The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
John Wanamaker Department Store was one of the first department stores in the United States. Founded by John Wanamaker, it is known for its substantial effects on the development of the retail industry, such as being the first store to use price tags. At its zenith in the early 20th century, Wanamaker's had a store in New York City at Broadway and Ninth Street. Both employed large staffs. By the end of the 20th century, there were 16 Wanamaker's outlets, but after years of change the chain was bought by Albert Taubman, added to his previous purchase of Woodward & Lothrop, the Washington, D. C. department store. In 1994, Woodies, as it was known, filed for bankruptcy; the assets of Woodies were purchased by the May Company Department Stores and JCPenney. In 1995, Wanamakers transitioned to one of the May Company brands. In 2006, Macy's Center City became the occupant of the former Philadelphia Wanamaker's Department Store, now a National Historic Landmark. John Wanamaker was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1838.
Due to a persistent cough, he was unable to join the U. S. Army to fight in the American Civil War, so instead started a career in business. In 1861, he and his brother-in-law Nathan Brown founded a men's clothing store in Philadelphia called Oak Hall. Wanamaker carried on the business alone after Brown's death in 1868. Eight years Wanamaker purchased the abandoned Pennsylvania Railroad station for use as a new, larger retail location; the concept was to renovate the terminal into a "Grand Depot" similar to London's Royal Exchange or Paris's Les Halles—two central markets, forerunners of the modern department store, that were well known in Europe at that time. The Wanamaker's Grand Depot opened in time to service the public visiting Philadelphia for the American Centennial Exposition of 1876, in fact resembled one of the many pavilions at that world's fair because of its fanciful new Moorish facade. In 1877 the interior of Wanamaker's was refurbished and expanded to include not only men's clothing, but women's clothing and dry goods as well.
This was Philadelphia's first modern-day department store, one of the earliest founded in America. A circular counter was placed at the center of the building, concentric circles radiated around it with 129 counters of goods; the store accepted mail orders, though it was not a large business until the early twentieth century. Wanamaker first thought of how he would run a store on new principles when, as a youth, a merchant refused his request to exchange a purchase. A practicing Christian, he chose not to advertise on Sundays. Before he opened his Grand Depot for retail business, he let evangelist Dwight L. Moody use its facilities as a meeting place, while Wanamaker provided 300 ushers from his store personnel, his retail advertisements—the first to be copyrighted beginning in 1874—were factual, promises made in them were kept. Wanamaker guaranteed the quality of his merchandise in print, allowed his customers to return purchases for a cash refund and offered the first restaurant to be located inside a department store.
Wanamaker invented the price tag. His employees were to be treated respectfully by management, John Wanamaker & Company offered its employees access to the John Wanamaker Commercial Institute, as well as free medical care, recreational facilities, profit sharing plans, pensions—long before these types of benefits were considered standard in corporate employment. Innovation and "firsts" marked Wanamaker's; the store was the first department store with electrical illumination, first store with a telephone, the first store to install pneumatic tubes to transport cash and documents. Wanamaker's commissioned a Philadelphia/New Jersey artist, George Washington Nicholson, to paint a large landscape mural, "The Old Homestead", finished in March 1892; the 7-by-14-foot mural was still owned by Wanamaker's in 1950, but has since passed into a private collection. In 1910, Wanamaker replaced his Grand Depot in stages, constructed a new, purpose-built structure on the same site in Center City Philadelphia.
The new store, built in the Florentine style with granite walls by Chicago architect Daniel H. Burnham, had 12 floors, numerous galleries and two lower levels totaling nearly two million square feet; the palatial emporium featured the Wanamaker Organ, the former St. Louis World's Fair pipe organ, at the time one of the world's largest organs; the organ was installed in the store's marble-clad central atrium known as the Grand Court. Another item from the St. Louis Fair in the Grand Court is the large bronze eagle, which became the symbol of the store and a favorite meeting place for shoppers. All one had to say was "Meet You at The Eagle" and everyone knew where to go; the store was dedicated by President William Howard Taft on December 13, 1911. Despite its size, the organ was deemed insufficient to fill the Grand Court with its music. Wanamaker's responded by assembling its own staff of organ builders and expanding the organ several times over a period of years; the "Wanamaker Organ" is the largest operational pipe organ in the world, with some 28,000 pipes.
It is famed for the orchestra-like beauty of its tone as well as its incredible power. The organ still stands in place in the store today and free recitals are held twice every day except Sunday. Visitors are invited to tour the organ's console area and meet with staff after recitals. Once a year in June, "Wanamaker Organ Day" is held, a free recital which lasts most of the day. News of the Titanic's sinking was transmitted to Wanamaker's wireless station in New York City, given to anxious crowds waiting outside—yet
Philadelphia Daily News
The Philadelphia Daily News is a tabloid newspaper that serves Philadelphia, United States. The newspaper is owned by Philadelphia Media Network, which owns Philadelphia's other major newspaper The Philadelphia Inquirer; the Daily News began publishing on March 1925, under founding editor Lee Ellmaker. By 1930, the newspaper's circulation exceeded 200,000, but by the 1950s the news paper was losing money. In 1954, the newspaper was sold to Matthew McCloskey and sold again in 1957 to publisher Walter Annenberg. In 1969, Annenberg sold the Daily News to Knight Ridder. In 2006 Knight Ridder sold the paper to a group of local investors; the Daily News has won the Pulitzer Prize three times. The Philadelphia Daily News began publishing on March 1925, under founding editor Lee Ellmaker. In its early years, it was dominated by crime stories and sensationalism. By 1930, daily circulation of the morning paper exceeded 200,000. Circulation dropped over the years, by 1954, the money-losing paper was sold to Matthew McCloskey, a contractor and treasurer of the Pennsylvania Democratic Party.
In December 1956, the paper's financial condition was so bad that McCloskey got permission from the unions for a 90 percent cut in the workforce. In 1957, McCloskey sold the paper to publisher of The Philadelphia Inquirer. Annenberg made the tabloid into an afternoon paper. In 1969, Annenberg sold both papers to Knight Newspapers Inc. which became Knight Ridder following a merger. Under the new ownership, the Daily News returned to morning publication and aimed to be taken more seriously; the paper's journalists have won the Pulitzer Prize three times. Richard Aregood won in 1985 for editorial writing, Signe Wilkinson won for her editorial cartoons in 1992 and Barbara Laker and Wendy Ruderman won in 2010 for investigating reporting for their "Tainted Justice" series focusing on the alleged misdeeds of a rogue narcotics squad; the paper continues to struggle financially. It was surpassed by the free daily Metro; when the sale of Knight Ridder to The McClatchy Company was announced in March 2006, there were rumors that McClatchy would close the Daily News.
However, in May, before the sale was finalized, it was announced that the Inquirer and Daily News would be re-sold to Philadelphia Media Holdings L. L. C. A local group led by advertising executive Brian Tierney and co-founder of the Toll Brothers homebuilding firm, Bruce Toll; the deal became official on June 29, 2006. The group intended to strengthen the online presence of both papers, began an extensive ad campaign. Falling circulation and ad revenue caused Philadelphia Media Holdings to make the Daily News into an edition of The Philadelphia Inquirer. Without making any other changes to the Daily News, making it part of The Inquirer would combine the circulation numbers of both papers by the Audit Bureau of Circulation; the idea was to make the newspapers more attractive to advertisers. On April 14, 2010 Brian Tierney announced that the Daily News would launch a weekend edition in October; the weekend edition's content would be similar to the daily edition, but would have features that would not be time sensitive and be able to be read anytime during the week.
In early 2009, debts from buying the newspapers forced Philadelphia Newspapers LLC into Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. The bankruptcy was the beginning of a year-long dispute between Philadelphia Media Holdings and creditors; the group of creditors, which include banks and hedge funds, wanted to take control of Philadelphia Newspapers LLC themselves and oppose efforts by Philadelphia media Holdings to keep control. Philadelphia Media Holdings received support from most of the paper's unions and launched a public relations campaign to promote local ownership. A bankruptcy auction was held on April 28, 2010; the group of lending creditors and a group of local investors allied with Brian Tierney both bid for Philadelphia Newspapers, but the lenders had the winning bid. The lenders' company, Philadelphia Media Network, took control that year. In July 2012, after selling the Inquirer Building in 2011, the Daily News along with The Inquirer and Philly.com moved their offices to the 3rd floor of the old Strawbridge & Clothier department store on East Market Street.
The George Fencl Award, named in honor of Philadelphia Police Officer George Fencl, is given by the Daily News to a Philadelphia Police Officer who exemplifies compassion and civic commitment. The award was first given in 1986; the Daily News named its first Sportsperson of the Year in 2008. 2008 – Brad Lidge, Philadelphia Phillies 2009 – Jay Wright, Villanova Wildcats basketball coach 2010 – Roy Halladay, Philadelphia Phillies 2011 – Roy Halladay, Philadelphia Phillies 2012 – Mike Trout, Los Angeles Angels outfielder and raised in Millville. Richard Aregood, 1985 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing Richie Ashburn, Major League Baseball player, columnist John Baer, political journalist Stu Bykofsky, columnist Pete Dexter, columnist Ray Didinger, sports columnist Jay Greenberg, sports writer Paul Hagen, baseball writer and columnist, 1987–2012. Philadelphia Daily News Online Philadelphia Media Holdings website
WFIL is an AM radio station in Philadelphia, United States, owned by Salem Media Group and broadcasting with a Christian radio format consisting of teaching and talk programs. The station's studios and transmitter facilities are shared with co-owned WNTP in Lafayette Hill, Pennsylvania; the station's daytime coverage includes Philadelphia and portions of the Lehigh Valley in Pennsylvania, as well as parts of New Jersey and Delaware. WFIL is adjacent to sister station WMCA in New York City, the two stations have similar histories: both were Top 40 stations in the 1960s, both underwent a format evolution as AM radio faded as a music medium, both have a Christian/religious format today. WFIL and WMCA are both 5,000-watt radio stations, but each one puts less than 5 kW of power in the specific direction of the other, because they are located next to each other on the dial, are not allowed, by the Federal Communications Commission, to interfere with each other. Both stations maintained Call For Action telephone help lines, being among the first radio stations in the United States to do so.
The telephone number of WFIL's Call For Action line was GReenwood 7-5312. WFIL was formed by a merger of two stations that were launched in 1922. One used the call letters WFI, the other was WDAR; each was owned by a major Philadelphia department store. While operated independently of each other, the two were able to work out amicable share-time agreements. Around 1924, WDAR applied for and received the custom call-sign WLIT. By the late 1920s, the two stations were working jointly on various programs and sponsorship efforts. In 1935, the two operators agreed to merge with each department store having representation on the new board of directors; the new call-sign became a combination of the two previous identifiers. The new WFIL was an affiliate of NBC. Westinghouse's KYW had replaced WFI-WLIT as the NBC primary for Philadelphia when it moved in from Chicago, Illinois a few years before. Starting in December 1944 the station produced Hayloft Hoedown, picked up by ABC Radio in 1945. WFIL was purchased in 1947 by Walter Annenberg's Triangle Publications, which owned The Philadelphia Inquirer.
By WFIL was an affiliate of the newly named ABC Radio Network. WFIL's sister stations under Triangle Publications ownership were WFIL-FM and WFIL-TV in Philadelphia. Triangle Publications sold WFIL AM-FM-TV to Capital Cities Broadcasting in 1971 with the radio stations spun off to new owners, WFIL to LIN Broadcasting and WFIL-FM to Richer Communications which changed the call letters to WIOQ. WFIL-TV took on the new call letters of WPVI-TV. Studios for the early WFIL radio stations were in the Widener Building in downtown Philadelphia. Under Triangle Publications' ownership the stations were moved to a new broadcast facility at 46th and Market Street in West Philadelphia adjacent to the Arena, the first broadcast facility in the nation designed for television broadcasting, it was in this new broadcast center that Triangle began broadcasting Bandstand, first with Bob Horn with Dick Clark as host. Clark started on WFIL radio as a disc jockey in 1952, arriving from New York, he continued hosting the TV program for 31 years, the last 30 as a national show carried by the ABC Television Network.
Clark moved the program to Hollywood in 1964. Shortly after Clark's emergence on the national stage, he became a major figure in the early days of rock and roll as "Bandstand" proved pivotal in helping promote the major stars of the era; the WFIL studio at 4548 Market Street was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986 for its significance as one of the first buildings constructed for television broadcasting, as well as being the site for American Bandstand. In February 1964, Triangle moved the WFIL stations to a new state-of-the-art broadcast center at the corner of City and Monument Avenues in Philadelphia, from which WPVI continues to broadcast. Starting on September 18, 1966, WFIL roll, it became the most successful non-RKO "Boss Radio" formatted station, known locally as "The Pop Music Explosion". The original line up of air personalities, or "Boss Jocks" were scheduled as follows: 6-10am: Chuck Browning 10am-2pm: Jay Cook 2-6pm: Jim Nettleton 6-10pm: George Michael 10pm-2am: Long John Wade 2-6am: Dave Parks Weekends: Frank Kingston Smith WFIL announcers heard in years of the Top 40 era included Dr. Don Rose, Jim O'Brien, Dan Donovan, J. J. Jeffrey, Dick Heatherton, Tom Dooley, "Tiny" Tom Tyler, Mitch "K.
C." Hill, "Big" Ron O'Brien, Kris Chandler, Geoff Richards, Joel Denver, Brother Lee Love, Banana Joe Montione. The
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Center City, Philadelphia
Center City includes the central business district and central neighborhoods of Philadelphia, in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. It comprises the area that made up the City of Philadelphia prior to the Act of Consolidation, 1854 which extended the city borders to be coterminous with Philadelphia County. Greater Center City has grown into the second-most populated downtown area in the United States, after Midtown Manhattan in New York City, with an estimated 183,240 residents in 2015. Center City is bounded by South Street to the south, the Delaware River to the east, the Schuylkill River to the west, Vine Street to the north; this means that Center City occupies the boundaries of the city before it was made coterminous with Philadelphia County in 1854. The Center City District, which has special powers of taxation, has a complicated, irregularly shaped boundary that includes much but not all of this area, extends beyond it; the Philadelphia Police Department patrols three districts located within Center City – the 6th, 9th, 17th districts.
Among Center City's neighborhoods and districts are Penn's Landing, Old City, Society Hill, South Street, Washington Square West, Market East, Logan Square, the Museum District, Rittenhouse Square, Fitler Square, the Avenue of the Arts, Jewelers' Row. Center City is home to most of Philadelphia's tallest buildings, including Philadelphia's City Hall, the second tallest masonry building in the world and until 1987 the tallest in Philadelphia, as well as the tallest building in the world for seven years. In March 1987, One Liberty Place broke the gentlemen's agreement not to exceed the height of the statue of William Penn atop City Hall. Upon the completion of One Liberty Place, no Philadelphia major-league sports team won a world championship for the next two decades, a phenomenon known as the "Curse of Billy Penn." In an effort to reverse the curse, a 3-foot statue of Penn was affixed to the top of the Comcast Center upon its completion as the city's new tallest building in 2007. On October 29, 2008, the Philadelphia Phillies won the 2008 World Series, ending the "curse" Seven other skyscrapers now exceed the height of Penn's statue, including One Liberty Place's little sister, Two Liberty Place.
The Comcast Center, completed in 2007, became the tallest building in Pennsylvania, 30 feet taller than One Liberty Place. In 2018, the Comcast Technology Center opened, now the tallest building in Philadelphia, the eighth-tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, the tallest in the Western Hemisphere outside of New York or Chicago. 1441 Chestnut, under construction, is slated to be taller than City Hall. The first publicly accessible vantage point higher than City Hall opened at One Liberty Observation Deck on the 57th floor of One Liberty Place in 2015. Other Center City skyscrapers include the BNY Mellon Center and the Three Logan Square, which houses a traffic camera used by the Philadelphia branch of the Westwood One MetroNetworks traffic service. Across the street from City Hall is the Masonic Temple, the headquarters of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, a legacy of the Founding Fathers and signers of the Declaration of Independence, many of whom were Freemasons. While Philadelphia's population declined, Center City's rose 10% between 1990 and 2000.
In 2007, the city designated the area bound by 11th Street, Broad Street, Chestnut Street and Pine Street as the Gayborhood. Chinatown Fitler Square French Quarter Logan Square Market East Old City Rittenhouse Square Society Hill Washington Square West Sunoco has its headquarters in the BNY Mellon Center. Cigna has its corporate headquarters in Two Liberty Place. Aramark is headquartered in Center City. Comcast is headquartered in the Comcast Center; the law firm Cozen O'Connor has its headquarters in Center City. Kogan Page has its United States offices in Center City. Lincoln National Corporation moved its headquarters from Indiana to Philadelphia in 1999. In Philadelphia Lincoln was headquartered in the West Tower of Centre Square in Center City. In 2007 the company moved 400 employees, including its top executives, to Radnor Township from Philadelphia; the Philadelphia Fire Department operates 5 Fire Stations in the Center City area: Ladder 5, Medic 35, Battalion 1 - 711 S. Broad St. Snorkel 2, Medic 44B, Battalion 4, Field Comm.
Unit 1 - 101 N. 4th St. Engine 11, Medic 21 - 601 South St. Pipeline 20, Ladder 23, Medic 1 - 133 N. 10th St. Squirt 43, Ladder 9, Medic 7 - 2108 Market St; the Federal Bureau of Prisons Northeast Region Office is in the U. S. Custom House, a part of the Independence National Historical Park, in Old City, Center City; the William J. Green, Jr. Federal Building houses the Federal Bureau of Investigation Philadelphia Field Office; the Consulate-General of Italy in Philadelphia is located in the 1026 Public Ledger Building at 150 South Independence Mall West. The Consulate-General of Panama in Philadelphia is located in Suite 1 at 124 Chestnut Street; the Consulate-General of Israel in Philadelphia is located on the 18th Floor at 1880 John F. Kennedy Boulevard; the Consulate of Mexico in Philadelphia is located in Suite 310 of the Bourse Building off of Independence Mall. The Consulate-General of the Dominican Republic in Philadelphia was located in Suite 216 in the Lafayette Building at 437 Chestnut Street.
It closed on November 7, 2005. Residents are within the School District of Philadelphia. From the 1940s to the opening of what is now known as the Greenfield School in 1954, many residents attended public schools in other areas and private schools due to the low number of public schools in Center City. In 2005, to prevent the flight of middle-class families, the school dist
Dry goods is a historic term describing the type of product line a store carries, which differs by region. The term comes from the textile trade, the shops appear to have spread with the mercantile trade across the British colonial territories as a means of bringing supplies and manufactured goods out to the far-flung settlements and homesteads that were spreading around the globe. Starting in the mid-1700s, these stores began by selling supplies and textiles goods to remote communities, many customized the products they carried to the area's needs; this continued to be the trend well into the early 1900s. In Commonwealth countries, dry goods are dry food, with reference to pre-refrigeration days of the early 20th century; such foods could be stored without immediate danger of spoiling. Dried beans, whole grains and rolled oats are examples. In the United States, dry goods are products such as textiles, ready-to-wear clothing, sundries. In U. S. retailing, a dry-goods store carries consumer goods that are distinct from those carried by hardware stores and grocery stores.
Dry goods as a term for textiles has been dated back to 1742 in England or a century earlier. Dry goods can be carried by stores specializing only in those products, or may be carried by a general store or a department store. Beginning in the early 20th century, as many dry goods stores expanded into other lines of merchandise, the term disappeared from both everyday usage and the official names of the businesses concerned