this approach was confirmed in Corcoran v Anderton, both handbag-snatching cases. Stealing may involve a young child, not aware that taking other persons' property is not in order; the victim must be placed in apprehension or fear that force would be used before or at the time of the taking of the property. A threat is not immediate. Robbery occurs if an aggressor forcibly snatched a mobile phone or if they used a knife to make an implied threat of violence to the holder and took the phone; the person being threatened does not need to be the owner of the property. It is not necessary that the victim was frightened, but the defendant must have put or sought to put the victim or some other person in fear of immediate force; the force or threat may be directed against a third party, for example a customer in a jeweller's shop.
Theft accompanied by a threat to damage property will not constitute robbery, but it may disclose an offence of blackmail. Dishonestly dealing with property stolen during a robbery will constitute an offence of handling. Robbery is an indictable-only offence. Under current sentencing guidelines, the punishment for robbery is affected by a variety of aggravating and mitigating factors. Important is how much harm was caused to t
Deptford, an area on the south bank of the River Thames in south-east London, is named after a ford of the River Ravensbourne. From the mid 16th century to the late 19th it was home to Deptford Dockyard, the first of the Royal Dockyards; this attracted Peter the Great to come and study shipbuilding. Deptford and the docks are associated with the knighting of Sir Francis Drake by Queen Elizabeth I aboard the Golden Hind, the legend of Sir Walter Raleigh laying down his cape for Elizabeth, Captain James Cook's third voyage aboard Resolution, the mysterious murder of Christopher Marlowe in a house along Deptford Strand. Though Deptford began as two small communities, one at the ford, the other a fishing village on the Thames, Deptford's history and population has been associated with the docks established by Henry VIII; the two communities flourished. The area declined as first the Royal Navy moved out, the commercial docks themselves declined until the last dock, Convoys Wharf, closed in 2000.
A Metropolitan Borough of Deptford was formed in 1900. Deptford began life as a ford of the Ravensbourne along the route of the Celtic trackway, paved by the Romans and developed into the medieval Watling Street; the modern name is a corruption of "deep ford". Deptford was part of the pilgrimage route from London to Canterbury used by the pilgrims in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, is mentioned in the Prologue to the "Reeve's Tale"; the ford developed into first a wooden a stone bridge, in 1497 saw the Battle of Deptford Bridge, in which rebels from Cornwall, led by Michael An Gof, marched on London protesting against punitive taxes, but were soundly beaten by the King's forces. A second settlement, Deptford Strand, developed as a modest fishing village on the Thames until Henry VIII used that site for a royal dock repairing and supplying ships, after which it grew in size and importance, shipbuilding remaining in operation until March 1869. Trinity House, the organisation concerned with the safety of navigation around the British Isles, was formed in Deptford in 1514, with its first Master being Thomas Spert, captain of the Mary Rose.
It moved to Stepney in 1618. The name "Trinity House" derives from the church of Holy Trinity and St Clement, which adjoined the dockyard. Separated by market gardens and fields, the two areas merged over the years, with the docks becoming an important part of the Elizabethan exploration. Queen Elizabeth I visited; as well as for exploration, Deptford was important for trade - the Honourable East India Company had a yard in Deptford from 1607 until late in the 17th century taken over by the General Steam Navigation Company. It was connected with the slave trade, John Hawkins using it as a base for his operations, Olaudah Equiano, the slave who became an important part of the abolition of the slave trade, was sold from one ship's captain to another in Deptford around 1760. Diarist John Evelyn lived in Deptford at Sayes Court from 1652. Evelyn inherited the house when he married the daughter of Sir Richard Browne in 1652. On his return to England at the Restoration, Evelyn laid out meticulously planned gardens in the French style, of hedges and parterres.
In its grounds was a cottage at one time rented by master woodcarver Grinling Gibbons. After Evelyn had moved to Surrey in 1694, Russian Tsar Peter the Great studied shipbuilding for three months in 1698, he and some of his fellow Russians stayed at the manor house of Deptford. Evelyn was angered at the antics of the Tsar, who got drunk with his friends and, using a wheelbarrow with Peter in it, rammed their way through a fine holly hedge. Sayes Court was demolished in a workhouse built on its site. Part of the estates around Sayes Court were purchased in 1742 for the building of the Navy Victualling Yard, renamed the Royal Victoria Victualing Yard in 1858 after a visit by Queen Victoria; this massive facility included warehouses, a bakery, a cattleyard/abattoir and sugar stores, closed in 1961. All that remains is the name of Sayes Court Park, accessed from Sayes Court Street off Evelyn Street, not far from Deptford High Street; the Pepys Estate, opened on 13 July 1966, is on the former grounds of the Victualing Yard.
The Docks had been declining from the 18th century. When the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815 the need for a Docks to build and repair warships declined. From 1871 until the First World War the shipyard site was the City of London Corporation's Foreign Cattle Market, in which girls and women butchered sheep and cattle until the early part of the 20th century. At its peak, around 1907, over 234,000 animals were imported annually through the market, but by 1912 these figures had declined to less than 40,000 a year; the yard was taken over by the War Office in 1914, was an Army Supply Reserve Depot in the First and Second World Wars. The site lay unused until being purchased by Convoys in 1984, came into the ownership of News International. In the mid-1990s, although significant inve
The Home Office is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration and law and order. As such it is responsible for policing in England and Wales and rescue services in England, visas and immigration and the Security Service, it is in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It was responsible for Her Majesty's Prison Service and the National Probation Service, but these have been transferred to the Ministry of Justice; the Cabinet minister responsible for the department is the Home Secretary. The remit of the Home Office was reduced in 2007 when, after Home Secretary John Reid had declared the Home Office "not fit for purpose", the Prime Minister Tony Blair separated a new Ministry of Justice from the reduced Home Office, its culpability in the Windrush scandal involving the illegal deportation and harassment of legal British residents is an example of a more recent failure. The Home Office continues to be known in official papers and when referred to in Parliament, as the Home Department.
The Home Office is headed by the Home Secretary, a Cabinet minister supported by the department's senior civil servant, the Permanent Secretary. As of October 2014, the Home Office comprises the following organisations: National Crime Agency HM Inspectorate of Constabulary Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration Independent Office for Police Conduct and other oversight bodies Home Affairs Select Committee HM Chief Inspector of Fire Services Border Force HM Passport Office Immigration Enforcement Corporate Services UK Visas and Immigration Police Services Fire and Rescue Services Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs Animals in Science Committee Disclosure and Barring Service Gangmasters Licensing Authority Independent Police Complaints Commission Investigatory Powers Tribunal Migration Advisory Committee National DNA Database Ethics Group Office of Surveillance Commissioners Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner Police Advisory Board for England and Wales Police Discipline Appeals Tribunal Police Remuneration Review Body Security Industry Authority Technical Advisory Board In October 2012, a number of functions of the National Policing Improvement Agency were transferred to the Home Office ahead of the future abolition of the agency.
These included: Use of the Airwave communications system by police forces The Police National Database The National DNA Database Legislative powers regarding police employment Forensics policy The National Procurement Hub for information technology The Home Office Ministers are as follows: The Department outlined its aims for this Parliament in its Business Plan, published in May 2011 and superseded its Structural Reform Plan. The plan said the department will: 1. Empower the public to hold the police to account for their role in cutting crime Introduce directly elected Police and Crime Commissioners and make police actions to tackle crime and anti-social behaviour more transparent 2. Free up the police to fight crime more and efficiently Cut police bureaucracy, end unnecessary central interference and overhaul police powers in order to cut crime, reduce costs and improve police value for money. Simplify national institutional structures and establish a National Crime Agency to strengthen the fight against organised crime 3.
Create a more integrated criminal justice system Help the police and other public services work together across the criminal justice system 4. Secure our borders and reduce immigration Deliver an improved migration system that commands public confidence and serves our economic interests. Limit non-EU economic migrants, introduce new measures to reduce inflow and minimise abuse of all migration routes, for example the student route. Process asylum applications more and end the detention of children for immigration purposes 5. Protect people's freedoms and civil liberties Reverse state interference to ensure there is not disproportionate intrusion into people‟s lives 6. Protect our citizens from terrorism Keep people safe through the Government‟s approach to counter-terrorism 7. Build a fairer and more equal society Help create a fair and flexible labour market. Change culture and attitudes. Empower individuals and communities. Improve equality structures, frontline services and support. On 27 March 1782, the Home Office was formed by renaming the existing Southern Department, with all existing staff transferring.
On the same day, the Northern Department was renamed the Foreign Office. To match the new names, there was a transferring of responsibilities between the two Departments of State. All domestic responsibilities were moved to the Home Office, all foreign matters became the concern of the Foreign Office. Most subsequently created domestic departments have been formed by splitting responsibilities away from the Home Office; the initial responsibilities were: Answering petitions and addresses sent to the King Advising the King on Royal grants Warrants and commissions The exercise of Royal Prerogative Issuing instructions on behalf of the King to officers of the Crown, lords-lieutenant and magistrates concerning law and order Operation of the secret service within the UK Protecting the public Safeguarding the rights and liberties of individualsResponsibilities were subsequently changed over the years that follo