Gemological Institute of America
The Gemological Institute of America, or GIA, is a nonprofit institute dedicated to research and education in the field of gemology and the jewelry arts. Founded in 1931, GIA's mission is to protect all buyers and sellers of gemstones by setting and maintaining the standards used to evaluate gemstone quality; the institute does so through research, gem identification and diamond grading services and a variety of educational programs. Through its world-renowned library and subject experts, GIA acts as a resource of gem and jewelry information for the trade, the public and worldwide media outlets. In 1953 the GIA developed its International Diamond Grading System and the Four Cs as a standard to compare and evaluate the quality of diamonds. Today, the institute is headquartered in Carlsbad and operates out of 13 countries, with 11 campuses, 9 laboratories and 4 research centers worldwide; the story of the GIA starts back in the 1920s with a man named Robert M. Shipley. Shipley had been enjoying a successful career as a jeweler, but was coming to realize the unfortunate state of the gem and jewelry industry: a typical jeweler in the US, himself included, had a surprising lack of expertise when it came to jewelry and precious stones.
He therefore took it upon himself to bring change to the jeweler’s trade, restore the public’s trust therein. After traveling to Europe and completing the Great Britain National Association of Goldsmiths gemological correspondence course, Shipley returned to Los Angeles, it was here that he launched his own preliminary course in gemology on September 16, 1930, seeking to train and certify jewelers. The jewelers he certified would serve to form a national guild of jewelers, dedicated to providing the public with a superior sense of professionalism within the gem and jewelry field; the first GIA gemological laboratory was established in Los Angeles in 1931. The jeweler's profession was transformed, with the introduction of the "Certified Gemologist" professional designation and the legitimization of gemology as a recognized science. Over the years, the group has brought many significant new developments to the industry, including the following: 1934: GIA patents a jeweler’s loupe with triple aplanatic lenses.
1937: GIA patents the world’s first gemological microscope, allowing gemologists to properly examine the insides of gemstones. 1953: The diamond grading system based on Shipley’s Four C’s becomes an international standard for determining diamond quality. 1955: GIA issues the first diamond grading reports, which are accepted as an international benchmark for the jewelry industry. 1956: GIA finds a reliable way to detect diamonds that have been irradiated to artificially enhance their color. 1960: The GIA Diamond Dictionary is published, becoming an international industry reference. 1987: The Liddicoat Gemological Library and Information Center amasses the largest collection of books on gemology in the world. 1991: GIA hosts its first annual Career Fair, which becomes the industry’s most significant recruiting event. 1999: GIA identifies a way to detect diamonds that have been decolorized by high pressure and high temperatures. 2003: GIA identifies a way to detect sapphires made from beryllium-diffusion techniques, diamonds made from chemical vapor deposition.
2005: GIA creates a system for grading the cut of round brilliant diamonds in the D-to-Z color range. 2007: GIA introduces a Synthetic Diamond Grading Report. 2014: GIA introduces DiamondCheck, capable of differentiating between natural and treated or synthetic diamonds. GIA is engaged in research to advance the science of gemology. Research has focused on developing methods and technologies to identify and characterize gems; this research has produced significant advances in the ability to differentiate gems and identify simulants. GIA was responsible for the first modern diamond grading reports, where it introduced grading methodologies for diamond color and diamond clarity. Today, these scales and methods are the standard within the gem trade for characterization of diamonds. Current research at gemological laboratories concerns the development of improved detection techniques for treated and synthetic diamonds, as well as for treated sapphires and pearls; the GIA Laboratory provides a variety of gem identification reports.
Diamond grading reports for unmounted natural and synthetic diamonds determine their key characteristics: color, clarity and carat weight. GIA issues two types of the more complete being the Diamond Grading Report; the reports contain a number of measurements, including of carat weight as well as a diagram of where and what types of inclusions are located in the diamond. Diamond grading reports are now demanded by most consumers purchasing diamonds over a certain size for over 0.5 carat, always for over 1.0 carat, are considered an important tool in guaranteeing that a diamond is represented to a potential buyer. GIA colored stone identification reports may include a comment about any treatments detected and an opinion of country of origin for ruby, sapphire and tourmaline. Pearl reports specify the weight, shape, color and presence of treatments. GIA offers several programs and courses online through an interactive eLearning format, through its 12 campus locations around the world; the institute offers corporate training programs and works with trade organizations worldwide to provide technical training in gemstones and jewelry.
The Graduate Gemologist diploma offers a comprehensive education
Murfreesboro is a city in, the county seat of, Pike County, United States. Its population was 1,764 at the 2000 census; the city is known for the Crater of Diamonds State Park located south of the city. In 1906, diamonds were found on a local farm, it was determined. The property was sold to the state of Arkansas, which opened the 911-acre Crater of Diamonds State Park to the public; as a tourist attraction a daily fee is charged to search for diamonds. Located in Murfreesboro is the 1,000-year-old Ka-Do-Ha Indian Village and museum dedicated to it, which offers a field that can be excavated for authentic arrowheads. Murfreesboro is located at 34°3′59″N 93°41′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,764 people, 732 households, 485 families residing in the city; the population density was 906.5 people per square mile. There were 830 housing units at an average density of 426.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 89.23% White, 7.31% Black or African American, 1.08% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.91% from other races, 1.36% from two or more races.
1.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 732 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 20.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,806, the median income for a family was $33,456. Males had a median income of $26,300 versus $18,523 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,124. About 11.0% of families and 14.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 16.3% of those age 65 or over.
Public education for elementary and secondary school students is provided by South Pike County School District, which includes: Murfreesboro Elementary School, serving prekindergarten through grade 6. Murfreesboro High School, serving grades 7 through 12. On July 1, 2010, the Murfreesboro School District and the Delight School District merged to form the South Pike County School District; the Murfreesboro district absorbed the Delight district and changed its name to South Pike County School District. Official Murfreesboro City website Ka-Do-Ha Indian Village
Crater of Diamonds State Park
Crater of Diamonds State Park is a 911-acre Arkansas state park in Pike County, Arkansas, in the United States. The park features a 37.5-acre plowed field, the world's only diamond-bearing site accessible to the public. Diamonds have continuously been discovered in the field since 1906, including the Strawn-Wagner Diamond; the site became a state park in 1972 after the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism purchased the site from the Arkansas Diamond Company and Ozark Diamond Mines Corporation, who had operated the site as a tourist attraction previously. In August 1906, John Huddleston found two strange crystals on the surface of his 243-acre farm near Murfreesboro and soon became known as the first person outside South Africa to find diamonds at their original source; the following month and his wife, sold an option on the 243 acres to a group of Little Rock investors headed by banker-attorney Samuel F. Reyburn, who undertook a careful, deliberate test of the property. After 1906, several attempts at commercial diamond mining failed.
The only significant yields came from the original surface layer, where erosion over a long period of time had concentrated diamonds. In the early period, 1907–1932, yields from this "black gumbo" surface material exceeded thirty carats per hundred loads. Highest yields from the undisturbed subsurface material were two carats per hundred loads in 1908 and about two carats per hundred short tons in 1943−1944; because equipment of the early period included bottom screens with mesh larger than 1/16 inch, thousands of smaller diamonds were allowed to pass through. The bulk of these ended up in drainage cuts of varying depths all over the field and in the big natural drains on the east and west edges of the diamond-bearing section of the volcanic deposit. In recent decades, those small diamonds have been the bread-and-butter of recreational diamond digging. Soon after the first diamond was found, a "diamond rush" created a boomtown atmosphere around Murfreesboro. According to old tales, hotels in Murfreesboro turned away 10,000 people in the space of a year.
These aspiring diamond miners formed a tent city near the mine, named "Kimberly" in honor of the famous Kimberley diamond district in South Africa. On the other hand, all available evidence indicates that the Town of Kimberly originated as a land-development venture in 1909, initiated by Mallard M. Mauney and his oldest son, Walter, on their land south of Murfreesboro; the project failed soon afterward as the speculative boom generated by the diamond discovery collapsed. Today, the Kimberly area is all cow pasture, owned by Mauney's descendants. During the Second World War, the U. S. government took over the mine and granted a contract to Glen Martin to extract this rare war material. Although diamonds were obtained, the concentration of diamonds similar to other producing mines, this was not successful as a venture due to the large costs involved with U. S. labor. After the war, the property was returned to the previous owners. From 1951 to 1972, the crater hosted several private tourist attractions.
The first, The Diamond Preserve of the United States, lasted only about one year. In late 1951, Howard A. Millar salvaged the infant tourist industry. In April 1952, Millar and his wife, launched their Crater of Diamonds attraction. Howard Millar, an accomplished writer and promoter, stirred unprecedented national publicity and drew enough visitors to sustain the operation. In March 1956, a visitor found the Star of Arkansas on the cleared surface; the rare beauty weighed 15.33 carats. Roscoe Johnston opened a rival tourist attraction, the Arkansas Diamond Mine, on the main part of the diamond field; the rivalry between the two tourist operations left both in a weakened position. In 1970, the entire volcanic formation was consolidated by a private partnership, which reassigned the property to General Earth Minerals of Dallas, Texas. GEM expected to turn the property over for a profit, but ended up indebted to GF Industries of Dallas. Upon default, GFI took the property in July 1971. GEM consolidated the tourist operation as well as the property.
GFI continued the attraction until it sold the 80-acre volcanic formation and some 800 acres to the State of Arkansas in March 1972 for $750,000. The tourist operation continued as the centerpiece of Crater of Diamonds State Park. Due in part to the park, because Arkansas was the first place outside South Africa where diamonds were found at their original volcanic source, this special gem has come to be associated with the Natural State. A large diamond symbol has dominated the state flag since 1912; the Arkansas State Quarter, released in 2003, bears a diamond on its face. The Crater of Diamonds volcanic pipe is part of a 95-million-year-old eroded volcano; the sourced lamproite magma, from the upper mantle, brought the diamonds to the surface. The diamonds had crystallized in the cratonic root of the continent long before and were sampled by the magma as it rose to the surface; the geology of the area and the diamond formation process itself were the subjects of the Ph. D. dissertation of Roland Everett Langford in 1973 from the University of Georgia.
The dissertation was on display at the state park for many years. The lamproite diamond sour
Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form, but diamond never converts to it. Diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any natural material, properties that are utilized in major industrial applications such as cutting and polishing tools, they are the reason that diamond anvil cells can subject materials to pressures found deep in the Earth. Because the arrangement of atoms in diamond is rigid, few types of impurity can contaminate it. Small numbers of defects or impurities color diamond blue, brown, purple, orange or red. Diamond has high optical dispersion. Most natural diamonds have ages between 1 billion and 3.5 billion years. Most were formed at depths between 150 and 250 kilometers in the Earth's mantle, although a few have come from as deep as 800 kilometers. Under high pressure and temperature, carbon-containing fluids dissolved minerals and replaced them with diamonds.
Much more they were carried to the surface in volcanic eruptions and deposited in igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites. Synthetic diamonds can be grown from high-purity carbon under high pressures and temperatures or from hydrocarbon gas by chemical vapor deposition. Imitation diamonds can be made out of materials such as cubic zirconia and silicon carbide. Natural and imitation diamonds are most distinguished using optical techniques or thermal conductivity measurements. Diamond is a solid form of pure carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal. Solid carbon comes in different forms known as allotropes depending on the type of chemical bond; the two most common allotropes of pure carbon are graphite. In graphite the bonds are sp2 orbital hybrids and the atoms form in planes with each bound to three nearest neighbors 120 degrees apart. In diamond they are sp3 and the atoms form tetrahedra with each bound to four nearest neighbors. Tetrahedra are rigid, the bonds are strong, of all known substances diamond has the greatest number of atoms per unit volume, why it is both the hardest and the least compressible.
It has a high density, ranging from 3150 to 3530 kilograms per cubic metre in natural diamonds and 3520 kg/m³ in pure diamond. In graphite, the bonds between nearest neighbors are stronger but the bonds between planes are weak, so the planes can slip past each other. Thus, graphite is much softer than diamond. However, the stronger bonds make graphite less flammable. Diamonds have been adapted for many uses because of the material's exceptional physical characteristics. Most notable are its extreme hardness and thermal conductivity, as well as wide bandgap and high optical dispersion. Diamond's ignition point is 720 -- 800 °C in 850 -- 1000 °C in air; the equilibrium pressure and temperature conditions for a transition between graphite and diamond is well established theoretically and experimentally. The pressure changes linearly between 1.7 GPa at 0 K and 12 GPa at 5000 K. However, the phases have a wide region about this line where they can coexist. At normal temperature and pressure, 20 °C and 1 standard atmosphere, the stable phase of carbon is graphite, but diamond is metastable and its rate of conversion to graphite is negligible.
However, at temperatures above about 4500 K, diamond converts to graphite. Rapid conversion of graphite to diamond requires pressures well above the equilibrium line: at 2000 K, a pressure of 35 GPa is needed. Above the triple point, the melting point of diamond increases with increasing pressure. At high pressures and germanium have a BC8 body-centered cubic crystal structure, a similar structure is predicted for carbon at high pressures. At 0 K, the transition is predicted to occur at 1100 GPa; the most common crystal structure of diamond is called diamond cubic. It is formed of unit cells stacked together. Although there are 18 atoms in the figure, each corner atom is shared by eight unit cells and each atom in the center of a face is shared by two, so there are a total of eight atoms per unit cell; each side of the unit cell is 3.57 angstroms in length. A diamond cubic lattice can be thought of as two interpenetrating face-centered cubic lattices with one displaced by 1/4 of the diagonal along a cubic cell, or as one lattice with two atoms associated with each lattice point.
Looked at from a <1 1 1> crystallographic direction, it is formed of layers stacked in a repeating ABCABC... pattern. Diamonds can form an ABAB... structure, known as hexagonal diamond or lonsdaleite, but this is far less common and is formed under different conditions from cubic carbon. Diamonds occur most as euhedral or rounded octahedra and twinned octahedra known as macles; as diamond's crystal structure has a cubic arrangement of the atoms, they have many facets that belong to a cube, rhombicosidodecahedron, tetrakis hexahedron or disdyakis dodecahedron. The crystals can be elongated. Diamonds are found coated in nyf, an opaque gum-like skin; some diamonds have opaque fibers. They are referred to as opaque if the fibers
American Gem Society
The American Gem Society is a trade association of retail jewelers, independent appraisers and selective industry members, founded in 1934 by Robert M. Shipley. Members are held to a high code of ethics with emphasis on consumer education; the Society is based in Las Vegas, along with the affiliated American Gem Society Laboratories and the American Gem Society Advanced Instruments Division. The Society trains and certifies jewelers and jewelry appraisers. Diamond grading is the specialty of the American Gem Society Laboratories and the Society has developed its own cut and clarity standards; the AGS was created by Robert M. Shipley. During the 1920s, Shipley was operating quite as a jeweler. However, despite his years in the industry, his lack of expertise regarding gems and jewelry was revealed to him by a pair of his best customers. Humbled by this revelation, Shipley realized that this was a big problem among American jewelers, one which accounted for much of the public's distrust for the profession at the time.
Shipley lost his jewelry stores in a divorce and went to Europe, where he completed the Great Britain National Association of Goldsmiths gemological correspondence course. He brought his newfound expertise back to Los Angeles, where he founded his own preliminary course in gemology on September 16, 1930. For the next few years he worked to promote the need for gemological education and train a new breed of "certified" jewelers; these jewelers would form the foundation of the Gemological Institute of America, the AGS. In its history, the AGS has achieved significant accomplishments within the field of gemology and jewelry. Among these are the following: Invented the industry's first scientifically reviewed and repeatable Cut Grade method. Created the Ideal Cut Grade for Round Brilliant shaped diamonds known as the AGS Ideal or the Triple Zero Cut. Offered the industry's first diamond grading reports with a Cut Grade for Princess, Emerald and other fancy diamond shapes. A big part of the AGS operation comes in the form of AGS Laboratories, which offers laboratory services to members of the jewelry industry.
Primary among these are their diamond grading services. Jewelers are able to have their diamonds scientifically evaluated according to the Four Cs: Color, Clarity and Carat Weight, they are given a diamond grading report, which can be provided to a consumer in order to verify the quality of the diamond they are purchasing. Additionally, AGS Laboratories offers laser inscription services. Through the use of a microlaser beam, the laboratory can inscribe a diamond with a serial number, a company logo, or other text on the stone; this service does not affect the quality of the diamond, is performed on the girdle where it can only be viewed with a magnification device. American Gem Society website AGS Laboratories website AGS Advanced Instruments Division website