Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven by hand on a loom. Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in which all the warp threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike cloth weaving where both the warp and the weft threads may be visible. In tapestry weaving, weft yarns are discontinuous, it is a plain weft-faced weave having weft threads of different colours worked over portions of the warp to form the design. Most weavers use a natural warp thread, such as linen or cotton; the weft threads are wool or cotton, but may include silk, silver, or other alternatives. First attested in English in 1467, the word tapestry derives from Old French tapisserie, from tapisser, meaning "to cover with heavy fabric, to carpet", in turn from tapis, "heavy fabric", via Latin tapes, the Latinisation of the Greek τάπης, "carpet, rug"; the earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek, ta-pe-ja, written in the Linear B syllabary. The success of decorative tapestry can be explained by its portability.
Kings and noblemen could transport tapestries from one residence to another. In churches, they were displayed on special occasions. Tapestries were draped on the walls of castles for insulation during winter, as well as for decorative display. In the Middle Ages and renaissance, a rich tapestry panel woven with symbolic emblems, mottoes, or coats of arms called a baldachin, canopy of state or cloth of state was hung behind and over a throne as a symbol of authority; the seat under such a canopy of state would be raised on a dais. The iconography of most Western tapestries goes back to written sources, the Bible and Ovid's Metamorphoses being two popular choices. Apart from the religious and mythological images, hunting scenes are the subject of many tapestries produced for indoor decoration. Tapestries have been used since at least Hellenistic times. Samples of Greek tapestry have been found preserved in the desert of Tarim Basin dating from the 3rd century BC; the form reached a new stage in Europe in the early 14th century AD.
The first wave of production occurred in Switzerland. Over time, the craft expanded to France and the Netherlands; the basic tools have remained much the same. In the 14th and 15th centuries, France was a thriving textile town; the industry specialised in fine wool tapestries which were sold to decorate palaces and castles all over Europe. Few of these tapestries survived the French Revolution as hundreds were burnt to recover the gold thread, woven into them. Arras is still used to refer to a rich tapestry no matter. Indeed, as literary scholar Rebecca Olson argues, arras were the most valuable objects in England during the early modern period and inspired writers such as William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser to weave these tapestries into their most important works such as Hamlet and The Faerie Queen. By the 16th century, the towns of Oudenaarde, Brussels and Enghien had become the centres of European tapestry production. In the 17th century, Flemish tapestries were arguably the most important productions, with many specimens of this era still extant, demonstrating the intricate detail of pattern and colour embodied in painterly compositions of monumental scale.
In the 19th century, William Morris resurrected the art of tapestry-making in the medieval style at Merton Abbey. Morris & Co. made successful series of tapestries for home and ecclesiastical uses, with figures based on cartoons by Edward Burne-Jones. Kilims and Navajo rugs are types of tapestry work. In the mid-twentieth century, new tapestry art forms were developed by children at the Ramses Wissa Wassef Art Centre in Harrania, by modern French artists under Jean Lurçat in Aubusson, France. Traditional tapestries are still made at the factory of Gobelins and a few other old European workshops, which repair and restore old tapestries. While tapestries have been created for many centuries and in every continent in the world, what distinguishes the contemporary field from its pre-World War ll history is the predominance of the artist as weaver in the contemporary medium; this trend has its roots in France during the 1950s where one of the "cartoonists" for the Aubusson Tapestry studios, Jean Lurçat spearheaded a revival of the medium by streamlining color selection, thereby simplifying production, by organizing a series of Biennial exhibits held in Lausanne, Switzerland.
The Polish work submitted to the first Biennale, which opened in 1962, was quite novel. Traditional workshops in Poland had collapsed as a result of the war. Art supplies in general were hard to acquire. Many Polish artists had learned to weave as part of their art school training and began creating individualistic work by using atypical materials like jute and sisal. With each Biennale the popularity of works focusing on exploring innovative constructions from a wide variety of fiber resounded around the world. There were many weavers in pre-war United States, but there had never been a prolonged system of workshops for producing tapestries. Therefore, weavers in America were self-taught and chose to design as well as weave their art. Through these Lausanne exhibitions, US artists/weavers, others in countries all over the world, were excited about the Polish trend towards experimental forms. Throughout the 1970s all weavers had explored some manner of techniques and materials in vogue at the time.
What this movement contributed to the newly realized field of art weaving, termed "contemporary tapestry", was the option for working
Marquetry is the art and craft of applying pieces of veneer to a structure to form decorative patterns, designs or pictures. The technique may be applied to case furniture or seat furniture, to decorative small objects with smooth, veneerable surfaces or to freestanding pictorial panels appreciated in their own right. Marquetry differs from the more ancient craft of inlay, or intarsia, in which a solid body of one material is cut out to receive sections of another to form the surface pattern; the word derives from a Middle French word meaning "inlaid work". The veneers used are woods, but may include bone, turtle-shell, mother-of-pearl, brass or fine metals. Marquetry using colored straw was a specialty of some European spa resorts from the end of the 18th century. Many exotic woods as well as common European varieties can be employed, from the near-white of boxwood to the near-black of ebony, with veneers that retain stains well, like sycamore, dyed to provide colors not found in nature; the French cabinet maker Andre-Charles Boulle specialized in furniture using metal and either wood or tortoiseshell together, the latter acting as the background.
The simplest kind of marquetry uses only two sheets of veneer, which are temporarily glued together and cut with a fine saw, producing two contrasting panels of identical design. Marquetry as a modern craft most uses knife-cut veneers. However, the knife-cutting technique requires a lot of time. For that reason, many marquetarians have switched to scroll saw techniques. Other requirements are a pattern of some kind, some brown gummed tape, PVA glue and a base-board with balancing veneers on the alternate face to compensate stresses. Finishing the piece will require fine abrasive paper always backed by a sanding block. Either ordinary varnish, special varnishes, modern polyurethane -oil or water based- good waxes and the technique of French polish are different methods used to seal and finish the piece. Sand shading is a process used to make. A piece of veneer to be incorporated into a picture is submerged into hot sand for a few seconds. Another process is engraving fine lines into a picture and filling them with a mixture of India ink and shellac.
Furniture inlaid with precious woods, metals and stones is known from the ancient world and Roman examples have been recovered from the first century sites of Pompeii and Herculaneum demonstrating that the technique was advanced. The revival of the technique of veneered marquetry had its inspiration in 16th century Florence and at Naples from classical inspiration. Marquetry elaborated upon Florentine techniques of inlaying solid marble slabs with designs formed of fitted marbles and semi-precious stones; this work, called opere di commessi, has medieval parallels in Central Italian "Cosmati"-work of inlaid marble floors and columns. The technique is known in English as pietra dura, for the "hardstones" used: onyx, cornelian, lapis lazuli and colored marbles. In Florence, the Chapel of the Medici at San Lorenzo is covered in a colored marble facing using this demanding jig-sawn technique. Techniques of wood marquetry were developed in Antwerp and other Flemish centers of luxury cabinet-making during the early 16th century.
The craft was imported full-blown to France after the mid-seventeenth century, to create furniture of unprecedented luxury being made at the royal manufactory of the Gobelins, charged with providing furnishings to decorate Versailles and the other royal residences of Louis XIV. Early masters of French marquetry were the Fleming Pierre Golle and his son-in-law, André-Charles Boulle, who founded a dynasty of royal and Parisian cabinet-makers and gave his name to a technique of marquetry employing tortoiseshell and brass with pewter in arabesque or intricately foliate designs. Boulle marquetry was revived in the 1780s. In the decades between matched quarter-sawn veneers sawn from the same piece of timber were arranged symmetrically on case pieces and contrasted with gilt-bronze mounts. Floral marquetry came into favor in Parisian furniture in the 1750s, employed by cabinet-makers like Bernard van Risenbergh, Jean-Pierre Latz and Simon-François Oeben; the most famous royal French furniture veneered with marquetry are the pieces delivered by Jean Henri Riesener in the 1770s and 1780s.
The Bureau du Roi was the most famous amongst these famous masterpieces. Marquetry was not ordinarily a feature of furniture made outside large urban centers. Marquetry was introduced into London furniture at the Restoration of Charles II in 1660, the product of immigrant Dutch'inlayers', whose craft traditions owed a lot to Antwerp. Panels of elaborately scrolling "seaweed" marquetry of box or holly contrasting with walnut appeared on table tops and long-case clocks. At the end of the 17th century, a new influx of French Huguenot craftsmen went to London, but marquetry in England had little appeal in the anti-French, more Chinese-inspired high-style English furniture after ca 1720. Marquetry was revived as a vehicle of Neoclassicism and a'French taste' in London furniture, starting in the late 1760s. Cabinet-makers associated with London-made marquetry furniture, 1765–1790, include Thomas Chippendale and less familiar names, like John Linnell, the French craftsman Pierre Langlois, the firm of William Ince a
The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design and manufacture of objects that are both beautiful and functional. It includes interior design, but not architecture; the decorative arts are categorized in distinction to the "fine arts", namely painting, drawing and large-scale sculpture, which produce objects for their aesthetic quality and capacity to stimulate the intellect. The distinction between the decorative and fine arts arose from the post-Renaissance art of the West, where the distinction is for the most part meaningful; this distinction is much less meaningful when considering the art of other cultures and periods, where the most valued works, or all works, include those in decorative media. For example, Islamic art in many periods and places consists of the decorative arts using geometric and plant forms, as does the art of many traditional cultures; the distinction between decorative and fine arts is not useful for appreciating Chinese art, neither is it for understanding Early Medieval art in Europe.
In that period in Europe, fine arts such as manuscript illumination and monumental sculpture existed, but the most prestigious works tended to be in goldsmith work, in cast metals such as bronze, or in other techniques such as ivory carving. Large-scale wall-paintings were much less regarded, crudely executed, mentioned in contemporary sources, they were seen as an inferior substitute for mosaic, which for the period must be considered a fine art, though in recent centuries mosaics have tended to be considered decorative. The term "ars sacra" is sometimes used for medieval Christian art executed in metal, ivory and other more valuable materials but not for rarer secular works from that period. Modern understanding of the art of many cultures tends to be distorted by the modern privileging of fine art media over others, as well as the different survival rates of works in different media. Works in metal, above all in precious metals, are liable to be "recycled" as soon as they fall from fashion, were used by owners as repositories of wealth, to be melted down when extra money was needed.
Illuminated manuscripts have a much higher survival rate in the hands of the church, as there was little value in the materials and they were easy to store. The promotion of the fine arts over the decorative in European thought can be traced to the Renaissance, when Italian theorists such as Vasari promoted artistic values, exemplified by the artists of the High Renaissance, that placed little value on the cost of materials or the amount of skilled work required to produce a work, but instead valued artistic imagination and the individual touch of the hand of a supremely gifted master such as Michelangelo, Raphael or Leonardo da Vinci, reviving to some extent the approach of antiquity. Most European art during the Middle Ages had been produced under a different set of values, where both expensive materials and virtuoso displays in difficult techniques had been valued. In China both approaches had co-existed for many centuries: ink and wash painting of landscapes, was to a large extent produced by and for the scholar-bureaucrats or "literati", was intended as an expression of the artist's imagination above all, while other major fields of art, including the important Chinese ceramics produced in industrial conditions, were produced according to a different set of artistic values.
The lower status given to works of decorative art in contrast to fine art narrowed with the rise of the Arts and Crafts movement. This aesthetic movement of the second half of the 19th century was born in England and inspired by William Morris and John Ruskin; the movement represented the beginning of a greater appreciation of the decorative arts throughout Europe. The appeal of the Arts and Crafts movement to a new generation led the English architect and designer Arthur H. Mackmurdo to organize the Century Guild for craftsmen in 1882, championing the idea that there was no meaningful difference between the fine and decorative arts. Many converts, both from professional artists' ranks and from among the intellectual class as a whole, helped spread the ideas of the movement; the influence of the Arts and Crafts movement led to the decorative arts being given a greater appreciation and status in society and this was soon reflected by changes in the law. Until the enactment of the Copyright Act 1911 only works of fine art had been protected from unauthorised copying.
The 1911 Act extended the definition of an "artistic work" to include works of "artistic craftsmanship". In the context of mass production and consumerism some individuals will attempt to create or maintain their lifestyle or to construct their identity when forced to accept mass produced identical objects in their life. According to Campbell in his piece “The Craft Consumer”, this is done by selecting goods with specific intentions in mind to alter them. Instead of accepting a foreign object for what it is, the foreign object is incorporated and changed to fit one's lifestyle and choices, or customized. One way to achieve a customized look and feel to common objects is to change their external appearance by applying decorative techniques, as in decoupage, art cars, truck art in South Asia and IKEA hacking. American craft Art for art's sake Applied arts Design museum Faux painting Fine arts History of decorative arts Industrial design Ornament References Sources Dormer, The Culture of Craft, 1997, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0719046181, 9780719046186, google books Home Economics Archive: Tradition, History Cornell University Victoria and Albert Museum Argentine Decorativ
Corn dollies or corn mothers are a form of straw work made as part of harvest customs of Europe before mechanization. Before Christianisation, in traditional pagan European culture it was believed that the spirit of the corn lived amongst the crop, that the harvest made it homeless. James Frazer devotes chapters in The Golden Bough to "Corn-Mother and Corn-Maiden in Northern Europe" and adduces European folkloric examples collected in great abundance by the folklorist Wilhelm Mannhardt. Among the customs attached to the last sheaf of the harvest were hollow shapes fashioned from the last sheaf of wheat or other cereal crops; the corn spirit would spend the winter in this home until the "corn dolly" was ploughed into the first furrow of the new season. James George Frazer discusses the Corn-mother and the Corn-maiden in Northern Europe, the harvest rituals that were being practised at the beginning of the 20th century: In the neighbourhood of Danzig the person who cuts the last ears of corn makes them into a doll, called the Corn-mother or the Old Woman and is brought home on the last waggon.
In some parts of Holstein the last sheaf called the Corn-mother. It is carried home on the last waggon, thoroughly drenched with water; the drenching with water is doubtless a rain-charm. In the district of Bruck in Styria the last sheaf, called the Corn-mother, is made up into the shape of a woman by the oldest married woman in the village, of an age from 50 to 55 years; the finest ears are plucked out of it and made into a wreath, twined with flowers, is carried on her head by the prettiest girl of the village to the farmer or squire, while the Corn-mother is laid down in the barn to keep off the mice. In other villages of the same district the Corn-mother, at the close of harvest, is carried by two lads at the top of a pole, they march behind the girl who wears the wreath to the squire's house, while he receives the wreath and hangs it up in the hall, the Corn-mother is placed on the top of a pile of wood, where she is the centre of the harvest supper and dance. Many more customs are instanced by Frazer.
For example, the term "Old Woman" was in use for such "corn dolls" among the Germanic pagans of Flanders in the 7th century, where Saint Eligius discouraged them from their old practices: " make vetulas, little deer or iotticos or set tables at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks." Frazer writes: "In East Prussia, at the rye or wheat harvest, the reapers call out to the woman who binds the last sheaf, “You are getting the Old Grandmother.... In Scotland, when the last corn was cut after Hallowmas, the female figure made out of it was sometimes called the Carlin or Carline, that is, the Old Woman." Great Britain: wheat, oats and barley Ireland: rush Southern France: palm leavesWith the advent of the combine harvester, the old-fashioned, long-stemmed and hollow-stemmed wheat varieties were replaced with knee-high, pithy varieties. However, a number of English and Scottish farmers are still growing the traditional varieties of wheat, such as Maris Wigeon, Squarehead Master, Elite Le Peuple.
Mainly because they are in great demand in thatching, a craft, enjoying a renaissance, with customers facing long waiting lists for having their roofs thatched or repaired. Corn Dollies and other similar harvest straw work can be divided into these groups: Other corn dollies include Anglesey Rattle, Cambridgeshire Umbrella, Durham Chandelier, Claidheach Herefordshire Fan, Kincardine Maiden, Leominster Maer, Norfolk Lantern, Northamptonshire Horns, Okehampton Mare, Oxford Crown, Suffolk Bell, Suffolk Horseshoe and Whip, Teme Valley Crown, Welsh Border Fan, Welsh Long Fan, Worcester Crown. There are corn dolly designs from other countries, for example the Kusa Dasi from Turkey, named after the town of Kuşadası. A countryman's favour was a plait of three straws and tied into a loose knot to represent a heart, it is reputed to have been made by a young man with straws picked up after the harvest and given to his loved one. If she was wearing it next to her heart when he saw her again he would know that his love was reciprocated.
Three straws can be plaited using a cat's foot plait. Favours can be made with two, four or more straws. Other examples include: Bride of the Corn Devonshire Cross, a harvest cross from Topsham, Devon Dedham Cross St Brigid's Cross. Larnaca Fringe Montenegrin Fringe Lancashire Fringe These are representations of deities, animals or spirits, made from an entire sheaf, they are known by a variety of names, depending on location and the time of harvesting: The Goddess Ceres Maiden or Bride: Kirn Dolly Kirn Baby The Neck Hare Lame Goat, Scottish Gaelic: gobhar bacach Straw dog - strae bikko Cailleach Gaelic: Old Woman or The Hag Caseg Fedi or harvest mare in Wales.'Y Wrach' or'The Hag' in Caernarvonshire, Wales Whittlesey Straw Bear, the centre of a ceremony in Whittlesey, every January. Its origins are obscure. Here the straw is not plaited, but tied with yarn, raffia or similar; this type of straw work is popular in Scandinavia and German-speaking countries. Examples of these are the Oro; these are straw scu
A handicraft, sometimes more expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made by hand or by using only simple tools. It is a traditional main sector of craft, applies to a wide range of creative and design activities that are related to making things with one's hands and skill, including work with textiles and rigid materials, plant fibers, etc. One of the world's oldest handicraft is Dhokra; the term is applied to traditional techniques of creating items that are both practical and aesthetic. Handicraft industries are those that produces things with hands to meet the needs of the people in their locality. Machines are not used. Collective terms for handicrafts include artisanry, handicrafting and handicraftsmanship; the term arts and crafts is applied in the United States and to hobbyists' and children's output rather than items crafted for daily use, but this distinction is not formal, the term is confused with the Arts and Crafts design movement, in fact as practical as it is aesthetic.
Handicrafting has its roots in the rural crafts—the material-goods necessities—of ancient civilizations, many specific crafts have been practiced for centuries, while others are modern inventions, or popularizations of crafts which were practiced in a limited geographic area. Many handicrafters use natural entirely indigenous, materials while others may prefer modern, non-traditional materials, upcycle industrial materials; the individual artisanship of a handicrafted item is the paramount criterion. Seen as developing the skills and creative interests of students and sometimes towards a particular craft or trade, handicrafts are integrated into educational systems, both informally and formally. Most crafts require the development of skill and the application of patience, but can be learned by anyone. Like folk art, handicraft output has cultural and/or religious significance, may have a political message as well, as in craftivism. Many crafts become popular for brief periods of time, spreading among the crafting population as everyone emulates the first examples their popularity wanes until a resurgence.
The Arts and Crafts movement originated as a late 19th-century design reform and social movement principally in Europe, North America and Australia, continues today. Its proponents are motivated by the ideals of movement founders such as William Morris and John Ruskin, who proposed that in pre-industrial societies, such as the European Middle Ages, people had achieved fulfillment through the creative process of handicrafts; this was held up in contrast to. These activities were called crafts because many of them were professions under the guild system. Adolescents were apprenticed to a master craftsman, refined their skills over a period of years in exchange for low wages. By the time their training was complete, they were well equipped to set up in trade for themselves, earning their living with the skill that could be traded directly within the community for goods and services; the Industrial Revolution and the increasing mechanisation of production processes reduced or eliminated many of the roles professional craftspeople played, today many handicrafts are seen when no longer the mainstay of a formal vocational trade, as a form of hobby, folk art and sometimes fine art.
The term handicrafts can refer to the products themselves of such artisanal efforts, that require specialized knowledge, may be technical in their execution, require specialized equipment and/or facilities to produce, involve manual labor or a blue-collar work ethic, are accessible to the general public, are constructed from materials with histories that exceed the boundaries of Western "fine art" tradition, such as ceramics, textiles and wood. These products are produced within a specific community of practice, while they differ from the products produced within the communities of art and design, the boundaries overlap, resulting in hybrid objects. Additionally, as the interpretation and validation of art is a matter of context, an audience may perceive handicrafted objects as art objects when these objects are viewed within an art context, such as in a museum or in a position of prominence in one's home. Simple "arts and crafts" projects are a common elementary and middle school activity in both mainstream and alternative education systems around the world.
In some of the Scandinavian countries, more advanced handicrafts form part of the formal, compulsory school curriculum, are collectively referred to as slöjd in Swedish, käsityö or veisto in Finnish. Students learn how to work with metal and wood, not for professional training purposes as in American vocational–technical schools, but with the aim to develop children's and teens' practical skills, such as everyday problem-solving ability, tool use, understanding of the materials that surround us for economical and environmental purposes. Secondary schools and college and university art departments provide elective options for more handicraft-based arts, in addition to formal "fine arts", a distinction that continues to fade throughout the years with the rise of studio craft, i.e. the use of traditi
Quilting is the process of sewing two or more layers of fabric together to make a thicker padded material to create a quilt or quilted garment. Quilting is done with three layers: the top fabric or quilt top, batting or insulating material and backing material, but many different styles are adopted; the process of quilting uses a needle and thread to join two or more layers of material to make a quilt. The quilter's hand or sewing machine passes the needle and thread through all layers and brings the needle back up; the process is repeated across the entire area. Rocking, straight or running stitches are used with these stitches being purely functional or decorative. Quilting is done to create bed spreads, art quilt wall hangings, a variety of textile products. Quilting can make a project thick, or with dense quilting, can raise one area so that another stands out; the whole process of creating a quilt or quilted garment involves other steps such as designing, appliqué, binding. A person who works at quilting is termed a quilter.
Quilting can be done by a specialized longarm quilting system. Quilt stores sell fabric, thread and other goods that are used for quilting, they have group sewing and quilting classes where one can learn how to sew or quilt. The origins of quilting remain unknown but sewing techniques of piecing, appliqué, quilting have been used for clothing and furnishings in diverse parts of the world for several millennia; the earliest known quilted garment is depicted on the carved ivory figure of a Pharaoh dating from the ancient Egyptian First Dynasty. In 1924 archaeologists discovered a quilted floor covering in Mongolia, estimated to date between 100 BC and 200 AD. In Europe, quilting has been part of the needlework tradition from about the fifth century, with early objects containing Egyptian cotton, which may indicate that Egyptian and Mediterranean trade provided a conduit for the technique. However, quilted objects were rare in Europe until the twelfth century, when quilted bedding and other items appeared after the return of the Crusaders from the Middle East.
The medieval quilted gambeson and arming doublet were garments worn under or instead of armor of maille or plate armor. These developed into the quilted doublet worn as part of fashionable European male clothing from the fourteenth to seventeenth century; the earliest known surviving European bed quilt is from late-fourteenth-century Sicily: the Tristan quilt made of linen and padded with wool. The blocks across the center are scenes from the legend of Tristan; the quilt is in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The word quilt comes from the Latin culcita meaning a stuffed sack, but it came into the English language from the French word cuilte. In American Colonial times, quilts were predominantly whole-cloth quilts–a single piece of fabric layered with batting and backing held together with fine needlework quilting. Broderie perse quilts were popular during this time and the majority of pierced or appliqued quilts made during the 1170-1800 period were medallion-style quilts ). Patchwork quilting in America dates to the 1770s, the decade the United States gained its independence from England.
These late-eighteenth- and nineteenth-century patchwork quilts mixed wool, silk and cotton in the same piece, as well as mixing large-scale and small-scale patterns. Some antique quilts made in North America have worn-out blankets or older quilts as the internal batting layer, quilted between new layers of fabric and thereby extending the usefulness of old material. During American pioneer days, foundation piecing became popular. Paper was used as a pattern. Paper was a scarce commodity in the early American west so women would save letters from home, newspaper clippings, catalogs to use as patterns; the paper not only served as a pattern but as an insulator. The paper found between the old quilts has become a primary source of information about pioneer life. Quilts made without any insulation or batting were referred to as summer quilts, they were not made for warmth. There is a long tradition of African-American quilting beginning with quilts made by slaves, both for themselves and for their owners.
The style of these quilts was determined by time period and region, rather than race, the documented slave-made quilts resemble those made by white women in their region. After 1865 and the end of slavery in the United States, African-Americans began to develop their own distinctive style of quilting. Harriet Powers, a slave-born African American woman, made two famous story quilts, she was just one of the many African-American quilters. The first nationwide recognition of African-American quilt-making came when the Gee's Bend quilting community was celebrated in an exhibition that opened in 2002 and traveled to many museums, including the Smithsonian. Gee's Bend is a small, isolated community of African-Americans in southern Alabama with a quilt-making tradition that goes back several generations and is characterized by pattern improvisation, multiple patterning and contrasting colors, visual motion, a lack of rules; the contributions made by Harriet Powers and others quilters of Gee's Bend, Alabama have been recognized by the US Postal Service with a series of stamps.
The communal nature of the quilting process (and how it c
Hatmaking or millinery is the design and sale of hats and head-wear. A person engaged in this trade is called a hatter. Millinery is sold to women and children, though some definitions limit the term to women's hats. Milliners female shopkeepers, produced or imported an inventory of garments for men and children, sold these garments in their millinery shop. More the term milliner has evolved to describe a person who designs, sells or trims hats for a female clientele; the origin of the term is the Middle English milener, meaning an inhabitant of the city of Milan or one who deals in items from Milan, known for its fashion and clothing. Many styles of headgear have been popular through history and worn for different functions and events, they worn to indicate social status. Styles include the top hat, hats worn as part of military uniforms, cowboy hat, cocktail hat. A great variety of objects are or were used as trimmings on women's fashionable hats: see Trim #See also. In former times use of colorful bird feathers and wings and tails and whole stuffed birds as hat trimmings led to the formation of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
Link to images and descriptions of hats trimmed with birdsThis link, with references to 1880s newspaper issues, describes as ornaments on fashionable hats, bird feathers, stuffed birds and other small animals, fruit, flowers and lace. It says that in 1889 in London and Paris, over 8,000 women were employed in millinery, in 1900 in New York, some 83,000 people women, it described a fashion for stuffed kittens' heads as hat ornaments in or around 1883 in Paris posed looking out from among foliage and feathers, to the point where some people were reported to breed kittens for the millinery trade. This is a partial list of people who have had a significant influence on millinery. International Hat Company, an American manufacturer credited with inventing one of America's most popular early 20th century harvest hats for field hands and workmen. Hawley Products Company, an American manufacturer credited with inventing the tropical shaped, pressed fiber sun helmet used from World War II through the Persian Gulf War.
John Cavanagh, an American hatter whose innovations included manufacturing regular and wide-oval fitting hats to enable customers to find better-fitting ready-to-wear hats. James Lock & Co. of London, is credited with the introduction of the bowler hat in 1849. John Batterson Stetson, credited with inventing the classic cowboy hat Giuseppe Borsalino, with the famous "Borsalino" Fedora hat. Anna Ben-Yusuf wrote The Art of one of the first reference books on millinery technique. Rose Bertin and modiste to Marie Antoinette, is described as the world's first celebrity fashion designer. Coco Chanel: Creator of the fashion house and creator of Chanel No.5. John Boyd was one of London's most respected milliners and is known for the famous pink tricorn hat worn by Diana, Princess of Wales. Lilly Daché was a famous American milliner of the mid-20th century. Frederick Fox was an Australian born milliner noted for his designs for the British Royal family. Mr. John was an American milliner considered by some to be the millinery equivalent of Dior in the 1940s and 1950s.
Stephen Jones of London, is considered one of the world's most radical and important milliners of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Simone Mirman was known for her designs for Elizabeth II and other members of the British Royal Family. Barbara Pauli was the leading fashion modiste in Sweden during the Gustavian era. Caroline Reboux was a renowned milliner of the early 20th centuries. David Shilling is a renowned milliner and designer based in Monaco. Justin Smith is an award-winning milliner creating bespoke and couture hats under the J Smith Esquire brand. Philip Treacy Irish-born award-winning milliner. Draper Haberdasher Hat Works Mad hatter disease Mad as a hatter Marchandes de modes All Sewn Up: Millinery, Dressmaking and Costume 18th Century millinery Popular Science, November 1941, "Pulling Hats Out Of Rabbits" article on modern mass production hat making Individuality in millinery, a 1923 book on hatmaking from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries Millinery guide